Year 11 GCSE PE Edexcel- Presentation By Haleema.B– Heartlands Academy
i) Immediate effects More muscle contractions,Increased blood flow to the muscles, Rise in muscle/body temperature,
Long-term effects Muscular endurance improves, Muscles get bigger (hypertrophies), ... Tendons and ligaments get bigger, Increase in bone density and width,Joints are more stable with increasedflexibility.
ii) Immediate effects Blood temperature rises, Blood vessels near the skin open to allow heatto be lost (vasodilation), Blood shunting occurs (diverted from digestivesystems to the muscles), Increase in heart rate and increase in strokevolume. Therefore, increase in cardiac output.
Long term effects Increased volume of blood (red blood cells), Increased number of capillaries in muscles, Heart gets bigger and stronger (hypertrophies), Maximum cardiac output increases, Quicker recovery rate, Lower resting heart rate, Reduced risk of heart disease,
iii) Immediate effects Increase in breathing rate, Increase in tidal volume, Contraction and relaxation of thediaphragm, intercostal muscles, and ribs(chest) expand+ relaxing,
Long-term effects More efficient gaseous exchange, Increase in vital capacity, Increased number of alveoli, Strength of diaphragm increases, Strength of intercostal musclesincrease.
Air goes into the lungs, Lungs then expand (pressure is lowered), Intercostal muscles contract, Ribs then expand, Diaphragm goes downwards and contracts(to increase volume of the chest),
Air is pushed out of the lungs, Lungs then inflate (pressure increases), Intercostal muscles relax, Ribs then go back down (relax), Diaphragm goes upwards and relaxes(decreasing the volume in the chest),
Air is warmed, moistened and filtered as ittravels through the oral or nasal cavity, It then passes through the trachea, Into the right and left bronchus, Into the right and left lung, Passing through many of the bronchioles, To the millions o tiny air sacs called “alveoli”, Where gaseous exchange takes place... Here, oxygen passes out of the air and into theblood carbon dioxide passes out of the bloodand into the air.
Tidal volume- the amount of air breathed in or out in one breath,Inspiratory capacity- the most you can breathe in after breathing out normally,Expiratory capacity- the most you can force out after breathing out normally,Residual volume- the amount of air left inside the lungs after breathing out as much aspossible,Vital capacity- the most air you can breathe in or out in one breath.Hypertrophy- get bigger and stronger,Atrophy- get smaller and weaker.SMOKING LEADS TO.... Systems.. Lung cancer, Trachea cancer, Nose cancer,Kidney cancer, Mouth cancer, Stomach cancer, Throat cancer, Heart disease, Oesophagus cancer.
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