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  • 1. ARTICLE IN PRESSThe International Information & Library Review (2008) 40, 104–111 Available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/iilrDigital media education for Korean youthHan Woo Parka,Ã, J. Patrick Biddixba Department of Communication and Information, YeungNam University, South Koreab Valdosta State University, Georgia, USASummaryAs youth in contemporary societies grow increasingly dependent on digital media, mediaeducation has become a policy consideration, particularly in wired parts of the non-Western world. Due to rapid adoption rates, media penetration, and positive attitudestoward new and innovative technologies, Korea presents an ideal test case forunderstanding the everyday impact of digital media. The purpose of this paper is toexamine the national policies and public discourse concerning digital media education in arapidly growing market. Specifically, this study considers the development of astandardized educational program for youth in Korea. To frame this analysis, we presentan overview of the types of digital media education and trends at the national policy levelamong English-speaking countries. This is supported by a review of literature focusing onthe use of digital media among youth, supplemented by current digital media usagestatistics among Korean youth and an overview of Korean government policy programs. Acase study of Web site analysis is presented to illustrate implications and stimulatediscussion regarding educational policy.& 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.As youth in contemporary societies grow increasingly though limited research has addressed youth digital mediadependent on digital media, media education has become education in academic and policy spheres (Hargrave &a policy consideration, particularly in wired parts of the Livingstone, 2006).non-Western world. In our modern digital age, today’s youth The purpose of this paper is to examine the nationalare more reliant than any previous generation on new policies and public discourse concerning digital mediatechnologies for entertainment as well as communications- education in a rapidly growing market. Specifically, thisrelated, educational, and occupational reasons (Lenhart, study considers the development of a standardized educa-Madden, & Hitlin, 2005). For parents, terms describing tional program for youth in Korea. To frame this analysis, we‘‘safety in cyberspace,’’ and ‘‘control of Internet use’’ have present an overview of the types of digital media educationbecome synonymous with media education (Fleming, Green- and international trends at the national policy level. This istree, Cocotti-Muller, Elias, & Morrison, 2006) in the home, supported by a review of literature focusing on the use of digital media among youth, supplemented by current ÃCorresponding author. Tel.: +82 53 810 2275; digital media usage statistics among Korean youth and anfax: +82 16 9812 4460. overview of Korean government policy programs. A case E-mail address: hanpark@ynu.ac.kr (H.W. Park). study of Web site analysis is presented to illustrate URL: http://www.hanpark.net (H.W. Park). implications and stimulate discussion regarding educational1057-2317/$ - see front matter & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.iilr.2007.12.003
  • 2. ARTICLE IN PRESSDigital media education for Korean youth 105policy. The referent term, youth, describes adolescents important for both empowerment and protection of youth.ranging from 13 to 18 years of age. For example, free (or affordable) distribution of filtering software among young people is crucial in order to dissuadeAims and scope of digital media education them from accessing illegal content transmitted through digital media.The pragmatic aim of digital media education is two-fold:empowerment and protection. The empowerment aspect Digital skillseeks to help young people learn how to make the best useof new digital media and content that is conveyed throughthe media; the protection aspect focuses on shielding young Material access issues (including possession of hardware/people from new media influences that might be harmful to software) can be resolved through the physical availabilitydevelopment. According to research in the field of informa- of suitable digital media, but there may be a gap in digitaltion science and media education (Cheong, 2006; Domaille & skills among youth. From the perspective of informationBuckingham, 2001; Eastin & LaRose, 2000; Hargrave & ethics and philosophy, Takenouchi (2006, forthcoming)Livingstone, 2006; Livingstone & Bober, 2004; Machill, 2002; noted that promoting digital media education as a nationalPark, 2002b; Rafaeli & Ariel, 2005; van Dijk, 2005), digital policy among youth in Asian countries may foster a skill- ormedia education is generally referred to as ‘‘digital media techno-centered mechanical world, contributing to theliteracy’’ and can be subdivided into three domains: (1) growth and development of ‘‘multi-mode’’ mental func-awareness, (2) hardware/software access, and (3) digital tions. Moreover, digital skill is believed to be central toskill. helping youth make the most of the benefits arising from technological innovation, while concurrently leading to more informed judgments regarding content and usage inAwareness cyberspace. Aspects of digital media skills include: technical literacy,The goal of media education for youth is to raise awareness informational literacy, and communication literacy, whichof the increasing importance of digital media in everyday should be viewed as complementary skills. Technical literacylife. From the protectionist’s perspective, application of this involves the operation of individual digital media. Educationdomain cautions the potential and present dangers of digital in technical skills enables young people to diagnose andmedia. Conducting public campaigns can be an effective solve technical problems (e.g., malfunctions or viruses) onmeans to achieve this goal, though Domaille and Bucking- their own. The understanding and use of some computerham (2001) identified a contemporary shift toward languages (e.g., HTML, Java) is also a part of technicalnotions of critical awareness and democratic participation literacy. Informational literacy includes the ability toapproaches. effectively retrieve, access, and utilize information. Using Livingstone and her colleagues (Livingstone & Bober, improved digital media, young people with appropriate2004; Livingstone, Bober, & Helsper, 2004) conducted a literacy levels for a given activity can organize, transform,government-sponsored project titled ‘‘UK children go on- and exchange information in a number of ways depending online’’ (http://www.children-go-online.net) and found that when and how it is needed. In particular, the primarytoday’s digital media affords important opportunities such element of newly invented digital media is interactivityas informal learning and participation among young people. (Rafaeli & Ariel, 2005). As interactive digital media requiresHowever, not all of the available opportunities were the active involvement of the user, youths who haveuniformly utilized. More recently, Cheong (2006) conducted insufficient information literacy levels are rarely motivateda research project on the Internet among young adults to creatively use their skills (Eastin & LaRose, 2000).(age 15–24 years) in Singapore sponsored by and in Through the education of information literacy, young peoplecollaboration with the National Youth Council. Contrary to are then better equipped to employ digital media to seek,the popular vision of youth as a group of technically savvy select, and utilize information in learning, working, andexperts, her findings reveal substantial variations in the use problem-solving.of digital media among youth. In other words, Singaporean Communication literacy broadly refers to the ability toyouth showed considerable differences in their Internet interact with others using digital media in various contexts.expertise and problem-solving behaviors, with some demon- This is synonymous with communicative competence, or thestrating limited knowledge of Internet use and awareness of ability to accurately express oneself and to actively networktroubleshooting strategies. with others using digital media. For instance, rules for Internet behavior in discussion groups, chatrooms, and blogsHardware/software access should be taught to improve the process of both information exchange and knowledge transfer. Since cyberspace isThere may be inequality in accessing new digital equipment becoming a common gathering place for today’s youth,and services among young people. When it comes to netiquette (e.g., the use of friendly language, favorableadvanced digital media such as mobile phones, PMP avatars, appropriate smileys, etc.) may be increasingly(portable media players), and MP3 players, material access important for young people. Recent studies reveal that theto technology can be limited. In this case, media education online and offline worlds of teenagers are seamlesslysuggests a hardware-oriented approach. For instance, connected, leading to a digital media dependency foreducational targets lie in the realization of equitable access activities ranging from managing their daily lives to buildingto and utilization of digital media. Material access is also and maintaining virtual communities (McMillan & Morrison,
  • 3. ARTICLE IN PRESS106 H.W. Park, J.P. Biddix2006; Thomas, 2006). Because English is the international optional courses in media studies as well as in specialistlanguage of Internet-mediated communication, a lack of media arts colleges with a stronger curricular mediafluency in English can cause a lack of access to information component. Student learning in specialist courses is formally(Park & Thelwall, 2006). This points to the importance of assessed via written essays, practical tasks, and evaluationEnglish for communication literacy among youth in non- work in the fields of media language, media institutions,English-speaking countries. media audiences, and representation. However, curricular media education is generally not assessed, either by teachers or examiners, nor is it documented by schoolTrends in digital media education in English- inspections. Another issue is the lack of formal training inspeaking countries media education for teachers. Government agencies (e.g., Department of Culture, Media and Sport) continue toIn this section, the findings of the ‘‘Youth Media Education address the need for more consistent curriculum-basedSurvey 2001’’ conducted by the United Nations Educational training for teachers, as well as for clear policy on mediaScientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (Domaille & education. The representative organization is the BritishBuckingham, 2001) are summarized to examine trends in Film Institute (http://www.bfi.org.uk). The British Filmyouth digital media education among three English-speaking Institute, a government-funded body, has played a key rolecountries. We present responses from survey and interview in the development of media education, particularly indata from three countries that have relatively sophisticated relation to moving-image media of film and television, overmedia education systems at the national level: Canada, the last 50 years.Australia, and England. The examples provided by these three countries with As of September 2000, media education in Canada has well-established media education systems have significantlybecome a mandatory component of the language arts influenced other parts of worlds. As Domaille and Bucking-curriculum. Canadian media studies courses are concerned ham (2001) summarize, media education has tended towith helping students develop a critical understanding of move away from an approach based on inoculation towardsmass media, the techniques used by mass media organiza- one based on empowerment. However, educators in manytions, and the impact of these techniques. Up to 30% of the countries still provide basic print literacy. Digital mediaoverall assessment in media education can be practical in education is only just beginning to be identified as a nationalfocus. The curriculum benefits from well-established part- policy concern.nerships in Canada between media educators and mediaproducers. For example, the cable broadcaster CHUM-TV hassupplied programming in support of media education goals Digital media usage by Korean youthas well as providing funding for networks for mediaeducation. In some respects, the situation in Canada seems Due to rapid adoption rates, media penetration, andquite well advanced but there is little specific teacher positive attitudes toward new and innovative technologies,education or training on the study or use of screen-based Korea is an ideal test case for understanding the everydaymedia. Teachers often come from language/literature impact of digital media. As of December 2005, Korea had thebackgrounds and extrapolate their media curricula on the 13th highest Internet penetration, according to the mostbasis of areas of interest they may have informally recent data available from Internet World Stats (http://developed. Canadian organizations related to media educa- www.internetworldstats.com). About two-thirds (0.66 or,tion are as follows: Media Awareness Network (http:// 33.9 of 50.6 million) of the Korean population accessed thewww.media-awareness.ca/), Association for Media Literacy Internet as of December 2005.(http://www.aml.ca), and Canadian Association of Media According to the National Internet Development AgencyEducation Organizations (CAMEO) (http://interact.uoregon. of Korea (hereafter NIDA) (2006), the Internet usage rate ofedu/MediaLit/CAMEO). people aged 6–19 is 97.8% of the 9.15 million people in that In Australia, media education is a substantial part of the demographic. Further, more than 80% of middle- (83.6%) andlanguage curriculum. Australian schools are well equipped high-school students (89.3%) access the Internet throughwith a range of digital media and new learning technologies wireless connections (NIDA, 2005). Youths (aged 12–19) whofor material access. Provision of media education in have their own mobile phones use the Internet 6.7 times perAustralia varies somewhat by state, but the shared goal is week. In the case of the most recent media DMB (Digitalto yield critical consumers and to provide opportunities for Multimedia Broadcasting), young people’s (between 12 andpractical production. Media education tends to be focused 19) awareness of DMB has increased rapidly from 17.5% inwithin schools, and there is relatively little collaboration 2004 to 54.0% in 2005. Overall, teenagers used onlinewith youth groups or industry. More importantly, only community and email services more than any other group astrained media studies teachers are appointed to teach the of June 2005 (Korea Internet Safety Commission (hereafter,subject. The representative Australian organization related KISCOM), 2005).to media education is the Australian Teachers of Media It is important to note that optimistic visions of Korea’s(ATOM) (http://www.atomvic.org). ATOM is an independent, information society based on the development of digitalnon-profit, professional organization of media educators and infrastructure (usually gauged in terms of broadbandmedia industry representatives. Internet subscribers and the penetration of digital media) As compared to other countries, English media education have been criticized by some scholars. Critical evaluationsis the most firmly established in the curriculum. This is report that utopian approaches tend to veil a newlyidentifiable by the continuous expansion of specialist appearing digital divide (Park, 2002b; van Dijk, 2005) and
  • 4. ARTICLE IN PRESSDigital media education for Korean youth 107distort the social discourse on the consequences of new government should be able to identify those mediadigital technologies in Korea (Kim, 2006). that encourage activities that are dangerous or illegal, the NYC provides young people with freely available access prevention tools (e.g., http://youth.go.kr/bd/bd01000.asp,Policy and practice of digital media education http://www.webclean21.org).in Korea However, digital access education in Korea as it is currently implemented is not as effective as educationThis section reviews current trends in national-level youth concerning the established media (e.g., television, radio,policies related to digital media education. Korea has film, magazine, and advertising). Youths are well aware ofattempted a sophisticated educational framework with what governmental filtering labels on traditional media withmany different media, although a formally established harmful, violent, or pornographic messages mean, thoughmedia educational curriculum currently does not exist. For digital media present new challenges. Concerning thetwo decades, media education in schools has been largely a difficulties of critical access education on new digital mediacomponent of Korean Language courses. The primary in real-life settings, Hargrave and Livingstone (2006) state:curricular focus has been to educate students on the ability The newer technologies (including video but also theto selectively receive and critically understand political, Internet and mobile communications) allow contentcommercial, violent, and sexual messages through tradi- to be seen out of context. One may see sets of trailerstional mass media, particularly television and newspaper. rather than the storyline in which to put the content.Since the widespread dissemination of the Internet in the Editorial context has always been important in contentearly 2000s, digital media education has been introduced in regulation guidelines (e.g., BBFC, Ofcom), but it mayelective courses (e.g., pre-vocational courses) as well as in prove difficult to build into parallel guidelines for newsocial studies. In practice however, digital media education media. However, it is clear from research on children’sappears to take place unsystematically as compared to accidental exposure to pornography on the Internet thatconventional media education. unexpected and decontextualised content can be parti- Since the widespread adoption of multifarious digital cularly upsetting. This poses a challenge for regulators.media among youth, the Korean government has enacted (p. 205)policies to increase the awareness of newly developingdigital media (e.g., electronic boards, mobile phones, PMP,etc.) through public communications including campaigns To further enhance information and communicationand experiential activities. E-learning and u-learning literacy, the NYC has recently extended the activity scope(ubiquitous learning) have become buzzwords among of teachers who guide youth in digital media educationpolicy-makers, particularly in the Ministry of Education (NYC, 2005). Traditionally, teachers are expected to adhere(hereafter MOE). A number of media ranging from book-style to basic duties of youth development. With the increasingpamphlets to exhibition centers are used as efficient importance of digital media education aimed at youngchannels to inform young people and to boost their people, prospective teachers as well as those already inawareness and knowledge of digital technologies. For service are now offered training courses to inform them onexample, the Ministry of Information and Communication how to reduce young people’s exposure to inappropriate(hereafter MIC) recently built a ‘‘Ubiquitous Dream Hall’’ online materials. Since 2002, the Korean government has2005 (http://www.ubiquitousdream.or.kr) for youth to offered teacher guides, free counseling services for youth,experience educational environments that have changed and has trained counselors to help prevent harmful digitaldue to the development of digital media. media exposure (Korean Agency for Digital Opportunity To enhance public access to digital media, the MOE (hereafter, KADO, 2006)). In 2004, the NYC developed aimplemented a comprehensive plan for a two-phase ‘‘cyber-ethics indicator’’ and has attempted to treat youngeducation information system between 2001 and 2005 people who suffer from the side effects of digital media(MOE, 2005). This vigorous policy program has improved (NYC, 2005).the digital infrastructures within schools that had previously The Korean government is ardently committed to im-lacked access to computers and the Internet. In the case of plementing digital media education programs for youngmiddle- and high-school students in Korea, Internet use rate people, partially in response to youth unemployment.was close to 100% in September 2005 (NIDA, 2006). The Software education has been provided for low-incomereport notes that the most frequently used place to access teenagers to promote technical literacy since 1999 (KADO,the Internet by young people (6–19) is at home (99.1%). 2006). In addition, education programs for helping youthCommercial public access facilities such as Internet cafes ´ enter the workforce were introduced in 2005. Since 2002,(25.2%) and school (22.7%) follow. online software education programs have also been afforded To inform youth about unsafe media influences, the to teenagers in regions where physical education centers doNational Youth Commission (hereafter NYC), began a not exist. For example, online bimonthly programs are‘‘regularly monitoring project’’ focused on popular digital available on the Web (http://www.estudy.or.kr). Moreover,media outlets among Korea’s youth population. Examples a public participation Web site was established by theincluded online games, online chatting, community Web government to allow young people to exchange jointlysites, and mobile content (NYC, 2006). The dozens of suicide created content (http://www.youthdream.go.kr).Web sites in which teenagers discuss killing themselves or One of the most intriguing recent phenomena in Korea hasgroup suicide are examples of the unsafe media influence been the creation of an information and communicationamong online communities. On the premise that the ethics textbook for middle- and high-school students in early
  • 5. ARTICLE IN PRESS108 H.W. Park, J.P. Biddix2006 (KADO, 2006). To our knowledge, to date, no country Data collectionhas developed a nationally authorized textbook for middle-and high-school students that specializes in the socio-ethical A listing of Korea’s Web sites related to the digital mediaaspects of digital media. The Korean government expects education of youth was collected via a manual GoogleTMthe textbook to help reinforce the importance of digital crawl. Although the Web can be considered a globalizedethics in schools and to further develop resource-based system, specific national domains can be searched by usinglearning experiences to increase students’ media literacy the ccTLD (country code Top Level Domain); for example,within the context of school curricula. using ‘‘.kr’’ for Korea and/or the national language, which is In addition, other agencies and groups sponsor similar in this case Korean. The detailed search command wasinitiatives aimed at digital media education. For example, ‘‘youth digital media education site:.kr’’. This specificationthe Korea Press Foundation (hereafter KPF) attached enabled a search confined to the national Web sites of Koreadirectly to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism (hereafter which included the words ‘‘youth,’’ ‘‘digital,’’ ‘‘media,’’ andMOCT) holds a number of media education programs. ‘‘education.’’ These particular search terms were selectedThe KPF focuses on linking professional journalists based on the review of literature and current educational(especially retired journalists) with students so that initiatives in Korea, as previously summarized. We limitedyouths can experience media production. Also, there are the GoogleTM search to only those Web sites that had beenseveral private courses by NGOs (non-governmental organi- updated in the year preceding our study. Data collection waszations), civic and advocacy organizations, media providers conducted on July 27, 2006. The GoogleTM search yielded(e.g., press organizations, digital media manufacturers, 364 Web sites, comprising 54.8% of the total potential 664content providers, etc.), and academic associations in Web sites in Korea’s domain containing the four searchKorea. terms. The titles and the introductory text of the 364 sites In summary, the policies and practices of digital media were then copied from the search results for analysis.education in Korea are not pervasive among all componentsof governmental agency. The aforementioned NYC was Analysis procedurecreated on May 2, 2005 to contend with Korea’s youth-related policies including digital and other media education. To analyze input data, we first identified the mostBut the NYC has been unable to unite the various programs frequently used words. These encompass key words, majorof media education undertaken by other governmental issues, or salient symbols represented in the text (Park,agencies. Arguably, this is mostly due to the bureaucratic 2002a). Second, we examined semantic associations withinstructure of the Korean government. Governmental institu- the sample, since words tend to render a particular meaningtions have invested considerable financial and human when combined with other words in a specific form (Doerfelresources to develop and operate new policy domains & Barnett, 1999). For example, ‘‘mass’’ and ‘‘media’’ areregarding youth digital media education. two words that together create the concept ‘‘mass media.’’ The development and expansion of current efforts, This procedure allows content categories to emerge fromcoupled with future considerations, suggested the need for the data (in this case, text clippings from the 364 Web sites).a study of digital media education for Korean youth within Lastly, to display individual key words and semanticthe contemporary global dialog. First, we shall examine Web relations among the words, we employed social networksites related to Korean youth’s digital media education in visualization techniques. We completed the textual analysisorder to explore the presentation of educational offerings. using the FullText software developed by LeydesdorffThen we shall attempt to develop a public discourse frame (1995). For social network visualization, we turned to theby examining the components of current online educational NetDraw function embedded in the UCINET programprograms in order to frame recommendations for extending (Borgatti, Everett, & Freeman, 2002).contemporary policies and practices. ResultsMethod The 10 most frequently appearing words were EDUCATION,The purpose of this case study is to obtain an exploratory YOUTH, DIGITAL, and MEDIA, followed by CAMERA, KOREA,description of public discourse surrounding digital media INFORMATION, NEW, WORLD, JOURNAL, and IT. Given thateducation aimed at Korean youth. To accomplish this, we the Web sites were those related to digital media educationexamine the Web representation using a webometric for youth, key symbols represented in the Korean Webapproach. Webometrics applies quantitative techniques to domain appear to be words related to new technology andvarious information and communication aspects of the policy. The word EDUCATION occurred 265 times, whichWeb using links and words contained in Web documents comprised 2.5% of the total words in the Web site texts.(Thelwall, Vaughan, & Bjorneborn, 2005). Similar to ¨ YOUTH appeared 247 times (2.3%), DIGITAL 239 timesscientometric analysis, the webometric approach evaluates (2.2%), and MEDIA 207 (2.0%). The sum occurrence of thethe internal communication structure of the Web system in four words is 958 times (9.1%). The high frequencies ofterms of content frequency and the relationship among the the four words altogether may be taken as an indicator ofwords in Web sites (Park, Hong, & Leydesdorff, 2005). the validity of the data collection in this research, as theyWebometrics has been adopted in information communica- served as search terms.tion science to investigate public perception of Web content The next most often mentioned words included some(Leydesdorff & Hellsten, 2005). attention-grabbers. For example, CAMERA and IT were used
  • 6. ARTICLE IN PRESSDigital media education for Korean youth 10942 and 28 times, respectively. The word CAMERA was used words and connected words in the center of the diagram.several times with DIGITAL, which suggests that media Other nodes are iteratively repositioned with a relaxededucation concerning DIGITAL CAMERA is popular in Korea. length proportional to the edge length.However, we discovered no discernible trends within the set When we apply network visualization techniques, theof prominent words that included the four most frequently semantic network among the words looks like the spoke of aoccurring words. wheel. A spoke at a larger level of aggregation suggests that A list of the most frequently occurring 64 key words (those the most frequently occurring four words have a significantdetected at least 10 times) are summarized in Table 1. The number of relations (i.e., co-occurrence) with others.total number of words used for the input data was 10,480. However, this makes it difficult to determine categories orAll non-essential grammar terms such as articles, conjunc- themes to describe a public discourse frame. Except for thetions, prepositions, transitive verbs, and other problematic search terms, other top words are scattered and rarely formwords specified by the researcher were removed from the a single group. As mentioned earlier, one possible reason isoverall calculation of key words. that the Web has some valuable resources that various A visualization analysis using NetDraw illustrates the organizations use. Relevant words are strictly aligned withsemantic connectivity among the 64 words. As shown in prominent words. Nonetheless, we are able to find someFigure 1, circles represent the 64 most frequently occurring weak groupings, although they are not as strongly organizedwords while lines indicate the semantic relationships among as independent semantic clusters. Figure 1 indicates thatthem. The thickness of the lines is proportional to the co- technology-related terms (e.g., CAMERA, IT, WEB, etc.) haveoccurrence of frequencies between two words but when the the strongest relationship with the top four words.value between two words is below the average 2.70(S.D. ¼ 9.05) lines are omitted. During this process, weused Kamada and Kawai’s (1989) algorithm (available in the Policy recommendationsNetDraw feature) to place the most frequently occurring The examination of domestic and international trends framing this analysis suggests that the Korean government Table 1 Key words used more than 10 times. should provide appropriate opportunities within a range of curriculum areas to teach safe and responsible use of digital Frequency Keyword Frequency Keyword media. Since access to early digital media, i.e., personal computers and the Internet, are already pervasive among 265 EDUCATION 15 GOVERNMENT Korean youths, future efforts need to focus on an under- 247 YOUTH 15 HUMAN standing of the role and the effects of both general digital 239 DIGITAL 15 MANAGEMENT media and newly emerging media on the individual and on 207 MEDIA 14 MINISTRY society. 42 CAMERA 13 COMMUNICATION Further, the Web site analysis provides a social landscape 42 KOREA 13 COMPUTER of digital media education. Overall, the general Korean 39 INFORMATION 13 ELECTRONIC public seems to be less engaged in digital media education 33 NEW 13 GROUP for youth than was expected. If digital media education is to 31 WORLD 13 PEOPLE become a major concern of the general public, the Korean 30 JOURNAL 13 RESEARCH government must ardently seek to establish new ways by 28 IT 13 SEOUL which all members of society, especially parents and media 27 SCIENCE 13 WEB providers (including device manufacturers), can actively 26 INTERNET 13 WORK participate in the discussion of digital media education. 26 UNIVERSITY 13 YOUNG Digital media education programs need to be quickly 25 CULTURE 12 LEARNING formulated to enhance technical, informational, and com- 25 SERVICE 12 NATIONAL munications-related skills in order to expand critical 24 INTERNATIONAL 12 REPORT awareness among youth. There is no standardized textbook 24 REVIEW 12 RESOURCE to integrate these three elements of digital skills and overall 22 TECHNOLOGY 12 SCHOOL assessment tools are not available in schools. The central 21 CHILDREN 12 SPORT government (probably, a consortium body of the NYC and 21 TRAINING 11 BROADCASTING other relevant agencies) could play a crucial role in 20 CONTENT 11 DEPARTMENT establishing a formal and standardized educational package 20 KOREAN 11 ENVIRONMENTAL that is similar to the information and communication ethics 20 SYSTEM 11 HOME textbook, composed of class materials for student practice 19 ART 11 LIBRARY and assessment indicators for student progress in digital 19 SOCIAL 11 SOCIETY media education. This text could be paired with an online 18 DEVELOPMENT 10 COUNCIL peer learning component to enhance learning through 18 PROGRAM 10 HIGHER collaboration. 17 E 10 ONLINE The Internet can be an effective channel and a rich 15 CENTER 10 PLAN resource to provide easy and cost efficient access to 15 COMMUNITY 10 SATELLITE information. To capitalize on this potential, online knowl- 15 DESIGN 10 WWW edge-sharing networks need to be created. In other words, n ¼ 10,480. programs could be developed to educate youth in the use of
  • 7. ARTICLE IN PRESS110 H.W. Park, J.P. Biddix Figure 1 A diagram of semantic relations among the 64 key words.digital media through shared participation in an online peer Doerfel, Marya, & Barnett, George (1999). A semantic networkcommunity. However, it should be noted that there is analysis of the International Communication Association. Humanwidespread concern that the rapid spread of digital Communication Research, 25(4), 589–603.technologies is encouraging a purely technical emphasis in Domaille, Kate, & Buckingham, David. (2001). Youth mediadigital media education that is lacking in critical thinking or education survey 2001. UNESCO (United Nations Educationalquestioning (Domaille & Buckingham, 2001). Such skills Scientific and Cultural Organisation). Eastin, Matthew, & LaRose, Robert. (2000). Internet self-efficacyshould be incorporated into the educational curriculum, and the psychology of the digital divide. Journal of Computer-both in the text and as part of the online content. Mediated Communication, 6(1). Retrieved April 15, 2007, from: Lastly, the Korean government should propose an inter- /http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol6/issue1/eastin.htmlS.national alliance network specializing in digital media Fleming, Michelle, Greentree, Shane, Cocotti-Muller, Dayana, Elias,education towards youth. In cooperation with major IGOs Kristy, & Morrison, Sarah (2006). Safety in cyberspace: Adolescents’(international governmental organizations, e.g., UNESCO) safety and exposure online. Youth and Society, 38(2), 135–154.and all the key stakeholders, Korea should create an action Hargrave, Andrea, & Livingstone, Sonia (2006). Harm and offence inplan for digital media education. Prior to this, the media content: A review of the evidence. Bristol, UK: Intellectgovernment should formulate broad policy recommenda- Books.tions and institutional measures to educate youth about Kim, Pyungho (2006). Is Korea a strong Internet nation? Thecyber-safety responsibilities. Information Society, 22, 41–44. Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity (KADO). (2006). Digital opportunity white paper. Korea, Seoul.Acknowledgments Korea Internet Safety Commission (KISCOM). (2005). A report about the use of Internet information: Unlawful and harmful information to youths.The authors are particularly grateful for contributions from Lenhart, Amanda, Madden, Mary, & Hitlin, Paul. (2005). Teens andJi-Eun Han and Ae-Jin Bae, assistants in the New Media and technology: Youth are leading the transition to a fully wired andSociety Laboratory. Also my sincere thanks go to Dr. Leslie mobile nation. Pew Internet and American Life Project.Tkach-Kawasaki for valuable comments on the earlier Retrieved April 15, 2007, from: /http://www.pewinternet.version of this draft. org/PPF/r/162/report_display.aspS. Leydesdorff, Loet (1995). The challenge of scientometrics: The development, measurement, and self-organization of scientificReferences communications. Leiden: DSWO Press, Leiden University Retrieved April 15, 2007, from: /http://www.upublish.com/Borgatti, Stephen, Everett, Martin, & Freeman, Linton (2002). books/leydesdorff-sci.htmS. UCINET for Windows. Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies. Leydesdorff, Loet, & Hellsten, Iina (2005). Metaphors and diaphorsCheong, Pauline. (2006). The young and techless? Investigating in science communication: Mapping the case of stem-cell Internet use and problem-solving behaviors of youths in research. Science Communication, 27(1), 64–99. Singapore. Paper presented at the 2006 annual conference Livingstone, Sonia, & Bober, Magdalena (2004). Taking up online of the International Communication Association. Dresden, opportunities? Children’s uses of the Internet for education, Germany. communication and participation. E-Learning, 1(3), 395–419.
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