Governmental Linked Data

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Governmental Linked Data

  1. 1. GovernmentalLinked Data<br />Feel free to re-use or mash-up this presentation under Creative Commons 2.0 licence (non-commercial, attribution)<br />Haklae Kim, PhD<br />Email: haklae.kim@gmail.com<br />Thanks to Alain Thys (http://www.slideshare.net/alainthys). <br />This slide uses his template and some pictures from his slides.<br />
  2. 2. Today<br />This Presentation .....<br />Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web<br />Summary<br />Introduction<br />Open Data and Open Government Data<br />2<br />
  3. 3. OpenStreetMap - Project Haiti<br />
  4. 4. The World Wide Web: "vague, but exciting"<br /> a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Interne<br />4<br />
  5. 5. A great first step …….<br />Quiz: Which % of world governments have a Web site?<br />98%<br />
  6. 6. e-Government<br />Using the Web and ICT to serve consistencies better<br />Objectives<br /><ul><li>Improve impact of investments
  7. 7. Reach citizens more easily (G2C)
  8. 8. Reach businesses more easily(G2B)
  9. 9. Improve inter-agencies communications (G2B)
  10. 10. Providing services to more people, organizations (e-inclusion)
  11. 11. Involving more people, organizations in government activities, capturing feedback, etc (e-participation)</li></ul>Governments move to digital age!<br />6<br />
  12. 12. Today<br />This Presentation .....<br />Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web<br />Summary<br />Introduction<br />Open Data and Open Government Data<br />7<br />
  13. 13. e-Government:<br />Challenges<br />One-stop shop portals not entirely successful<br />- People typically don’t use official websites<br /><ul><li> Not necessarily user-oriented, interesting
  14. 14. Expensive</li></ul>The simplistic assumption that e-governance is all about technology, and notreform, is one of the main reasons why many an e-government project fails. Onlycountries strong in governance and committed to reform can hope to succeed intheir e-government efforts. - K. Ashok VardhanShetty, 2003<br />Source: http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2003/11/15/stories/2003111500050800.htm<br />8<br />
  15. 15. “Open”<br />material (data) is open if it can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone<br />“Government data”<br /> data and information produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities.<br />Source: Open Knowledge Foundation, 2010<br />Definition<br />WHAT IS OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA?<br />9<br />
  16. 16. Open Government = Gov 2.0<br /><ul><li>Gov 2.0 is an attempt to revolutionizegovernment and the waythatgovernmentdoes business
  17. 17. Gov 2.0 allows for completetransparency, collaboration, participation, and innovation by incorporatingemerging technologies.
  18. 18. Gov 2.0 is a helpful and quick way to get in touchwith the government and connectemployees and programs
  19. 19. Gov 2.0 givesusers the choice to interact or collaborate in a social media dialogue as well as being in a virtualcommunity</li></ul>Government 2.0 is the DEMOCRATIZATION of governmentprocesses, services and data.<br />10<br />
  20. 20. TRANSPARENCY<br />be able freely to access government data and information and to share that information with other citizens.<br />RELEASING SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL VALUE<br />the creation of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value<br />PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE<br />making a full “read/write” society, not just about knowing what is happening in the governance process but being able to contribute to it.<br />WHY OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA?<br />11<br />
  21. 21. Transparency and Open Government<br />“Information <br />maintained by the <br />Federal Government is <br />a national asset.”<br />President Obama January 21, 2009<br />12<br />
  22. 22. Data.gov<br />Launched on May 21, 2009, Data.gov allows citizens to participate by leveraging federal data sets to build applications, conduct analysis, and perform research.<br /><ul><li>The first phase of Data.gov features downloadable federal data sets organized by category and federal organization.
  23. 23. Data sets are available for download in XML, CSV, and shape file formats.</li></ul>13<br />
  24. 24. Data.gov.uk<br />Prime Minister, David Cameron, writes to all government departments, 31 May 2010: instructing them to free up more datasets as part of Transparency Agenda<br />Establishment of the Public Sector Transparency Board chaired by Francis Maude, Minister for the Cabinet Office<br />The Board will be responsible for setting open data standards across the public sector, publishing further datasets on the basis of public demand<br />14<br />
  25. 25. http://www.practicalparticipation.co.uk/odi/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Open-Data-Impacts-Timeline-Draft-0.1.png<br />15<br />
  26. 26. Public Sector Dataset<br />The State of Government Open Data<br />data.gov<br />datasf.org<br />data.edmonton.ca<br />data.gov.uk<br />data.london.gov.uk<br />digitaliser.dk<br />geodata.gov.gr<br />data.suomi.fi<br />gov.opendata.at<br />data.reegle.info<br />opengovdata.ru<br />http://datos.fundacionctic.org/sandbox/catalog/map<br />16<br />
  27. 27. Case Studies<br />Applications<br />17<br />Postcode Newspaper<br />Where Does My Money Go<br />World Events Visualiser<br />Guardian Data Store<br />
  28. 28. Open Government Data 8 Principles<br />Complete: All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.<br />Primary: As collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not aggregate or modified, not via form-based queries.<br />Timely: Made available as quickly as possible and necessary.<br />Accessible: Available to widest range of users for widest range of purposes.<br />Non-discriminatory: Available to anyone, with no requirement of registration<br />Machine-processable: Structured to allow automated processing.<br />Non-proprietary: Available in an open, standard, format over which no entity has exclusive control.<br />License-free: Not subject to copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions are allowed.<br />A work is open if its manner of distribution satisfies the following conditions:<br />Source:http://www.opengovdata.org/home/8principles<br />18<br />
  29. 29. Today<br />This Presentation .....<br />Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web<br />Summary<br />Introduction<br />Open Data and Open Government Data<br />19<br />
  30. 30. Semantic Web<br />Machine-understandable Information: a web of data, in some ways like a global database. <br />“I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.”<br />– Tim Berners-Lee, 1999<br />20<br />
  31. 31. World Wide Web<br />HTTP<br />URI<br />HTML<br />21<br />
  32. 32. An essential concept<br />Link<br />.. a reference in a hypertext document to another document or other resource<br />22<br />
  33. 33. Data on the Web is broken.<br />23<br />
  34. 34. How many different types of links on the web...<br />document<br />document<br />connects<br />services<br />services<br />connects<br />people<br />people<br />connects<br />We are already in these links...<br />24<br />
  35. 35. All data including documents, services, people ...<br />DATA<br />DATA<br />links<br />The Semantic Web: Web of Data<br />25<br />
  36. 36. 웹2.0<br />시맨틱웹<br />소셜웹<br />웹 3.0<br />메타웹<br />Linked Data != the Semantic Web<br />26<br />
  37. 37. Linked Data<br />Use URIs as names for things<br />Use HTTP URIssothat people can look up thosenames<br />Whensomeone looks up a URI, provideuseful information, using the standards<br />Include links to otherURIssothattheycandiscover more things<br />27<br />
  38. 38. Principle<br />Web of Data<br />RDF<br />HTTP<br />URI<br />28<br />
  39. 39. A quick overview<br />Five Steps to publish linked data<br />Step 1: Understand the principles<br /><ul><li> What are the key things present in your data?</li></ul>(People, Places, Events, Books, Films, Photos, etc.)<br /><ul><li>What vocabularies can be used to describe these?</li></ul>(FOAF, SIOC, Dublin Core, SKOS, etc)<br />Step 2: <br />Understand <br />your data<br />29<br /><ul><li> use HTTP URIs</li></ul>http://example.com/thing Thing<br />http://example.com/thing.rdf RDF data<br />http://example.com/thing.html HTML page<br /><ul><li>dereferenceable URI (hash or slash)</li></ul>Step 3: <br />Choosing <br />Cool URIs<br />
  40. 40. A quick overview<br />Five Steps to publish linked data<br />Step 1: Understand the principles<br /><ul><li> What are the key things present in your data?</li></ul>(People, Places, Events, Books, Films, Photos, etc.)<br /><ul><li>What vocabularies can be used to describe these?</li></ul>(FOAF, SIOC, Dublin Core, SKOS, etc)<br />Step 2: <br />Understand <br />your data<br />30<br /><ul><li> use HTTP URIs</li></ul>http://example.com/thing Thing<br />http://example.com/thing.rdf RDF data<br />http://example.com/thing.html HTML page<br /><ul><li>dereferenceable URI (hash or slash)</li></ul>Step 3: <br />Choosing <br />Cool URIs<br />
  41. 41. A quick overview<br />Five Steps to publish linked data<br />Step 4: Setup infrastructure<br />31<br />- Test your content negotiation<br /> (install the LiveHTTPHeaders and Modify Headers extentions for Firefox)<br />a mechanism defined in the HTTP specification that makes it possible to serve different versions of a document (or more generally, a resource) at the same URI, so that user agents can specify which version fit their capabilities the best.<br />
  42. 42. A quick overview<br />Five Steps to publish linked data<br />Step 5: Link to other available data sets<br />32<br />Linking methods<br /> - Linking Algorithms, String Matching, Common Key Matching, Property-based Matching<br />Popular predicates for Linking<br /> - owl:sameAs<br /> - foaf:homepage and foaf:page<br /> - foaf:topic and foaf:primaryTopic<br /> - foaf:based_near<br /> - foaf:maker<br /> - rdfs:seeAlso<br />
  43. 43. 2006<br />2007<br />2008<br />33<br />
  44. 44. Source: http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2010-09-22_colored.png<br />34<br />
  45. 45. UMBEL<br />(Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer)<br />Linking Open Data (LOD) Constellation<br />A lightweight, subject concept reference structure for the Web<br />35<br />
  46. 46. A vocabulary onion, building on FOAF, SKOS, SIOC, SIOC Types, DC<br />36<br />Source: John Breslin, http://www.slideshare.net/Cloud/the-future-of-social-networks-on-the-internet-the-need-for-semantics<br />
  47. 47. Disconnected sites on the Social Web / Web 2.0 can be linked using Semantic Web vocabularies<br />37<br />37<br />Source: John Breslin, http://www.slideshare.net/Cloud/the-social-semantic-web<br />
  48. 48. Case Studies<br />Applications<br />38<br />DBPedia<br />BBC<br />New York Times<br />Musicbrainz<br />
  49. 49. A second step …….<br />Quiz: Why We should care about the Semantic Web?<br />Links at a semanticlevel<br />Integration<br />
  50. 50. Raw Data is useful<br />However, the Semantic Web canadd more values<br />As ‘raw’ as possible before analysis<br />XML, CSV/TXT, RSS, Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ), ESRI Shapefile<br />Avoid datasets in the following formats: PDF and HTML (e.g., HTML tables containing data)<br />Machine readable<br />Preference for structured datasets<br />Data that can be used for multiple purposes<br />Data that is largely free from interpretation and value judgments (observational, unbiased data)<br />Datasets that can be mashed-up with others (brought into context using lightweight web programming techniques and technologies)<br />Machine readable formats<br />40<br />
  51. 51. A quick overview<br />Open Data vs Linked Data<br />Open Data starts with making available the data that you already have, in whatever format.<br /><ul><li> Equal access for all
  52. 52. Licensing, legal issues
  53. 53. Transparency
  54. 54. Changing the way government works</li></ul>Open Data <br /><ul><li>URIs
  55. 55. HTTPs
  56. 56. RDF vocabularies
  57. 57. Standards</li></ul>LinkedData <br />41<br />
  58. 58. Case Studies<br />Linked Government Data<br />42<br />UK<br />Data-Gov Wiki<br />Ordnace Survey<br />U.S. Census<br />
  59. 59. 5<br />Put your data on the Web<br />Makeitavailable as machine readable<br />Use open, standard formats<br />Use a open data format – URLs, descriptions<br />Link your data to otherpeople’s data<br />★<br />plan for open government data<br />★★<br />★★★<br />Stars<br />★★★★<br />★★★★★<br />43<br />
  60. 60. Today<br />This Presentation .....<br />Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web<br />Summary<br />Introduction<br />Open Data and Open Government Data<br />44<br />
  61. 61. Reality Check<br />Data.gov in crisis<br />Data.gov, along with a number of other data-related sites of the government such as USAspending.gov and Apps.gov, are slated to be shut down due to budget cuts. The current annual budget of $37 million will be reduced to $2 million. – (Guardian April 11)<br />45<br />
  62. 62. Reality Check<br />Concerned and Hurdles<br />Loss of licensing revenue<br />Loss of control<br />Legal challenges<br />Unwelcomed exposure<br />Procedural changes<br />Privacy<br />National security<br />Complexity<br />Investment<br />Quality and Authenticity<br />Corruption, falsification of data<br />Customer service<br />Difficult<br />Requires<br />Authority, Public Administration Readiness, and Civic Interest and Readiness<br />46<br />
  63. 63. How to Start<br />“We won’t get there tomorrow, but maybe the day after” – <br />Rufus Pollock<br />Low-hanging fruit, Less conversational data and quick wins.<br />Rebuild<br />Fireout<br />Expand, with more…..<br />Data<br />Services<br />Efficiency<br />Costs saving<br />Transparency<br />Participation<br />Inclusion <br />47<br />
  64. 64. Summary<br />Web, Data, and the Semantic Web<br />The Web is not “Technology”. It is “humanity connected by technology”<br /><ul><li> Open Government Data is cost-effective tool for governments to improve service to citizens, civil society and business.
  65. 65. Linked Data and open data are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing.
  66. 66. Linked Data is data that is structured in such a way that data sets can be combined to create something greater than the sum of its parts.
  67. 67. Linked government data will interconnect different datasets across local governments, organizations, and nations.</li></ul>48<br />
  68. 68. For more information contact Haklae Kim via<br />haklae.kim@gmail.com<br />Twitter: haklaekim<br />Or read up on thesonagiblog at:<br />http://blogweb.co.kr<br />

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