Effective Teaching Study with a Modified Flanders Interaction Analysis at LMU and TUM HAROLD C. LYON, JR. Guest Professor of Medical Education Ludwig Maximilians University and TUM Munich, Germany Module 3 Meeting January 15, 2009
My Goals for this Short Presentation (with apologies for not speaking to you in German)
That you hear about the largest study of effective teaching ever done and its findings
That you learn about the results of the randomized study we did here at LMU and TUM
That you might spread the word that I am available to work with volunteers here who wish to improve their teaching through the modified Flanders Interaction Analysis process
If you master main points made in this presentation, you could significantly improve the teaching effectiveness of teachers in Module 3, including your own
~It ain’t so much the things we don’t know that get us in trouble.
It’s the things we know that ain’t so ~
Research Results on Effective Teaching Based on 200,000 hours of classroom teaching at all academic levels, over 25 years, in 42 states and 7 countries including Germany! (Aspy, Roebuck, Rogers and Tausch)
In the average classroom:
1. Teachers talk 80% of the time
2. Students talk 10% of the time
3. 10% is silence or confusion
4. Virtually no responses to feelings 5. Only 1 minute of laughter out of every 12,000 hours of instruction!
More Research Results on Effective Teaching Based on 200,000 hours of classroom teaching at all academic levels, over 25 years, in 42 states and 7 countries including Germany! (Aspy, Roebuck and Rogers and Tausch)
In the average classroom:
6. 85% of students nonparticipating –
just going along passing time
7. The average teacher used only 2 of the 15 steps found to be important for organizing effective teaching 8. Teachers with certain personality traits and skills tended to be significantly more effective
Outcomes of students who had teachers with THE certain traits:
1. Increased standardized achievement scores
2. Less absenteeism 3. Fewer discipline problems 4. Increased IQ scores 5. Increased self-concept scores 6. Improved attitudes toward school 7. Increased levels of cognitive functioning -- more thinking
More results of students who had teachers with THE certain traits:
9. Much greater percentage of "student talk" than in the average classroom
10. Increases in teacher's energy and satisfaction levels and correlation with physical fitness and humor in the classroom
What were the personality traits found in the most effective teachers? - Rogers, Aspy, Roebuck, Tausch -
EMPATHY- (Einf ühlungsvermögen)
Can we train people to have these traits?
PRIZING - caring about students - ( W ürdigung)
GENUINE or CONGRUENT - (Authentizit ät )
(Not perfect, or God-like, but a person with
strengths and weaknesses)
And many used HUMOR in their classes…
~ shortest book in the world?~
THE 15 STEP R-O-P-E-S MATRIX for indelible teaching Drs. Carkhuff, Aspy and Roebuck tested these principles and built the steps to incorporate the principles of effective teaching
3. P resent the instruction using multi sensory methods (tell-show-do)
& have students E xercise the methods)
5. Generate thinking and respond to it (question asking and problem-solving) 2. Insure motivation of students by relating content to their real world ( O verview) 1. Diagnose the learners’ entry level skills before teaching ( R eview) 6. Facilitate skill development, transfer, and application ( S ummary) 4. Respond to student’s ideas
Tell, Show, and Do – add these to ROPES making a 15 cell matrix
TELL the learners (in words) what skills to do and how to do them.
SHOW the learners (in pictures, audiovisual aids, or modeling) how to do the skills
DO provide the learners a hands-on (kinesethetic) opportunity to do the skill
Tell one Show one Do one = Teach one
Organizing Teaching with the ROPES Matrix ROPES TELL SHOW DO Review Overview Present Exercise Summary
Comparison: Traditional vrs Most Effective Teachers (Using Flanders Interation Analysis) Traditional Best Teachers You
What does the research show when you teach using the “Effective Teacher” Traits and practices?
You actually transform a lecture into something quite different and far more effective. You increase student talking and thinking which makes it quite different from a lecture and significantly more indelible (dauerhaft) and transferable in terms of learning.
LMU-TU Flanders Study Design Lecture 1 Winter Semester Lecture 2 Summer Semester FIA 1 FIA 2 Feedback Critique Experimental Group: Lecture 1 Winter Semester Lecture 2 Summer Semester Control Group: FIA 1 FIA 2
„ Selbst wenn man denkt, man hält einen interaktiven Unterricht, wird durch die minuziöse Beobachtung klar, dass man noch viel interaktiver werden kann.“
„ Die freundschaftlichen und kollegialen Gespräche nach der Analyse der 1. Vorlesung haben weiter geholfen. Motiviert durch die Analyse der 2. Vorlesung wird man versuchen müssen, die Vorlesung noch mehr in der beschriebenen Richtung zu gestalten.“ „ Die konkrete Analyse und das persönliche Gespräch vor dem Hintergrund des medizindidaktischen Grundkonzepts hat mir eigentlich zum ersten Mal klar gemacht, was ich bisher falsch oder richtig gemacht habe.“ „ Die Beteiligung an dem Projekt hat mir auch weit darüber hinaus genützt- bei wissenschaftlichen Vorträgen und auch beim Umgang mit meinen Kollegen und in verschiedenen Gremien.“
There is a big body of research on effective teaching using the FIA
We did a study which shows significant gains from an intervention which is based on the results of that big study and which resulted in significant improvement in volunteer teachers who had our FIA intervention
I am available to work with volunteer teachers to diagnose (not to evaluate) their teaching and give them the same intervention which resulted in significant improvements in our study
15 years ago, 67% of the first 2 years of Dartmouth Medical School was passive lecture.
(Prof. Reincke: LMU reduced lectures in past 5 years from 70% to 30%)
But good question asking in a lecture can stimulate thinking
And good interactive case-based or E-Learning
like CASUS can transform lectures
Lecture teaches mostly to memory instead of thinking
More About the Lecture B.F. Skinner in Walden Two (1948)
"The lecture is the most inefficient method of diffusing culture. It became obsolete with the invention of printing. It survives only in our universities and their lay imitators, and a few other backward institutions....Why don't you just hand printed lectures to your students?
Yes, I know. Because they won't read them. A fine institution it is that must solve that problem with platform chicanery."
Transmitting new material which does not appear in print
Synthesizing knowledge from many sources
Forums for introducing patient diagnostic
problem-solving and E-Learning cases
Research Evidence on the Value of Mentoring White House Task Force on Gifted & Talented: most effective intervention for education of gifted person = mentorship -- a one to one human relationship with a person who possessed nurturing traits: empathy, prizing, genuiness.
There appears to be an interesting multiplier effect in mentorship. Those who have them tend to perpetuate the concept by becoming mentors themselves. Certainly, this has important implications for mentorships in all professional fields.
Women entering professional career fields need mentors even more. Studies of successful women
(J. Walters, 1981) reveal that they often had several mentors (usually men) and that they, in turn, became mentors for several proteges (usually women).
The Functions of the Mentor These traits of the successful mentor are an ideal model. In reality no one mentor practices or has them available all the time. We do the best in our unique manner with the gifts we have. Our genuineness is expressed in our human imperfection.
Teacher: to enhance the student's skills and professional development
Sponsor: to facilitate the student's entry and advancement in the profession by opening doors through influence and by providing opportunities for exceptional experiences.
Host and guide: to welcome the initiate into a new professional and social world and acquaint her with the values, customs, resources and cast of characters.
Exemplar/role model: to model through your own virtues, achievements and way of living.
Counselor: to provide moral & counseling support in times of stress & crisis.
Parent analogue: to support and facilitate the realization of the "dream."
Studies of highly successful people show that those who had mentors gained more “success” than those without mentors including the following:
Achieved a higher education at a younger age
Were more likely to follow a career plan and, in turn
sponsor more proteges than those who did not have mentors
Published more works
Made greater contributions to their career fields
Earned more money
Had greater career satisfaction
Dvorak Keyboard – much faster and more efficient…but …
Dvorak vrs Standard Keyboard Advantageous Innovations not Always Adopted
Standard keyboard (inefficient):
Designed in 1873 by Prof. Christopher Sholes and to slow down typists to prevent jamming of keys on early typewriters
32% of typing on home row
Unnecessary movements cause tension, carpel tunnel syndrome, frequent typo errors
Dvorak keyboard (efficient):
Designed by Prof. August Dvorak in 1932 using time and motion studies to create most efficient keyboard arrangement
70% of typing on main row and successive keystrokes fall on alternative hands. Valves (40% of all letters typed) on left, consonants on right
Approved by Amer. Standards Institute but not used!
Diffusion of Innovations Research New idea >Diffused > Adopted/rejected > Consequences = Social Change
Stages in Diffusion:*
1. Knowledge (exposure and understanding of innovation)
2. Persuasion (attitude development: favorable or unfavorable)
3. Decision (thinking and deciding > choice to adopt or reject)
4. Implementation (puts idea to use and can re-invent)
5. Confirmation (reinforcement for innovation decision)
LUM: from 70% Lecture to 30% in 5 years – efficient diffusion
Dvorak Keyboard and High Empathy Teaching Research:
died at Implementation stage – not adapted WHY?
*Rogers, EV: Diffusion of Innovations, NY Free Press 2003 pp 168-201
Another viewpoint: " Anything done by a teacher that intentionally promotes learning is teaching. "
Value of this viewpoint is that it recognizes the reality that good teaching may occur under circumstances so adverse, ( like with the student asleep), that little learning takes place. When something is given, it may not be received. (And when received, it may not be used.) But the effort deserves to be acknowledged as teaching.
Student ratings of instructor are affected by the personal style of the teacher rather than by the teacher's knowledge of instructional material
Presentation Is this a true statement: "If the learner didn't learn then the teacher didn't teach.”
I tell you:
“ I taught my dog how to whistle.”
"I don't hear him whistling."
I reply, "I said I taught him to whistle.
I didn't say he learned it."
What is the difference between teaching and learning? An example:
O verview Step of my Presentation Why is it important for you to be an effective teacher?
Doctors spend 80% of their time teaching:
Teaching students (60-70% of teaching done by residents -- informal "modeling" in clinic)
Teaching other healthcare providers
Teaching patients -- a very difficult challenge to teach someone to change her lifestyle!
What are we teaching when we teach diagnosis? The issue is still being debated among researchers on what goes on when a skilled clinician diagnoses a patient. Experience is key. But what kind? Is it more process oriented (applying hypothetical deductive reasoning or problem- solving skills)? Or is it more content oriented (learning pattern recognition)? Or is it a combination of both? We think both & E-Learning can enable both.