Learning IntentionsBy the end of this PowerPoint you will be able to:• Give the number of Child Labourers in the world•Define Child Labour•Describe the parts of the world and industries whereChild Labour is a problem.• Give examples of companies you know that haveused Child Labour.•Explain some of the steps you can take to combatChild Labour
• The International Labor Organization (ILO) has estimated that 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 work in developing countries.• At least 120 million on a full time basis.
• A country where most people have a low standard of living.• Access to services like education and health are limited.
61 percent ofthese are inAsia, 32percent inAfrica, and 7percent inLatin America.
• Why would Asia have the majority of the world’s total number of Child Labourers?• Why would Africa employ a higher percentage of its children?
• Nearly 70% work in agriculture (rural children, especially girls, usually start working in this industry when they are very young, often between 5 and 7 years of age)• Many children work as domestics; urban children work in trade and services, with fewer in manufacturing and construction.
Child labour usually means work that is done by children under the age of 15 which restricts or damages a childs physical, emotional, intellectual, social and/or spiritual growth.
• Why is the second part of that definition necessary?• Think about paper delivery people – would they be defined as “Child Labour”?
Child Labourers are usually:2. Denied the right to an education.3. Made to work in dangerous working conditions.4. Abused by their employers (physically and in some cases sexually).5. Have no right to form unions or groups to improve their conditions.
• The carpet industry in countries like India uses large machines called looms to make their product.• The wool is softened with toxic chemicals.• Working at rug looms has left children disabled with eye damage, lung disease, stunted growth, and are more likely to get arthritis as they grow older.
• Children making silk thread in India may have to dip their hands into boiling water that burns and blisters them.• They also breathe smoke and fumes from machinery and guide twisting threads that cut their fingers.
• Children harvesting sugar cane in El Salvador use machetes to cut cane for up to nine hours a day in the hot sun; injuries to their hands and legs are common and medical care is often not available.
What do we THINK the causes of child labour MIGHT be?
Poverty• In developing countries many poorer families struggle to pay for basic food, water and power.• Children have to work to help support the family.
A lot of children are available to work!• Many poor families cannot afford quality contraception.• Often a high proportion of infants die of disease so there is an incentive to have a lot of children.• In countries where child labour is accepted a large family is a source of income.• Many cultures regard large families as a sign of wealth and power. Large families plus poverty = Child Labour
Limited access to educationMany poor families are unable to invest the money and loss of income required for an education.In many poorer nations families need to pay for their children’s education. They may even need to donate money to pay for the teacher’s salary!Children often work because education is too expensive.
CHILDREN HAVE FEW LEGAL RIGHTS IN SOME COUNTRIEs• Even if a child is working for their family they are denied the right to an education.• In many countries the rights of children are not recognised.• This makes them a cheap source of labour.• It also makes them easy to control (especially if their family relies upon their income)
THE CHILD LABOUR FORMULAPOVERTY + LARGE FAMILIES + NO LEGAL RIGHTS FORCHILDREN +CHILDREN ARE CHEAP LABOUR + EASYTO CONTROL= CHILD LABOUR
• In the 1990s journalists uncovered evidence that Nike suppliers were using child labour in their Asian factories.• Although Nike originally denied the story they eventually admitted that some suppliers had employed 14 year olds.Nike eventually bowed to public pressure and promised to ban the use of child labour in its factories.
In countries all over the world, countless laws and policies against the exploitation of children already exist: the political will to enforce them however, does not.It is up to concerned people to put pressure on politicians and companies to end child labour.
Paying families to send children to school• In Mexico and Brazil, two programs give parents an incentive to invest in their child’s future by giving families money if their children attend school regularly instead of working for it.• In Brazil, for example, families receive $24, and the program reaches 11.4 million people (a fourth of Brazil’s population).
Letting shoppers know thatproducts have not used childlabour• Responsible companies in the Carpet Industry wants to do something about the 300,000 children who make carpets worldwide.• They created the RUGMARK certificate. Carpets carrying this certificate have been investigated and do not use child labour.• In New Zealand stores like The BODY SHOP and TRADE AID refuse to stock products that use Child Labour.
Exposing companies that use child labourUNICEF is the United Nations organisation that deals with the well-being of children. They investigate and expose companies and nations that tolerate child labour.Organisations like Human Rights Watch organise email and letter campaigns to target companies that use child labour.
You Can…• Buy ‘Fair Trade’ chocolate and other products. These don’t use child labour.• BOYCOTT (refuse to buy) products that do and write to the companies explaining why.The thing to remember is that child labour is used because it is cheap.Businesses that lose money because they use child labourers will change their ways!
Your mission for early finishersIn your books create a poster promoting awareness of Child Labour. Pick one part of the ‘conditions’ table and use it as an example of the realities of Child Labour.Your poster needs to be a full page and..4. Be illustrated.5. Describe the conditions6. Explain why Child Labour violates Human Rights.7. Present one action people can take to combat child labour.