Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Chapter 1
The Earth as a Rotating Plan...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Chapter Overview
The Shape of the Eart...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
The Shape of the Earth
The Earth is ro...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
The Shape of the Earth
The Earth is no...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
The Earth’s Rotation
Earth rotates on ...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
The Earth’s Rotation
Environmental Eff...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
The Geographic Grid
Parallels and Meri...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
The Geographic Grid
Parallels and Meri...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
The Geographic Grid
Latitude and Longi...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Map Projections
Many types of maps, fo...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Map Projections
Map Scale
Scale fracti...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Map Projections
Map projection: a syst...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Map Projections
Mercator projection: m...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Map Projections
Goode Projection: Equa...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Map Projections
Polar projection: map ...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Global Time
Standard Time: time system...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Global Time
World Time Zones
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Global Time
International Date Line
•1...
Visualizing Physical Geography
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc.
Global Time
Daylight Saving Time: cloc...
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shape of earth

  1. 1. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Chapter 1 The Earth as a Rotating Planet Visualizing Physical Geography by Alan Strahler and Zeeya Merali
  2. 2. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Chapter Overview The Shape of the Earth The Earth’s Rotation The Geographic Grid Map Projections Global Time The Earth’s Revolution Around the Sun
  3. 3. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. The Shape of the Earth The Earth is round
  4. 4. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. The Shape of the Earth The Earth is not a perfect sphere • Equatorial diameter slightly greater than polar diameter • Earth is an oblate ellipsoid–slightly flattened • The geoid exaggerates small departures from spherical
  5. 5. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. The Earth’s Rotation Earth rotates on its axis: •Counterclockwise at North Pole •Left to right (eastward) at Equator •One rotation is a solar day (24 hours) Axis: an imaginary straight line through the center of the Earth around which the Earth rotates Poles: the two points on the Earth’s surface where the axis of rotation emerges
  6. 6. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. The Earth’s Rotation Environmental Effects of the Earth’s Rotation: •Day and night •Fluctuating air temperature •Coriolis Effect •Tides
  7. 7. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. The Geographic Grid Parallels and Meridians Geographic grid: network of parallels and meridians used to fix location on the Earth Parallel: east-west circle on the Earth’s surface, lying on a plane parallel to the equator Meridian: north-south line on the Earth’s surface, connecting the poles
  8. 8. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. The Geographic Grid Parallels and Meridians Equator: Parallel of latitude lying midway between the Earth’s poles; it is designated latitude 0º • Longest parallel of latitude • Midway between poles • Fundamental reference line for measuring position Latitude: arc of a meridian between the equator and a given point on the globe Longitude: arc of a parallel between the prime meridian and a given point on the globe
  9. 9. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. The Geographic Grid Latitude and Longitude Latitude is measured north and south of the equator, up to 90º Longitude is measured east and west of the Prime Meridian— meridian that passes through Greenwich, England—up to 180º
  10. 10. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Map Projections Many types of maps, for many different purposes
  11. 11. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Map Projections Map Scale Scale fraction: a ratio that tells how to convert distance on the map to true distance on the Earth 1:50,000 1 unit of map distance=50,000 units of distance on the Earth
  12. 12. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Map Projections Map projection: a system of parallels and meridians representing the Earth’s curved surface drawn on a flat surface • Curved surface cannot be projected onto a flat sheet without distortion • Each map projection has a specific purpose • Each projection has advantages and drawbacks
  13. 13. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Map Projections Mercator projection: map projection with horizontal parallels and vertical meridians • Invented 1569 by Gerardus Mercator • Used for navigation • Scale increases from equator to poles • Straight line on the map is a line of constant compass bearing • Straight line on a Mercator projection not the shortest distance between two points
  14. 14. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Map Projections Goode Projection: Equal-area map projection often used to display information such as climate or soil type • Shows true sizes of regions on Earth’s surface • Distorts shapes of places, especially high latitudes and at edges of map
  15. 15. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Map Projections Polar projection: map projection centered on Earth’s North or South Pole • Used for maps of polar regions • Scale increases outward • Shows only one hemisphere
  16. 16. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Global Time Standard Time: time system based on the local time of a standard meridian and applied to belts of longitude extending roughly 7 ½ º on either side of the meridian Time zones: zones or belts within which standard time is applied
  17. 17. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Global Time World Time Zones
  18. 18. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Global Time International Date Line •180th meridian •Moving west across the date line: advance calendar one day •Moving east across date line: set calendar back one day •No change in clock time when crossing date line
  19. 19. Visualizing Physical Geography Copyright © 2008 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Inc. Global Time Daylight Saving Time: clocks set ahead one hour Not observed in all locations
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