GovernmentalLinked Data Feel free to re-use or mash-up this presentation under Creative Commons 2.0 licence (non-commercial, attribution) Haklae Kim, PhD Email: email@example.com Thanks to Alain Thys (http://www.slideshare.net/alainthys). This slide uses his template and some pictures from his slides.
Today This Presentation ..... Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web Summary Introduction Open Data and Open Government Data 2
OpenStreetMap - Project Haiti
The World Wide Web: "vague, but exciting" a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Interne 4
A great first step ……. Quiz: Which % of world governments have a Web site? 98%
e-Government Using the Web and ICT to serve consistencies better Objectives
Improve impact of investments
Reach citizens more easily (G2C)
Reach businesses more easily(G2B)
Improve inter-agencies communications (G2B)
Providing services to more people, organizations (e-inclusion)
Involving more people, organizations in government activities, capturing feedback, etc (e-participation)
Governments move to digital age! 6
Today This Presentation ..... Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web Summary Introduction Open Data and Open Government Data 7
e-Government: Challenges One-stop shop portals not entirely successful - People typically don’t use official websites
Not necessarily user-oriented, interesting
The simplistic assumption that e-governance is all about technology, and notreform, is one of the main reasons why many an e-government project fails. Onlycountries strong in governance and committed to reform can hope to succeed intheir e-government efforts. - K. Ashok VardhanShetty, 2003 Source: http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2003/11/15/stories/2003111500050800.htm 8
“Open” material (data) is open if it can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone “Government data” data and information produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities. Source: Open Knowledge Foundation, 2010 Definition WHAT IS OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA? 9
Open Government = Gov 2.0
Gov 2.0 is an attempt to revolutionizegovernment and the waythatgovernmentdoes business
Gov 2.0 allows for completetransparency, collaboration, participation, and innovation by incorporatingemerging technologies.
Gov 2.0 is a helpful and quick way to get in touchwith the government and connectemployees and programs
Gov 2.0 givesusers the choice to interact or collaborate in a social media dialogue as well as being in a virtualcommunity
Government 2.0 is the DEMOCRATIZATION of governmentprocesses, services and data. 10
TRANSPARENCY be able freely to access government data and information and to share that information with other citizens. RELEASING SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL VALUE the creation of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE making a full “read/write” society, not just about knowing what is happening in the governance process but being able to contribute to it. WHY OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA? 11
Transparency and Open Government “Information maintained by the Federal Government is a national asset.” President Obama January 21, 2009 12
Data.gov Launched on May 21, 2009, Data.gov allows citizens to participate by leveraging federal data sets to build applications, conduct analysis, and perform research.
The first phase of Data.gov features downloadable federal data sets organized by category and federal organization.
Data sets are available for download in XML, CSV, and shape file formats.
Data.gov.uk Prime Minister, David Cameron, writes to all government departments, 31 May 2010: instructing them to free up more datasets as part of Transparency Agenda Establishment of the Public Sector Transparency Board chaired by Francis Maude, Minister for the Cabinet Office The Board will be responsible for setting open data standards across the public sector, publishing further datasets on the basis of public demand 14
Public Sector Dataset The State of Government Open Data data.gov datasf.org data.edmonton.ca data.gov.uk data.london.gov.uk digitaliser.dk geodata.gov.gr data.suomi.fi gov.opendata.at data.reegle.info opengovdata.ru http://datos.fundacionctic.org/sandbox/catalog/map 16
Case Studies Applications 17 Postcode Newspaper Where Does My Money Go World Events Visualiser Guardian Data Store
Open Government Data 8 Principles Complete: All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations. Primary: As collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not aggregate or modified, not via form-based queries. Timely: Made available as quickly as possible and necessary. Accessible: Available to widest range of users for widest range of purposes. Non-discriminatory: Available to anyone, with no requirement of registration Machine-processable: Structured to allow automated processing. Non-proprietary: Available in an open, standard, format over which no entity has exclusive control. License-free: Not subject to copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions are allowed. A work is open if its manner of distribution satisfies the following conditions: Source:http://www.opengovdata.org/home/8principles 18
Today This Presentation ..... Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web Summary Introduction Open Data and Open Government Data 19
Semantic Web Machine-understandable Information: a web of data, in some ways like a global database. “I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.” – Tim Berners-Lee, 1999 20
World Wide Web HTTP URI HTML 21
An essential concept Link .. a reference in a hypertext document to another document or other resource 22
Data on the Web is broken. 23
How many different types of links on the web... document document connects services services connects people people connects We are already in these links... 24
All data including documents, services, people ... DATA DATA links The Semantic Web: Web of Data 25
웹2.0 시맨틱웹 소셜웹 웹 3.0 메타웹 Linked Data != the Semantic Web 26
Linked Data Use URIs as names for things Use HTTP URIssothat people can look up thosenames Whensomeone looks up a URI, provideuseful information, using the standards Include links to otherURIssothattheycandiscover more things 27
Principle Web of Data RDF HTTP URI 28
A quick overview Five Steps to publish linked data Step 1: Understand the principles
(FOAF, SIOC, Dublin Core, SKOS, etc) Step 2: Understand your data 30
use HTTP URIs
http://example.com/thing Thing http://example.com/thing.rdf RDF data http://example.com/thing.html HTML page
dereferenceable URI (hash or slash)
Step 3: Choosing Cool URIs
A quick overview Five Steps to publish linked data Step 4: Setup infrastructure 31 - Test your content negotiation (install the LiveHTTPHeaders and Modify Headers extentions for Firefox) a mechanism defined in the HTTP specification that makes it possible to serve different versions of a document (or more generally, a resource) at the same URI, so that user agents can specify which version fit their capabilities the best.
A quick overview Five Steps to publish linked data Step 5: Link to other available data sets 32 Linking methods - Linking Algorithms, String Matching, Common Key Matching, Property-based Matching Popular predicates for Linking - owl:sameAs - foaf:homepage and foaf:page - foaf:topic and foaf:primaryTopic - foaf:based_near - foaf:maker - rdfs:seeAlso
UMBEL (Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer) Linking Open Data (LOD) Constellation A lightweight, subject concept reference structure for the Web 35
A vocabulary onion, building on FOAF, SKOS, SIOC, SIOC Types, DC 36 Source: John Breslin, http://www.slideshare.net/Cloud/the-future-of-social-networks-on-the-internet-the-need-for-semantics
Disconnected sites on the Social Web / Web 2.0 can be linked using Semantic Web vocabularies 37 37 Source: John Breslin, http://www.slideshare.net/Cloud/the-social-semantic-web
Case Studies Applications 38 DBPedia BBC New York Times Musicbrainz
A second step ……. Quiz: Why We should care about the Semantic Web? Links at a semanticlevel Integration
Raw Data is useful However, the Semantic Web canadd more values As ‘raw’ as possible before analysis XML, CSV/TXT, RSS, Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ), ESRI Shapefile Avoid datasets in the following formats: PDF and HTML (e.g., HTML tables containing data) Machine readable Preference for structured datasets Data that can be used for multiple purposes Data that is largely free from interpretation and value judgments (observational, unbiased data) Datasets that can be mashed-up with others (brought into context using lightweight web programming techniques and technologies) Machine readable formats 40
A quick overview Open Data vs Linked Data Open Data starts with making available the data that you already have, in whatever format.
Equal access for all
Licensing, legal issues
Changing the way government works
Case Studies Linked Government Data 42 UK Data-Gov Wiki Ordnace Survey U.S. Census
5 Put your data on the Web Makeitavailable as machine readable Use open, standard formats Use a open data format – URLs, descriptions Link your data to otherpeople’s data ★ plan for open government data ★★ ★★★ Stars ★★★★ ★★★★★ 43
Today This Presentation ..... Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web Summary Introduction Open Data and Open Government Data 44
Reality Check Data.gov in crisis Data.gov, along with a number of other data-related sites of the government such as USAspending.gov and Apps.gov, are slated to be shut down due to budget cuts. The current annual budget of $37 million will be reduced to $2 million. – (Guardian April 11) 45
Reality Check Concerned and Hurdles Loss of licensing revenue Loss of control Legal challenges Unwelcomed exposure Procedural changes Privacy National security Complexity Investment Quality and Authenticity Corruption, falsification of data Customer service Difficult Requires Authority, Public Administration Readiness, and Civic Interest and Readiness 46
How to Start “We won’t get there tomorrow, but maybe the day after” – Rufus Pollock Low-hanging fruit, Less conversational data and quick wins. Rebuild Fireout Expand, with more….. Data Services Efficiency Costs saving Transparency Participation Inclusion 47
Summary Web, Data, and the Semantic Web The Web is not “Technology”. It is “humanity connected by technology”
Open Government Data is cost-effective tool for governments to improve service to citizens, civil society and business.
Linked Data and open data are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing.
Linked Data is data that is structured in such a way that data sets can be combined to create something greater than the sum of its parts.
Linked government data will interconnect different datasets across local governments, organizations, and nations.
For more information contact Haklae Kim via firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: haklaekim Or read up on thesonagiblog at: http://blogweb.co.kr