Toward a Theory of Online Learning


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Chapter 2 from the book Theory and Practice of Online Learning

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Toward a Theory of Online Learning

  1. 1. Chapter 2 : Towards a Theory of Online LearningHAFIDZAH ABDUL AZIZ
  2. 2. TheSemanticWeb
  3. 3. The Semantic Web In Web 1 the scope of web pages are to just give out the information to the viewers as we see in TVs. In Web 2.0 WebPage became dynamic in behavior, they provide information and also accepts data from the viewers and produce results based on those data. The current version of Web we are using is Web 2.0. Web 3.0 provides a better efficient searching of the web using the semantics of the content in the pages. That means the search engines work not with the keywords we use to search, but with the meaning of the search query we gave. So the main and most important feature of Web 3.0 is Semantic Web.
  4. 4. Attributes of Learning
  5. 5. Learner-centered environments focus on theknowledge, skills, and attitudes that studentsbring to the learning situation.Instructors should be aware that students: bring knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs with them. may have misconceptions and biases. are often novices and have no construct knowledge.
  6. 6. Knowledge-centered environments focus oncontent that is organized around big ideas orcore concepts.Instructors can: help students organize knowledge. promote the idea that new information should make sense in context. promote learning ones way around the discipline. promote the qualitative as well as quantitative understanding.
  7. 7. Assessment-centered environments help students thinkingto become more visible so that both they and their teachersmay assess and revise their understanding. Online learning can provide many forms of assessment by both the instructor and peers. Well-designed online learning environments should encourage self-assessment . Online assessment can come in the form of computer- graded quizzes, simulation exercises and virtual labs, collaborative learning environments where students can assess their own growth and learning through virtual groups and automated tutors. For e-learning, the most difficult task is providing high quality and quantity of assessment, while at the same time maintaining student interest.
  8. 8. Community-centered environments capitalize on localexpertise to create a sense of collaboration amongstudents. A well designed online learning community will provide for a social environment. Based on Vygotskys "social cognition", a community- centred online learning environment will provide a space for students to work collaboratively in creating new knowledge. Members of these communities will support and challenge one another in an effort to create and build knowledge. Members of these communities feel a strong mutual sense of belonging to the community and thus, share a commitment to contributing and participating to the community of learning.
  9. 9. Affordancesof thenetworkenvironmentand theattributes of“How peoplelearn.”
  10. 10. Anderson’sModel ofOnlineLearning
  11. 11. The Role of Interaction in Online Learning Student / Student STUDENT Student / Content Student / Teacher CONTENT TEACHER Content / Content Teacher / Teacher Teacher / ContentModes of Interaction in Distance Education from Anderson and Garrison, (1998).
  12. 12. Anderson outlines six categories ofeducational interaction: Student-Student Interaction - Students construct and develop meaning and perspectives through peer interaction. Student-led teams can often result in higher levels of learning and a deeper understanding of material. Student-Content Interaction - The internet supports traditional forms of text-based but also provides for micro-environments, learning tutorials, and virtual labs.
  13. 13.  Student-Teacher Interaction - Interaction through asynchronous and synchronous communication such as audio, text, and video. Online learning in its best form is much less teacher centric in comparison to traditional classrooms. Teacher-Teacher Interaction - Assists teachers in professional development in a supportive community. Through these interactions, teachers can continue to build on their knowledge.
  14. 14.  Teacher-Content Interaction - This allows for teachers to be able to continually monitor, update and create new course activities and content. Content-Content Interaction - Programmed content interacts with other information to acquire new abilities. This allows for up-to-date sources of information. Tagging and RSS feeds provide can help facilitate this.
  15. 15. Benefits and Affordances of Online Learning Less constraints and more flexibility in participation, removal of distance problems. Highly flexible compared to traditional campus- based learning. Highly accessible for most people living in the developed world and continually improving in less- developed nations. Online learning content is easily updateable and revisable. Access to a vast quantity of information. Highly compatible with constructivist learning theory as students can work towards a desired learning path.
  16. 16. The Barriers of Online LearningWhile the benefits and affordances of onlinelearning are great, some barriers exist including: Less flexible than thought even with the ability of asynchronous communication. Access to the internet can be a concern in less-developed nations. Access to the internet can be problematic for people with physical disabilities.
  17. 17.