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The origin of the universal declaration of human rights

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  • 1. The Origin of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • 2. What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
    • It was published by the United Nations in 1948.
    • It lists the rights that all people have.
    • Most governments have agreed to respect and protect these rights…
  • 3. The Origin of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Beginning – why it was written Applies to everyone, regardless of ethnicity, nation, age, gender etc An OFFICIAL statement Yesterday’s definition….
  • 4. Five things you will learn today….
    • The definitions of PREJUDICE, DISCRIMINATION, PERSECUTION AND GENOCIDE.
    • That there is a set of Human Rights that most governments agree should be guaranteed.
    • That the organisation which protects and promotes them is based in New York.
    • That one of the darkest episodes in history made governments realise that Human Rights needed to be agreed upon and protected.
    • What those rights are!
  • 5. Which event in 20 th Century history shocked the world so much that it made the leaders’ of nations focus on Human Rights?
    • Clues….
    • The event happened in Europe…
    • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights turned 60 in 2008…
    • The event involved the deaths of over 6 million people.
  • 6. The event was…..
    • The treatment of minorities – especially Jews – in Nazi Germany.
  • 7. In 1924 Adolf Hitler wrote a book called Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
    • The book explained Hitler’s view of the world.
    • At the time Germany was experiencing a lot of economic and social problems.
    • Hitler blamed a lot of those problems on the Jewish people.
    • Anti-semitism (hatred of the Jewish people) was a common PREJUDICE at the time.
  • 8. What do you think these words mean? Word PREJUDICE DISCRIMINATION PERSECUTION GENOCIDE
  • 9. What do you think the word PREJUDICE means?
    • Definition : Negative and irrational beliefs about a group of people.
    • Prejudice = “To pre-judge”
    • Example: Thinking someone will be a bad worker simply because of their ethnicity or religion.
  • 10. Prejudice against Jews in Nazi Germany
    • Many Germans felt the Jews could not be trusted in business dealings and that they were greedy and dishonest.
    • This was a prejudice that went back centuries and many Europeans also believed it.
    • This was irrational because there was no evidence to support it – it was just a stereotype.
  • 11. Turning Prejudice into action - DISCRIMINATION
    • People can be prejudiced because that was how they were brought up.
    • Some negative stereotypes are common but few people base their day-to-day actions upon them.
    • A prejudice is a belief about a group. DISCRIMINATION is a little different. What do you think the word ‘ DISCRIMINATION ’ means?
  • 12. What is the difference between PREJUDICE and DISCRIMINATION ?
    • Definition : Treating a group of people unfairly because of a prejudice against them.
    • Prejudice = Pre-Judge
    • DiscriminaTION = AcTION
    • Examples:
    • Refusing to employ someone because of their ethnicity.
    • Firing someone when you find out they belong to a particular religious group.
  • 13. Discrimination in Nazi Germany
    • Many Germans had Jewish friends.
    • Some Germans who shared Hitler’s prejudice still treated Jews fairly.
    • However, some individual Germans would not employ Jews, allow their children to date them, shop in Jewish shops or rent property to them.
    • These are ACTS of Discrimination
  • 14. A common prejudice…
    • Some would have even discriminated against them…
    • In countries like England, France, the United States and even New Zealand there were many people in the 1930s who were prejudiced against Jews.
    • Woodrow Wilson
    • President of the USA
    • (1913-1921)
    • Prejudiced against Jews and African Americans
  • 15. This picture was taken in Nazi Germany. What evidence can you see that Discrimination in Nazi Germany went beyond individuals being unfair to Jews?
  • 16. Discrimination PERSECUTION Jewish Symbol – the Star of David Sign telling Germans not to shop there. Locked gate Soldier in uniform enforcing closure
  • 17. In Nazi Germany it was government policy to discriminate against the Jewish people. Laws were passed that targeted the Jewish population.
    • Definition
    • Persecution: Organised discrimination against a group of people.
    • Example: A law making it illegal to employee people of a particular ethnicity or religion.
  • 18. The shocking event that made the world take Human Rights seriously…
    • Nazi Germany not only persecuted the Jewish people. Gypsies, the mentally ill and homosexuals were also targeted.
    • In 1941 the Nazis decided that the Jewish ‘problem’ (their existence) needed to be ended once and for all.
    • The Nazis set up large camps in the occupied country of Poland.
    • They shipped millions of Jews from Europe to these camps….
  • 19. The Final Solution to the Jewish ‘Problem’
    • Hitler and other leading Nazis decided to exterminate every Jew in Europe.
    • This was a policy of GENOCIDE.
    • Definition
    • GENOCIDE: AN ATTEMPT TO EXTERMINATE AN ENTIRE RACE OF PEOPLE
  • 20. Auschwitz
    • The extermination camp outside the Polish town of Auschwitz was one of the largest. Over 1.5 million Jews were exterminated in this camp alone.
    “ Work will set you free”
  • 21. The Liberation of the Extermination Camps
    • In 1944 and 1945 the Nazis started to lose territory to the Allies.
    • Russian, British and American soldiers captured the camps and liberated the surviving Jews.
    • They were greeted as heroes and saviours.
  • 22. The awful truth confronting the liberating forces American soldiers at the camp in Dachau
  • 23. The awful truth confronting the liberating forces The clothes of Jews were confiscated before they were executed. They were sold or given to Germans.
  • 24. The awful truth confronting the liberating forces
  • 25. The awful truth confronting the liberating forces
  • 26. These horrors shocked the world….
    • Soldiers and journalists reported what they had seen in the camps.
    • Newspapers around the world exposed the horrors of the camps.
    • Survivors returned home to their communities and told the world about life and death inside the camps…
    Jewish survivors wearing jackets confiscated from Nazi guards.
  • 27. The creation of the United Nations
    • World War Two had demonstrated that the existing ways of preventing war were not effective.
    • The war had also created a massive refugee problem and destroyed many cities in Europe and Asia.
    • The leaders of the world’s most powerful nations realised that a new organisation was needed to help the world recover and prevent future wars.
    • The organisation was the United Nations.
  • 28. The United Nations was created in 1945 The first meeting was in San Francisco
  • 29. The United Nations Headquarters is based in New York. The land it is on is international, not American. Statue emphasising the goal of world peace.
  • 30. Which rights should the United Nations protect?
    • During World War Two Britain, the United States and Russia had agreed that FOUR freedoms would be guaranteed in Europe once the Nazis were defeated :
    • Freedom of expression (“To say what you want”
    • Freedom of assembly (“To associate with who you want”)
    • Freedom from fear (“So no government will persecute you”)
    • Freedom from want (“So no person will be homeless or hungry”)
  • 31. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    • Governments could not easily agree on the rights they would give their citizens.
    • Democracies like the United States wanted to emphasise political freedoms such as the right to vote.
    • Dictatorships like the Soviet Union wanted to emphasise the right to food and shelter.
    • After three years of arguments and discussions the final text was agreed to.
    • In 1948 the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was finally published. It is still the most important agreement on Human Rights.
  • 32. REVIEW Prejudice, Discrimination or Persecution?
    • Thinking someone is less intelligent because of the country they were born in…
    • A law which stops teachers from belonging to a particular religious group.
    • Not allowing your daughter to marry someone because of their race.
    • Firing a worker in your shop because you don’t like their religion.
    • Believing that all members of a religion believe the same thing.
    • A law which allows you to own people of a different race.