2. A New Century, a New Hope<br />The people of Europe were feeling fairly optimistic at the beginning of the 1900s.<br />There had not been a major war in Europe for nearly 80 years.<br />New technologies were making life easier. <br />
3. New Inventions (1890-1910)<br />The diesel powered internal combustion engine.<br />The motion picture camera.<br />The radio.<br />The zipper.<br />Gas powered planes.<br />Sonar<br />The teabag.<br />The first neon street lamp<br />The Model T Ford<br />
4. The Rise of Germany<br />The only significant threat to this cosy world order was a rising power – Germany.<br />Germany didn’t even exist as a nation until 1871 (New Zealand is older!)<br />Until then it had been a loose collection of small kingdoms ruled by princes.<br />These kingdoms were united by a common history, language, culture and desire to wear pointy helmets.<br />
5. The German Threat<br />Germany had advanced industries and a large population.<br />They also had a leader (Bismarck) who was prepared to use force to defend his young nation’s interests.<br />In 1870 Bismarck’s armies defeated France in a war over borders.<br />Otto von Bismarck<br />
6. Containing the threat of Germany <br />The nations that were most threatened by Germany were Britain, Russia and France.<br />
7. Britain<br />Had the world’s largest navy and wanted to protect its colonies and trade around the world. <br />Threatened by Germany’s growing naval power (fleet of battleships).<br />
8. Russia<br />Russia:<br />Had the world’s largest army. Most soldiers were untrained. <br />Russia did not have enough factories to supply a large army with the guns and bullets needed for a long war.<br />Threatened by Germany’s advanced industry and well-trained army.<br />
9. France<br />France:<br />Shared a border with Germany.<br />Had already been defeated by Germany in 1870. <br />Had lost the territory of Alsace-Lorraine.<br />Threatened by Germany’s growing military power. Also scared of pointy helmets.<br />
10. The Three nations formed an alliance against GermanyAlliance = An agreement to provide military support to an ally if they are attacked<br />
11. The Great Power Alliances, 1914<br />By 1914, the great European powers were divided into two main groups and were prepared for war.<br />Triple Entente• Britain • France• Russia <br />Triple Alliance• Germany• Austria -Hungary• Italy<br />
12. The Great Power Alliances, 1914<br />By 1914, the great European powers were divided into two main groups and were prepared for war.<br />Triple Entente• Britain • France• Russia <br />Triple Alliance• Germany• Austria -Hungary• Italy<br />
13. Germany’s Weak Neighbour<br />Germany was a rising power.<br />Its ally Austria-Hungary was an old and crumbling empire.<br />People within its borders were calling for independence.<br />The cries of the Serbian people would lead to World War One.<br />Russia supported the Serbs.<br />
14. The Royal Family of Austria-Hungary.<br />Austria-Hungary was ruled by a royal family.<br />In June 1914 the prince who would one day rule Austria was visiting the city of Saravejo.<br />His name was Franz Ferdinand. His wife was called Sophie.<br />They were a prime target for terrorists.<br />
15. The War begins…with a teenager carrying out an act of terrorism.<br />On June 28, 1914 a Serbian teenager called GavriloPrincipassassinated Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand. <br />The first assassination attempt (a bomb) had failed. Princip ran into Ferdinand by accident after the first failed attempt - and shot him and his wife.<br />Principbelonged to a group called The Black Hand.<br />Austriawas outraged and insisted that Serbia hand over The Black Hand.<br />Serbia refused to cooperate.<br />
16. 1914: World War One begins.<br />July 28. Austria declares war on Serbia.<br />July 29. Russia promises to defend Serbia.<br />August 1. Germany mobilises troops against France and declares war on Russia.<br />August 3. Germany declares war on France.<br />August 4. Britain declares war on Germany.<br />GavriloPrincip. Most influential teenager of the century?<br />
17. “Over by Christmas”<br />The war will be over by Christmas. It will be a bit of an adventure really – after all, no country can afford to keep so many men at war for too long. As long as I get to bloody the nose of the Hun before I get back home I’ll be happy…<br />
18. Reality Check #1: Total War<br /> <br />Over 70 million soldiers were mobilised.<br />The nations that had produced cars, radios and zippers in large numbers could easily change their machines to produce weapons.<br />Nations had the ability to fight a much longer war than anyone feared.<br />
19. Reality Check #2: The Western Front<br />The Germans marched a million men towards France. At first they advanced rapidly, but then they came up against British and French forces.<br />Unable to advance further, the Germans dug trenches protected by machine guns. The British and French troops did the same. <br />THESE TRENCHES WERE KNOWN AS THE WESTERN FRONT<br />These trenches were slowly extended until they stretched over 600 kms from the coast of Belgium to the German border.<br />
20. Reality Check #3: Trench Warfare<br />
21. Reality Check #3: Trench Warfare<br />
22. Reality Check #4: New Technology<br />The spirit of invention continued in wartime. These were invented or used for the first time on a large scale in World War One:<br />Flame Throwers<br />Machine Guns<br />Tanks<br />Aircraft (bombing and reconnaissance)<br />The field telephone<br />U-Boats (submarines)<br />Poison Gas<br />Depth Charges<br />Aircraft Carriers<br />
23. Flamethrowers, Gas and Barbed Wire<br />
24. Reality Check #5 : War comes home<br />For centuries the English channel had protected England from European wars.<br />With the invention of strategic bombers (including Zeppelins) London experienced war for the first time in nearly 1000 years.<br />
25. 1917: America reluctantly enters the war<br />America stayed out of the war until 1917.<br />On a voyage from New York to Londonthe British ship The Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine. <br />The ship was carrying 1,201 passengers, many of them American. Five hundred people drowned.<br />The American president Woodrow Wilson eventually decided that America must fight. <br />It declared war on Germany on 6 April, 1917. <br />
26. 1918 The War grinds to a close<br /><ul><li> During 1918, conditions in Germany worsened rapidly.
27. The strain of fighting on two fronts was affecting Germany’s ability to feed its population.
28. People were starving and the Spanish flu swept through the country killing thousands.
29. Within Germany there were calls for revolution and a large number of sailors revolted rather than go to war.
30. On the 9 November, 1918, the Kaiser (leader of Germany) abdicated (left the throne).</li></li></ul><li>11/11 1918 Armistice: The end of the shooting<br />At 11am on 11 November 1918 members of the German High Command met with the Allied High Command to sign an armistice. <br />The Great War was over.<br />Germany surrendered without any Allied troops having to occupy the country.<br />ARMISTICE = AGREEMENT TO STOP FIGHTING SO PEACE TALKS CAN BEGIN.<br />
31. The casualties of war<br />World War One had left Europe devastated. <br />The Triple Entente:<br />Britain : 750,000 soldiers killed; 1,500,000 woundedFrance : 1,400,000 soldiers killed; 2,500,000 woundedRussia : 1,700,000 soldiers killedAmerica : 116,000 soldiers killedThe Central Powers:<br />Germany : 2,000,000 soldiers killedAustria-Hungary : 1,200,000 soldiers killed<br />
32. What do we do with Germany?<br />Britain, France and the United States held Germany responsible for the war.<br />They met at the French Palace of Versailles to decide what to do with Germany.<br />During the war the Russian government had been overthrown in a revolution.<br />The new communist government in Russia did not go to Versailles.<br />The Big Three<br />Prime Minister Clemenceau (France)<br />President Wilson (USA)<br />Prime Minister Lloyd George (Britain)<br />
33. Why did World War One (1914-1918) make World War Two (1939–1945) more likely?<br />The Treaty of Versailles will be seen be many Germans as too harsh. It will be resented.<br />Nations will do anything they can to avoid a repeat of the horrors of World War One.<br />America will try to avoid getting involved in any European wars.<br />Hitler will be able to rely (for a while) on fears of another World War preventing other nations from resisting his aggressive acts.<br />