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Governmental Linked Data

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  • 1. GovernmentalLinked Data
    Feel free to re-use or mash-up this presentation under Creative Commons 2.0 licence (non-commercial, attribution)
    Haklae Kim, PhD
    Email: haklae.kim@gmail.com
    Thanks to Alain Thys (http://www.slideshare.net/alainthys).
    This slide uses his template and some pictures from his slides.
  • 2. Today
    This Presentation .....
    Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web
    Summary
    Introduction
    Open Data and Open Government Data
    2
  • 3. OpenStreetMap - Project Haiti
  • 4. The World Wide Web: "vague, but exciting"
    a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Interne
    4
  • 5. A great first step …….
    Quiz: Which % of world governments have a Web site?
    98%
  • 6. e-Government
    Using the Web and ICT to serve consistencies better
    Objectives
    • Improve impact of investments
    • 7. Reach citizens more easily (G2C)
    • 8. Reach businesses more easily(G2B)
    • 9. Improve inter-agencies communications (G2B)
    • 10. Providing services to more people, organizations (e-inclusion)
    • 11. Involving more people, organizations in government activities, capturing feedback, etc (e-participation)
    Governments move to digital age!
    6
  • 12. Today
    This Presentation .....
    Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web
    Summary
    Introduction
    Open Data and Open Government Data
    7
  • 13. e-Government:
    Challenges
    One-stop shop portals not entirely successful
    - People typically don’t use official websites
    • Not necessarily user-oriented, interesting
    • 14. Expensive
    The simplistic assumption that e-governance is all about technology, and notreform, is one of the main reasons why many an e-government project fails. Onlycountries strong in governance and committed to reform can hope to succeed intheir e-government efforts. - K. Ashok VardhanShetty, 2003
    Source: http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2003/11/15/stories/2003111500050800.htm
    8
  • 15. “Open”
    material (data) is open if it can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone
    “Government data”
    data and information produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities.
    Source: Open Knowledge Foundation, 2010
    Definition
    WHAT IS OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA?
    9
  • 16. Open Government = Gov 2.0
    • Gov 2.0 is an attempt to revolutionizegovernment and the waythatgovernmentdoes business
    • 17. Gov 2.0 allows for completetransparency, collaboration, participation, and innovation by incorporatingemerging technologies.
    • 18. Gov 2.0 is a helpful and quick way to get in touchwith the government and connectemployees and programs
    • 19. Gov 2.0 givesusers the choice to interact or collaborate in a social media dialogue as well as being in a virtualcommunity
    Government 2.0 is the DEMOCRATIZATION of governmentprocesses, services and data.
    10
  • 20. TRANSPARENCY
    be able freely to access government data and information and to share that information with other citizens.
    RELEASING SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL VALUE
    the creation of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value
    PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE
    making a full “read/write” society, not just about knowing what is happening in the governance process but being able to contribute to it.
    WHY OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA?
    11
  • 21. Transparency and Open Government
    “Information
    maintained by the
    Federal Government is
    a national asset.”
    President Obama January 21, 2009
    12
  • 22. Data.gov
    Launched on May 21, 2009, Data.gov allows citizens to participate by leveraging federal data sets to build applications, conduct analysis, and perform research.
    • The first phase of Data.gov features downloadable federal data sets organized by category and federal organization.
    • 23. Data sets are available for download in XML, CSV, and shape file formats.
    13
  • 24. Data.gov.uk
    Prime Minister, David Cameron, writes to all government departments, 31 May 2010: instructing them to free up more datasets as part of Transparency Agenda
    Establishment of the Public Sector Transparency Board chaired by Francis Maude, Minister for the Cabinet Office
    The Board will be responsible for setting open data standards across the public sector, publishing further datasets on the basis of public demand
    14
  • 25. http://www.practicalparticipation.co.uk/odi/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Open-Data-Impacts-Timeline-Draft-0.1.png
    15
  • 26. Public Sector Dataset
    The State of Government Open Data
    data.gov
    datasf.org
    data.edmonton.ca
    data.gov.uk
    data.london.gov.uk
    digitaliser.dk
    geodata.gov.gr
    data.suomi.fi
    gov.opendata.at
    data.reegle.info
    opengovdata.ru
    http://datos.fundacionctic.org/sandbox/catalog/map
    16
  • 27. Case Studies
    Applications
    17
    Postcode Newspaper
    Where Does My Money Go
    World Events Visualiser
    Guardian Data Store
  • 28. Open Government Data 8 Principles
    Complete: All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
    Primary: As collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not aggregate or modified, not via form-based queries.
    Timely: Made available as quickly as possible and necessary.
    Accessible: Available to widest range of users for widest range of purposes.
    Non-discriminatory: Available to anyone, with no requirement of registration
    Machine-processable: Structured to allow automated processing.
    Non-proprietary: Available in an open, standard, format over which no entity has exclusive control.
    License-free: Not subject to copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions are allowed.
    A work is open if its manner of distribution satisfies the following conditions:
    Source:http://www.opengovdata.org/home/8principles
    18
  • 29. Today
    This Presentation .....
    Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web
    Summary
    Introduction
    Open Data and Open Government Data
    19
  • 30. Semantic Web
    Machine-understandable Information: a web of data, in some ways like a global database.
    “I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.”
    – Tim Berners-Lee, 1999
    20
  • 31. World Wide Web
    HTTP
    URI
    HTML
    21
  • 32. An essential concept
    Link
    .. a reference in a hypertext document to another document or other resource
    22
  • 33. Data on the Web is broken.
    23
  • 34. How many different types of links on the web...
    document
    document
    connects
    services
    services
    connects
    people
    people
    connects
    We are already in these links...
    24
  • 35. All data including documents, services, people ...
    DATA
    DATA
    links
    The Semantic Web: Web of Data
    25
  • 36. 웹2.0
    시맨틱웹
    소셜웹
    웹 3.0
    메타웹
    Linked Data != the Semantic Web
    26
  • 37. Linked Data
    Use URIs as names for things
    Use HTTP URIssothat people can look up thosenames
    Whensomeone looks up a URI, provideuseful information, using the standards
    Include links to otherURIssothattheycandiscover more things
    27
  • 38. Principle
    Web of Data
    RDF
    HTTP
    URI
    28
  • 39. A quick overview
    Five Steps to publish linked data
    Step 1: Understand the principles
    • What are the key things present in your data?
    (People, Places, Events, Books, Films, Photos, etc.)
    • What vocabularies can be used to describe these?
    (FOAF, SIOC, Dublin Core, SKOS, etc)
    Step 2:
    Understand
    your data
    29
    • use HTTP URIs
    http://example.com/thing Thing
    http://example.com/thing.rdf RDF data
    http://example.com/thing.html HTML page
    • dereferenceable URI (hash or slash)
    Step 3:
    Choosing
    Cool URIs
  • 40. A quick overview
    Five Steps to publish linked data
    Step 1: Understand the principles
    • What are the key things present in your data?
    (People, Places, Events, Books, Films, Photos, etc.)
    • What vocabularies can be used to describe these?
    (FOAF, SIOC, Dublin Core, SKOS, etc)
    Step 2:
    Understand
    your data
    30
    • use HTTP URIs
    http://example.com/thing Thing
    http://example.com/thing.rdf RDF data
    http://example.com/thing.html HTML page
    • dereferenceable URI (hash or slash)
    Step 3:
    Choosing
    Cool URIs
  • 41. A quick overview
    Five Steps to publish linked data
    Step 4: Setup infrastructure
    31
    - Test your content negotiation
    (install the LiveHTTPHeaders and Modify Headers extentions for Firefox)
    a mechanism defined in the HTTP specification that makes it possible to serve different versions of a document (or more generally, a resource) at the same URI, so that user agents can specify which version fit their capabilities the best.
  • 42. A quick overview
    Five Steps to publish linked data
    Step 5: Link to other available data sets
    32
    Linking methods
    - Linking Algorithms, String Matching, Common Key Matching, Property-based Matching
    Popular predicates for Linking
    - owl:sameAs
    - foaf:homepage and foaf:page
    - foaf:topic and foaf:primaryTopic
    - foaf:based_near
    - foaf:maker
    - rdfs:seeAlso
  • 43. 2006
    2007
    2008
    33
  • 44. Source: http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2010-09-22_colored.png
    34
  • 45. UMBEL
    (Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer)
    Linking Open Data (LOD) Constellation
    A lightweight, subject concept reference structure for the Web
    35
  • 46. A vocabulary onion, building on FOAF, SKOS, SIOC, SIOC Types, DC
    36
    Source: John Breslin, http://www.slideshare.net/Cloud/the-future-of-social-networks-on-the-internet-the-need-for-semantics
  • 47. Disconnected sites on the Social Web / Web 2.0 can be linked using Semantic Web vocabularies
    37
    37
    Source: John Breslin, http://www.slideshare.net/Cloud/the-social-semantic-web
  • 48. Case Studies
    Applications
    38
    DBPedia
    BBC
    New York Times
    Musicbrainz
  • 49. A second step …….
    Quiz: Why We should care about the Semantic Web?
    Links at a semanticlevel
    Integration
  • 50. Raw Data is useful
    However, the Semantic Web canadd more values
    As ‘raw’ as possible before analysis
    XML, CSV/TXT, RSS, Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ), ESRI Shapefile
    Avoid datasets in the following formats: PDF and HTML (e.g., HTML tables containing data)
    Machine readable
    Preference for structured datasets
    Data that can be used for multiple purposes
    Data that is largely free from interpretation and value judgments (observational, unbiased data)
    Datasets that can be mashed-up with others (brought into context using lightweight web programming techniques and technologies)
    Machine readable formats
    40
  • 51. A quick overview
    Open Data vs Linked Data
    Open Data starts with making available the data that you already have, in whatever format.
    • Equal access for all
    • 52. Licensing, legal issues
    • 53. Transparency
    • 54. Changing the way government works
    Open Data
    LinkedData
    41
  • 58. Case Studies
    Linked Government Data
    42
    UK
    Data-Gov Wiki
    Ordnace Survey
    U.S. Census
  • 59. 5
    Put your data on the Web
    Makeitavailable as machine readable
    Use open, standard formats
    Use a open data format – URLs, descriptions
    Link your data to otherpeople’s data

    plan for open government data
    ★★
    ★★★
    Stars
    ★★★★
    ★★★★★
    43
  • 60. Today
    This Presentation .....
    Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web
    Summary
    Introduction
    Open Data and Open Government Data
    44
  • 61. Reality Check
    Data.gov in crisis
    Data.gov, along with a number of other data-related sites of the government such as USAspending.gov and Apps.gov, are slated to be shut down due to budget cuts. The current annual budget of $37 million will be reduced to $2 million. – (Guardian April 11)
    45
  • 62. Reality Check
    Concerned and Hurdles
    Loss of licensing revenue
    Loss of control
    Legal challenges
    Unwelcomed exposure
    Procedural changes
    Privacy
    National security
    Complexity
    Investment
    Quality and Authenticity
    Corruption, falsification of data
    Customer service
    Difficult
    Requires
    Authority, Public Administration Readiness, and Civic Interest and Readiness
    46
  • 63. How to Start
    “We won’t get there tomorrow, but maybe the day after” –
    Rufus Pollock
    Low-hanging fruit, Less conversational data and quick wins.
    Rebuild
    Fireout
    Expand, with more…..
    Data
    Services
    Efficiency
    Costs saving
    Transparency
    Participation
    Inclusion
    47
  • 64. Summary
    Web, Data, and the Semantic Web
    The Web is not “Technology”. It is “humanity connected by technology”
    • Open Government Data is cost-effective tool for governments to improve service to citizens, civil society and business.
    • 65. Linked Data and open data are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing.
    • 66. Linked Data is data that is structured in such a way that data sets can be combined to create something greater than the sum of its parts.
    • 67. Linked government data will interconnect different datasets across local governments, organizations, and nations.
    48
  • 68. For more information contact Haklae Kim via
    haklae.kim@gmail.com
    Twitter: haklaekim
    Or read up on thesonagiblog at:
    http://blogweb.co.kr

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