PRESENTATION:THE PURITAN AGE OR THE AGE OfAGE OF MILTON(1600-1660)
THE PURITAN AGE ORTHE AGE OF MILTON The literature of the 17th century divided into two sub period: Jacobean period( JAMES 1st 1603- 1625) Caroline period( Charles 1st 1625- 1649)
Characteristics of puritan The writers of Puritan ages followed the paths of the great Renaissance writers. The spirit of science popularizes by great men like Newton, Bacon and Descartes. In literature the spirit infuses itself in the form of criticism, which was truly the creation of Puritan age.. People classified, analyzed, and systematized many things which were having no importance before that. English language was started being used as the medium for instruction and for storing the data and for conveying facts. Art of Biography popularized which was unknown in previous ages. Readers had become criticizers and asked for the facts and figures, so that they may judge and can take sides in the controversial matters. Puritanism is considered as the second greatest renaissance. Rebirth of the moral nature of man which followed intellectual awakening of Europe in 15th and 16th century. Puritan movement stood for the liberty of people of Europe. It aimed at making people free and honest.
Literature of the Puritan The temperament of the writers completely changed. The Function of Puritan Writers 1. To transform a mysterious God - mysterious because he is separate from the world. 2. To make him more relevant to the universe. 3. To glorify God. Puritan writing reflected the character and scope of the reading public, which was literate and well- grounded in religion. Common Themes in Early Puritan Writing 1. Idealism - both religious and political. 2. Pragmaticism - practicality and purposiveness
Puritan Period in British Literature (1603-1660) Civil war marred this period in England’s history. King Charles I and Parliament disagreed on many things and the fighting began between the Cavaliers—followers of the king— and the Puritans—a political group that served as Parliament’s chief supporter. King Charles I literally lost his head; the Puritans formed a Commonwealth. Even the theatres that had once showed the great dramas of Shakespeare and other Elizabethan playwrights were forced to closed. Despite the uptight atmosphere, great literature can be gleaned from this time Cavalier poets. He is famous for two of his satiric plays: Volpone and The Alchemist. John Bunyan, a Puritan preacher, is best known for his allegory, The Pilgrims Progress (Worlds Classics) Poetry Two main groups of poets existed in the time of Puritanism. John Donne and the Metaphysical Poets wrote poetry that rebelled against the flowery predictable comparisons—like teeth to pearls—of Elizabethan sonnets. They concentrated on more complicated symbols—like comparing two lovers to a compass. The King James Bible King James I, the father of Charles I, commissioned a translation of the Bible be written in the early years of the 17th century. Still widely-read to this day, The Holy Bible: King James Version brings
GENRETemperament was change from poetry to prose. Criticism(CYNISM –ve ).During puritan age political opposition were satire. Puritan taught the people hoe to be free & honest. BIOGRAPHY & AUTO BIOGRAPHY. Fuller & Aubrey wrote BIOGRAPHY & AUTO BIOGRAPHY of their contemporaries & near parts.
Puritan As Narrowminded After Charles 1 Cromwell become also a Dictatorship: st dictator. Common Recreation & past time were banned. Censorship board. Theaters were closed. Even they banned the male/female Interruption and Lolz. When we criticize Puritan as a Narrow minded we did not forget it__________ Aeropaegetica wrote by Milton against Censorship Board. Puritan were originated to make change in the worship but later on it become a national movement against the dictatorship of Charles 1st. Milton & Cromwell fought against Charles 1st. They stood For the liberty of people religious civil &
Puritan’sPoetry The School of Spenser Phineas Fletcher (1542-1648) He wrote many Spenserian pastorals & allegories. Famous work is ―The Purple Island‖ Giles fletcher (1583-1623) His famous work is ―Christ victore, Triumph, Earth over &after death. They were the followers of Spenser. They were both Priests & fellows of Cambridge University.
The MetaphysicalSchool The Poets were__________________ John Donne,Herric,ThomasCarew,Henry Vaughn, George Herbert & Lord Herbert. John Donne(1537-1631) was their leader. Their poetry characteristics were as Follow: They discussed far and fetched ideas. Full of logic & reasoning. Theme like love is experimented as in science laboratory. They dodge their readers.Hetrogenoius ideas are yoked together by force. Nature & Art destroyed. Artificiality came. Major works are "The progress of Soul‖ & ―The anatomy of world(Satirical Allegy)
Cavalier poets The Important poets were Herrick, Lovelace, suckling & Carew. They were the followers of Ben Johnson The Cavalier means (Royalist who fought on the side of the king during the civil war. Pseudo classicist. They only follow Ben in rules & regulation
John Milton(1608-1674) Wordsworth tribute. ―Thy soul was like a star, and dwelt apart. Grand & sublime poetry. It not only teaches us it motivates us & moves us & lifts us from the ground. It appears us in our inner sense. Milton was only Prominent writer in the puritan age. Strong & Complex personality religious and as well as Artist. He combine both the spirit of Renaissance & Reformation. Musical versification, spirits of freedom & morality in his poetry & prose. A great scholar of Hebrew language Early poetry. Sonnets & hymns
Milton paradise lost & Civilwar When the civil war broke out in 1642-1649 he became a Latin secretary to Cromwell. After civil war Milton found himself completely blind. After death of Cromwell he became friendless. Even his wife & daughter turned against him Milton girded his lions & wrote his greatest poetical works Paradise lost, Paradise Regained & Samson Agonistes. Subject matter is consist of_____________ The casting of Angles from Heaven. Their planning of revenge in Hell. Purpose is‖ to Justify the ways of God to men‖
Jacobean & Caroline Drama Declined in the hand of Fletcher & Beaumont. Elizabethan spirit disappear Theater closed True picture of the character was not there Intellectual & Scholar people did not come to the fore front. Only outwards show No mental and physical vigour. The Drama which achieved great heights during Elizabethan Period, suffered a terrible decline & when puritan closed theaters in 1642, it died its natural death.