Cold war origins conference summariesPresentation Transcript
Big question – How did the Soviet Union and the West go from being wartime allies to Cold War enemies? The Big Three – United by the need to defeat Nazi Germany. From Left: Winston Churchill (Prime Minister of Britain) Franklin Roosevelt (President of the United States) Josef Stalin (Leader of the USSR)
The leaders met at two major conferences to decide how to handle the war Yalta Conference: A city in the Crimea, near Russia Fast Facts
Meeting occurred in February, 1945.
Nazi Germany was on the brink of defeat.
The main issue was how to handle Germany and what to do about Japan.
Roosevelt and Churchill had concerns about Stalin’s dictatorial style but needed his support.
The Potsdam Conference (July 1945) Fast Facts
Meeting occurred in July, 1945.
Nazi Germany had been defeated.
Japan was yet to be defeated. The atomic bomb was still a secret at the start of the conference.
The west had two new leaders – Prime Minister Atlee (Britain) and President Truman (United States).
Only Stalin remained from Yalta.
Roosevelt had died and Churchill had lost an election.
With Nazi Germany defeated and a new U.S. President who was tough on Communism tensions emerged…
Russian advances in WWII = Eastern European occupation after the war Fast Facts
80% of German soldiers who died in combat were killed by Russians.
As the Red Army steamrolled its way towards Berlin they began planning for occupation of Eastern Europe.
Stalin wanted to create a ‘sphere of influence’ large enough to protect the USSR from future attacks.
Western powers feared this was simply Soviet Aggression.
Review questions What did the Big Three agree to do with Germany at Yalta? (A = Identify, A (high) = Describe in detail) Name the Big Three at Yalta (A = 2 correct) Identify TWO significant changes between the Yalta and Potsdam conferences (A for Two) What mistake was U.S. President Truman trying to avoid at Potsdam? (A for identifying, A (High) for describe with examples) How did Stalin justify the Soviet occupation of eastern Europe? (A)
Review questions - Answers What did the Big Three agree to do with Germany at Yalta? (A = Identify, A (high) = Describe in detail) Germany would be divided (A) Germany would be divided into four zones (American, French, British and Soviet) A (High)
Review questions - Answers 2) Name the Big Three at Yalta (A = 2 correct) President Roosevelt (USA) Winston Churchill (UK) Josef Stalin (USSR)
Review questions - Answers 3) Identify TWO significant changes between the Yalta and Potsdam conferences (A for Two) The USA had successfully tested an atomic bomb Germany had been defeated The USA had a new President (Truman) The Soviet Union had occupied most of Eastern Europe
Review questions - Answers 4) What mistake was U.S. President Truman trying to avoid at Potsdam? (A for identifying, A (High) for describe with examples) Repeating the mistake of the Treaty of Versailles (being too harsh on Germany) = A A High = A plus a specific example: Not wanting to cripple Germany (unlike Stalin) Not wanting to force Germany to pay compensation (unlike Stalin!)
Review questions - Answers 5) How did Stalin justify the Soviet occupation of eastern Europe? (A) It was defensive. Nazi Germany had invaded Russia through eastern Europe and Stalin wanted to create a ‘buffer’ or ‘sphere’ of countries friendly to the Soviet Union.
Learning Intention: Describe how the Cold War was fought. Explain the key differences between Communism and Capitalism
Learning Activities Use the text on page 325 to write TWO sentences describing how the Cold War was fought. Why do you think the term ‘Cold War’ was used? Identify the reasons why the USA and USSR distrusted each other before WWII. Complete Activity One on page 326 EARLY FINISHERS: Create a Poster advertising the Soviet Way: Either by… Contrasting the reality of America with its ideals (e.g. Blacks in America…)