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Governmental Linked Data

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    Governmental Linked Data Governmental Linked Data Presentation Transcript

    • GovernmentalLinked Data
      Feel free to re-use or mash-up this presentation under Creative Commons 2.0 licence (non-commercial, attribution)
      Haklae Kim, PhD
      Email: haklae.kim@gmail.com
      Thanks to Alain Thys (http://www.slideshare.net/alainthys).
      This slide uses his template and some pictures from his slides.
    • Today
      This Presentation .....
      Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web
      Summary
      Introduction
      Open Data and Open Government Data
      2
    • OpenStreetMap - Project Haiti
    • The World Wide Web: "vague, but exciting"
      a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Interne
      4
    • A great first step …….
      Quiz: Which % of world governments have a Web site?
      98%
    • e-Government
      Using the Web and ICT to serve consistencies better
      Objectives
      • Improve impact of investments
      • Reach citizens more easily (G2C)
      • Reach businesses more easily(G2B)
      • Improve inter-agencies communications (G2B)
      • Providing services to more people, organizations (e-inclusion)
      • Involving more people, organizations in government activities, capturing feedback, etc (e-participation)
      Governments move to digital age!
      6
    • Today
      This Presentation .....
      Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web
      Summary
      Introduction
      Open Data and Open Government Data
      7
    • e-Government:
      Challenges
      One-stop shop portals not entirely successful
      - People typically don’t use official websites
      • Not necessarily user-oriented, interesting
      • Expensive
      The simplistic assumption that e-governance is all about technology, and notreform, is one of the main reasons why many an e-government project fails. Onlycountries strong in governance and committed to reform can hope to succeed intheir e-government efforts. - K. Ashok VardhanShetty, 2003
      Source: http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2003/11/15/stories/2003111500050800.htm
      8
    • “Open”
      material (data) is open if it can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone
      “Government data”
      data and information produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities.
      Source: Open Knowledge Foundation, 2010
      Definition
      WHAT IS OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA?
      9
    • Open Government = Gov 2.0
      • Gov 2.0 is an attempt to revolutionizegovernment and the waythatgovernmentdoes business
      • Gov 2.0 allows for completetransparency, collaboration, participation, and innovation by incorporatingemerging technologies.
      • Gov 2.0 is a helpful and quick way to get in touchwith the government and connectemployees and programs
      • Gov 2.0 givesusers the choice to interact or collaborate in a social media dialogue as well as being in a virtualcommunity
      Government 2.0 is the DEMOCRATIZATION of governmentprocesses, services and data.
      10
    • TRANSPARENCY
      be able freely to access government data and information and to share that information with other citizens.
      RELEASING SOCIAL AND COMMERCIAL VALUE
      the creation of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value
      PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE
      making a full “read/write” society, not just about knowing what is happening in the governance process but being able to contribute to it.
      WHY OPEN GOVERNMENT DATA?
      11
    • Transparency and Open Government
      “Information
      maintained by the
      Federal Government is
      a national asset.”
      President Obama January 21, 2009
      12
    • Data.gov
      Launched on May 21, 2009, Data.gov allows citizens to participate by leveraging federal data sets to build applications, conduct analysis, and perform research.
      • The first phase of Data.gov features downloadable federal data sets organized by category and federal organization.
      • Data sets are available for download in XML, CSV, and shape file formats.
      13
    • Data.gov.uk
      Prime Minister, David Cameron, writes to all government departments, 31 May 2010: instructing them to free up more datasets as part of Transparency Agenda
      Establishment of the Public Sector Transparency Board chaired by Francis Maude, Minister for the Cabinet Office
      The Board will be responsible for setting open data standards across the public sector, publishing further datasets on the basis of public demand
      14
    • http://www.practicalparticipation.co.uk/odi/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Open-Data-Impacts-Timeline-Draft-0.1.png
      15
    • Public Sector Dataset
      The State of Government Open Data
      data.gov
      datasf.org
      data.edmonton.ca
      data.gov.uk
      data.london.gov.uk
      digitaliser.dk
      geodata.gov.gr
      data.suomi.fi
      gov.opendata.at
      data.reegle.info
      opengovdata.ru
      http://datos.fundacionctic.org/sandbox/catalog/map
      16
    • Case Studies
      Applications
      17
      Postcode Newspaper
      Where Does My Money Go
      World Events Visualiser
      Guardian Data Store
    • Open Government Data 8 Principles
      Complete: All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations.
      Primary: As collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not aggregate or modified, not via form-based queries.
      Timely: Made available as quickly as possible and necessary.
      Accessible: Available to widest range of users for widest range of purposes.
      Non-discriminatory: Available to anyone, with no requirement of registration
      Machine-processable: Structured to allow automated processing.
      Non-proprietary: Available in an open, standard, format over which no entity has exclusive control.
      License-free: Not subject to copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions are allowed.
      A work is open if its manner of distribution satisfies the following conditions:
      Source:http://www.opengovdata.org/home/8principles
      18
    • Today
      This Presentation .....
      Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web
      Summary
      Introduction
      Open Data and Open Government Data
      19
    • Semantic Web
      Machine-understandable Information: a web of data, in some ways like a global database.
      “I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.”
      – Tim Berners-Lee, 1999
      20
    • World Wide Web
      HTTP
      URI
      HTML
      21
    • An essential concept
      Link
      .. a reference in a hypertext document to another document or other resource
      22
    • Data on the Web is broken.
      23
    • How many different types of links on the web...
      document
      document
      connects
      services
      services
      connects
      people
      people
      connects
      We are already in these links...
      24
    • All data including documents, services, people ...
      DATA
      DATA
      links
      The Semantic Web: Web of Data
      25
    • 웹2.0
      시맨틱웹
      소셜웹
      웹 3.0
      메타웹
      Linked Data != the Semantic Web
      26
    • Linked Data
      Use URIs as names for things
      Use HTTP URIssothat people can look up thosenames
      Whensomeone looks up a URI, provideuseful information, using the standards
      Include links to otherURIssothattheycandiscover more things
      27
    • Principle
      Web of Data
      RDF
      HTTP
      URI
      28
    • A quick overview
      Five Steps to publish linked data
      Step 1: Understand the principles
      • What are the key things present in your data?
      (People, Places, Events, Books, Films, Photos, etc.)
      • What vocabularies can be used to describe these?
      (FOAF, SIOC, Dublin Core, SKOS, etc)
      Step 2:
      Understand
      your data
      29
      • use HTTP URIs
      http://example.com/thing Thing
      http://example.com/thing.rdf RDF data
      http://example.com/thing.html HTML page
      • dereferenceable URI (hash or slash)
      Step 3:
      Choosing
      Cool URIs
    • A quick overview
      Five Steps to publish linked data
      Step 1: Understand the principles
      • What are the key things present in your data?
      (People, Places, Events, Books, Films, Photos, etc.)
      • What vocabularies can be used to describe these?
      (FOAF, SIOC, Dublin Core, SKOS, etc)
      Step 2:
      Understand
      your data
      30
      • use HTTP URIs
      http://example.com/thing Thing
      http://example.com/thing.rdf RDF data
      http://example.com/thing.html HTML page
      • dereferenceable URI (hash or slash)
      Step 3:
      Choosing
      Cool URIs
    • A quick overview
      Five Steps to publish linked data
      Step 4: Setup infrastructure
      31
      - Test your content negotiation
      (install the LiveHTTPHeaders and Modify Headers extentions for Firefox)
      a mechanism defined in the HTTP specification that makes it possible to serve different versions of a document (or more generally, a resource) at the same URI, so that user agents can specify which version fit their capabilities the best.
    • A quick overview
      Five Steps to publish linked data
      Step 5: Link to other available data sets
      32
      Linking methods
      - Linking Algorithms, String Matching, Common Key Matching, Property-based Matching
      Popular predicates for Linking
      - owl:sameAs
      - foaf:homepage and foaf:page
      - foaf:topic and foaf:primaryTopic
      - foaf:based_near
      - foaf:maker
      - rdfs:seeAlso
    • 2006
      2007
      2008
      33
    • Source: http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2010-09-22_colored.png
      34
    • UMBEL
      (Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer)
      Linking Open Data (LOD) Constellation
      A lightweight, subject concept reference structure for the Web
      35
    • A vocabulary onion, building on FOAF, SKOS, SIOC, SIOC Types, DC
      36
      Source: John Breslin, http://www.slideshare.net/Cloud/the-future-of-social-networks-on-the-internet-the-need-for-semantics
    • Disconnected sites on the Social Web / Web 2.0 can be linked using Semantic Web vocabularies
      37
      37
      Source: John Breslin, http://www.slideshare.net/Cloud/the-social-semantic-web
    • Case Studies
      Applications
      38
      DBPedia
      BBC
      New York Times
      Musicbrainz
    • A second step …….
      Quiz: Why We should care about the Semantic Web?
      Links at a semanticlevel
      Integration
    • Raw Data is useful
      However, the Semantic Web canadd more values
      As ‘raw’ as possible before analysis
      XML, CSV/TXT, RSS, Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ), ESRI Shapefile
      Avoid datasets in the following formats: PDF and HTML (e.g., HTML tables containing data)
      Machine readable
      Preference for structured datasets
      Data that can be used for multiple purposes
      Data that is largely free from interpretation and value judgments (observational, unbiased data)
      Datasets that can be mashed-up with others (brought into context using lightweight web programming techniques and technologies)
      Machine readable formats
      40
    • A quick overview
      Open Data vs Linked Data
      Open Data starts with making available the data that you already have, in whatever format.
      • Equal access for all
      • Licensing, legal issues
      • Transparency
      • Changing the way government works
      Open Data
      • URIs
      • HTTPs
      • RDF vocabularies
      • Standards
      LinkedData
      41
    • Case Studies
      Linked Government Data
      42
      UK
      Data-Gov Wiki
      Ordnace Survey
      U.S. Census
    • 5
      Put your data on the Web
      Makeitavailable as machine readable
      Use open, standard formats
      Use a open data format – URLs, descriptions
      Link your data to otherpeople’s data

      plan for open government data
      ★★
      ★★★
      Stars
      ★★★★
      ★★★★★
      43
    • Today
      This Presentation .....
      Governmental Linked Data & The Semantic Web
      Summary
      Introduction
      Open Data and Open Government Data
      44
    • Reality Check
      Data.gov in crisis
      Data.gov, along with a number of other data-related sites of the government such as USAspending.gov and Apps.gov, are slated to be shut down due to budget cuts. The current annual budget of $37 million will be reduced to $2 million. – (Guardian April 11)
      45
    • Reality Check
      Concerned and Hurdles
      Loss of licensing revenue
      Loss of control
      Legal challenges
      Unwelcomed exposure
      Procedural changes
      Privacy
      National security
      Complexity
      Investment
      Quality and Authenticity
      Corruption, falsification of data
      Customer service
      Difficult
      Requires
      Authority, Public Administration Readiness, and Civic Interest and Readiness
      46
    • How to Start
      “We won’t get there tomorrow, but maybe the day after” –
      Rufus Pollock
      Low-hanging fruit, Less conversational data and quick wins.
      Rebuild
      Fireout
      Expand, with more…..
      Data
      Services
      Efficiency
      Costs saving
      Transparency
      Participation
      Inclusion
      47
    • Summary
      Web, Data, and the Semantic Web
      The Web is not “Technology”. It is “humanity connected by technology”
      • Open Government Data is cost-effective tool for governments to improve service to citizens, civil society and business.
      • Linked Data and open data are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing.
      • Linked Data is data that is structured in such a way that data sets can be combined to create something greater than the sum of its parts.
      • Linked government data will interconnect different datasets across local governments, organizations, and nations.
      48
    • For more information contact Haklae Kim via
      haklae.kim@gmail.com
      Twitter: haklaekim
      Or read up on thesonagiblog at:
      http://blogweb.co.kr