Transfer of Knowledge:Far TransferAttika Yuli Indriyani :: Hafidzah Abdul Aziz :: Miss Salak Tapsen
Knowledge Management ! “Knowledge Management” is a systematic approach to create, find, capture, understand, use and transfer knowledge important to the organization’s operation, mission and vision.Sources: http://www.documents.dgs.ca.gov/ohr/training/KTMToolkit/KTM_Toolkit.pdf
Types of Knowledge ! Tacit Knowledge - this knowledge in their heads on a subconscious level and may not communicate it often. It is considered valuable knowledge as it may provide context for experiences, ideas, people and places. ! Explicit Knowledge - Easy to capture and store in databases and documents (e.g. policies, procedures, and manuals). v Structured – Informational elements are organized for future retrieval (e.g. databases and spreadsheets). v Unstructured – Information is not referenced for retrieval (e.g. e-mails, images, and audio/video selections).Sources: http://www.documents.dgs.ca.gov/ohr/training/KTMToolkit/KTM_Toolkit.pdf
Knowledge Transfer ! “Knowledge Transfer” is the process to extract and transfer tacit knowledge and/or facilitate learning explicit knowledge. ! The knowledge must both be learned and usable in a relevant context; and if both conditions do not exist, the knowledge has not been transferred.Sources: http://www.documents.dgs.ca.gov/ohr/training/KTMToolkit/KTM_Toolkit.pdf
Kind of Knowledge Transfer! Nancy distinguishes between 5 kinds of Knowledge Transfer: v Serial Transfer v Near Transfer v Far Transfer v Strategic Transfer v Expert Transfer Nancy Dixon’s classic book on Knowledge Transfer, Common Knowledge: How Companies Thrive by Sharing What They Know
Transfer Learning: Near & Far ! Transfer of learning can be divided into two categories, Near and Far (Cree, Macaulay, 2000). ! Interventions for transferring knowledge depend on the way the knowledge is going to be used. ² If the knowledge is going to be used to handle novel situations, it is referred to a “far” transfer. ² When the knowledge is applied to a routine situation the type of transfer is called a “near” transfer. References:Cree, V. E., Macaulay, C. (2000). Transfer of Learning In Professional and Vocational Education. Routledge, London: Psychology Press.
Far Transfer! Far transfer tasks involve skills and knowledge being applied in situations that change.! Far transfer tasks require instruction where learners are trained to adapt guidelines to changing situations or environments. Although this type of training is more difficult to instruct (transfer of learning is less likely), it does allow the learner to adapt to new situations.! Far Transfer is a tacit knowledge a team has gained doing nonroutine tasks is transferred to other teams doing similar work in other parts of the organization
Advantages & Disadvantages! One of the benefits of far transfer is that once the skills and knowledge are acquired, the learner is able to make judgments and adapt to different situations.! The disadvantage of far transfer is that far transfer skills and knowledge are more difficult to instruct and transfer of learning is therefore less likely (Clark, 1999) .! Far knowledge is more costly to transfer than near knowledge for it requires higher degree of conceptualization and longer period of experience.
! Far transfer occurs when knowledge is successfully used for solving novel problems such as learning the principles of Knowledge Economics and applying that knowledge to highly novel problems. For example, India and the Knowledge Economy assesses India’s progress in becoming a knowledge economy and suggests actions to strengthen the economic and institutional regime, develop educated and skilled workers, create an efficient innovation system, and build a dynamic information infrastructure.
! This is an example of far transfer. A person who learned the principles of wind flow to design a windmill can transfer that knowledge to direct the sail on a sailboat.