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Secondary 3NA Geography(E) Weather and Climate
 

Secondary 3NA Geography(E) Weather and Climate

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Secondary 3NA Geography(E)

Secondary 3NA Geography(E)
Chapter 2
Weather and Climate

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  • During summer, the air over the land heats up quickly while the sea remains cool as the sea gains heat slower than land.The cooler air over the seas helps lower the temperature of the areas along the coast, leading to cooler summers.
  • During winter, the sea remains relatively warm compared to the air over the land because the sea takes a longer time to lose heat.The warmer air over the seas helps to raise the temperature of the coastal areas, leading to warmer winters.
  • While there are many substances that act as greenhouse gases, two of the most important are water and carbon dioxide, or CO2.
  • While there are many substances that act as greenhouse gases, two of the most important are water and carbon dioxide, or CO2.
  • Natural causes: Release of methane gas from arctic tundra's and wetlands. Earth’s natural climate change cycle. Usually lasts around 40,000 --- Some believe that global warming is a natural occurrence as the earth travel’s through a natural cycle, whether mankind contributed or not.Cow manure releases methane.Sun spots are exploding, raising heat levels.Volcano eruptions increase gases and damage plants.Man-made causes:Cars: Emit harmful gases.Air travel: Carbon from fuel bonds with oxygen in air to form C02.Deforestation: Limiting the number of trees reduces the amount of C02 being converted to oxygen.4. Population: The more people, the greater need for transportation, food, etc = more burning of fossil fuels and respired CO2
  • The melting of polar ice caps is a major effect of Global Warming. There are four occurrences that follow:First, it will raise sea levels. There are 5,773,000 cubic miles of water in ice caps, glaciers, and permanent snow. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, if all glaciers melted today the seas would rise about 230 feet. Luckily, that’s not going to happen all in one go! But sea levels will rise.Second, melting ice caps will throw the global ecosystem out of balance. The ice caps are fresh water, and when they melt they will desalinate the ocean, or in plain English - make it less salty. The desalinization of the gulf current will “screw up” ocean currents, which regulate temperatures. The stream shutdown or irregularity would cool the area around north-east America and Western Europe. Luckily, that will slow some of the other effects of global warming in that area!Third, temperature rises and changing landscapes in the artic circle will endanger several species of animals. Only the most adaptable will survive.Fourth, global warming could snowball with the ice caps gone. Ice caps are white, and reflect sunlight, much of which is relected back into space, further cooling Earth. If the ice caps melt, the only reflector is the ocean. Darker colors absorb sunlight, further warming the Earth.
  • Scientists learn about the past climate conditions from such things as tree ring analysis, fossil evidence, and analysis of patterns and chemical composition in coral skeletons and ice cores.
  • While there are many substances that act as greenhouse gases, two of the most important are water and carbon dioxide, or CO2.
  • These gases act like a mirror and reflect the Earth’s radiation back to the surface. 100% of the observed temperature increase has been due to the increase of these greenhouse gases.
  • They allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. They absorb infrared radiation, trapping heat in the atmosphere and causing the average temperature to rise.
  • Natural causes: Release of methane gas from arctic tundra's and wetlands. Earth’s natural climate change cycle. Usually lasts around 40,000 --- Some believe that global warming is a natural occurrence as the earth travel’s through a natural cycle, whether mankind contributed or not.Cow manure releases methane.Sun spots are exploding, raising heat levels.Volcano eruptions increase gases and damage plants.Man-made causes:Cars: Emit harmful gases.Air travel: Carbon from fuel bonds with oxygen in air to form C02.Deforestation: Limiting the number of trees reduces the amount of C02 being converted to oxygen.4. Population: The more people, the greater need for transportation, food, etc = more burning of fossil fuels and respired CO2
  • By burning these carbon-based materials, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are the main culprits of ozone depletion. They are used for refrigerators, propellants for aerosols, foaming agents and cleaning solvents. When met with UV light, chlorofluorocarbons emit chlorine ions that destroy ozone molecules.Because of ozone depletion, more ultraviolet light has been reaching the Earth’s surface. Humans, plants, marine ecosystems, and the weather are all experiencing the effects of the depletion.
  • The melting of polar ice caps is a major effect of Global Warming. There are four occurrences that follow:First, it will raise sea levels. There are 5,773,000 cubic miles of water in ice caps, glaciers, and permanent snow. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, if all glaciers melted today the seas would rise about 230 feet. Luckily, that’s not going to happen all in one go! But sea levels will rise.Second, melting ice caps will throw the global ecosystem out of balance. The ice caps are fresh water, and when they melt they will desalinate the ocean, or in plain English - make it less salty. The desalinization of the gulf current will “screw up” ocean currents, which regulate temperatures. The stream shutdown or irregularity would cool the area around north-east America and Western Europe. Luckily, that will slow some of the other effects of global warming in that area!Third, temperature rises and changing landscapes in the artic circle will endanger several species of animals. Only the most adaptable will survive.Fourth, global warming could snowball with the ice caps gone. Ice caps are white, and reflect sunlight, much of which is relected back into space, further cooling Earth. If the ice caps melt, the only reflector is the ocean. Darker colors absorb sunlight, further warming the Earth.

Secondary 3NA Geography(E) Weather and Climate Secondary 3NA Geography(E) Weather and Climate Presentation Transcript

  • Sec 3NA Geography ElectiveWeather & Climate
  • By the end of the lesson…We will be able to,• Differentiate between weather and climate• List the elements of weather• List and describe factors affecting temperature (an element of weather).
  • Singapore Weather? Watch Video : Noose Weather Report
  • Weather or Climate?Sentence describes … W or C?Some plantation crops like rubber, coffee and oil palmare grown in places that are hot and wet. CIt has been snowing these past few days. WThere are many ships docked in the harbor becauseof the impending storm. W 4
  • Weather or Climate?Sentence describes … W or C?A large number of Europeans leave their countries forholidays during the months of October to December in Corder to escape winter.Heavy thunderstorms are expected over the northernand western parts of Singapore for the next two weeks. WThe hot and wet conditions in tropical countries likeSingapore support the growth of vegetation all yearround. C
  • Weather or Climate? Weather – conditions of the atmosphere at a specific place over a relatively short period of time Climate – average weather conditions of a specific place over a considerable period of time, usually 30 to 35 years
  • Elements of Weather Relative Pressure andTemperature Precipitation Humidity Winds Convectional Latitude Condensation Sea Breeze Rain Altitude Saturation Relief Rain Land Breeze Distance Monsoon Evaporation From The Sea Winds Cloud Cover
  • Elements of Weather: Temperature• Degree of hotness and coldness of a place• Affected by the amount of Sun’s rays that reaches Earth’s surface – Latitude – Altitude – Distance from the sea – Cloud cover
  • Factors affecting Temperature1. Latitude2. Altitude3. Continental & Maritime Effect4. Cloud Cover
  • Latitude90° North (+90°)0°90° South (-90°)
  • Temperature: Latitude Latitudecoolerwarmercooler
  • Latitude• Latitude refers to the distance to the north and south of the Equator and increases as we move away from the Equator.• Relationship statement: – The amount of heat received by the Earth’s surface decreases as latitude increases.
  • Temperature: Altitude 7.2°C 20°C at lower ground there is a larger area of land,  much warmer at lower ground
  • Temperature: Altitude concentration of gasesm 6000 increasing gravitational pull 4000 2000 0 sea level
  • Temperature: Altitude heat transferred by conduction and convectionm 6000 absorbs less heat 4000 2000 absorbs more heat 0 sea level
  • Altitude• Altitude refers to the height of a point above the level of the sea surface.• Relationship statement: – The higher the altitude, the lower the temperature.
  • Altitude COLDERWARMER
  • Temperature: AltitudeTemperaturedoes notdecrease withincreasingaltitude where weather Mount Everest takes place
  • Temperature: Distance from the Sea• how coastal areas are affected by the difference in the rate of heating and cooling of land and sea
  • Maritime & Continental Effect• Land (solids) absorbs and loses heat faster than the sea (liquids) hence, – Seas and oceans takes a longer time to heat up, but once heated up will retain heat longer. – Land, on the other hand, heats up very quickly and loses heat quickly. SLOWER Land bodies Water Bodies
  • Maritime Effect Land bodies Water Bodies SLOWER air heats up quickly air heats up slowlySummer,  relatively cool
  • Maritime Effect Land bodies Water Bodies SLOWER air cools down quickly air cools down slowlyWinter,  relatively warm
  • Continental Effect• During summer, the air over the land heats up quickly leading to warmer summers.• During winter the air over the land loses heats quickly leading to colder winters.
  • Temperature: Distance from the Sea Coastal Areas Non- Coastal Areas*• Cooler Summers • Warmer Summers – Air over water bodies heat – Air over land bodies heat up up slowly faster• Warmer Winters • Cooler Winters – Air over water bodies lose – Air over land bodies lose heat slowly heat faster• eg. San Diego • Eg. Winnipeg  maritime effect  continental effect *areas deep within the continent
  • Cloud Cover• Temperatures are lower during cloudy days,• as the clouds reflect part of the incoming solar radiation back to outer space.
  • Temperature: Cloud Cover temperature rises up quickly earth’s surface
  • Temperature: Cloud Cover heat escapes easily earth’s surface
  • Temperature: Cloud Cover reflects part of the incoming solar radiation reflects back heat to the ground earth’s surface
  • Temperature: Cloud Cover reflects back heat to the ground earth’s surface
  • Temperature: Cloud Cover • More cloud cover – Smaller difference in day and night temperatures
  • Temperature: Cloud Cover• Temperatures are higher during cloudy nights,• as the clouds absorbs the heat from the Earth’s surface and re-emits the heat back to the Earth.
  • By the end of the lesson…We will be able to• Explain the relationship between temperature and relative humidity• Explain the formation of convectional and relief rain.
  • Humidity• amount of water vapour present in the air• places near the equator have high humidity – large amount of water vapour in the air 33
  • Relative HumidityTerms• Specific Humidity – The maximum amount of water vapour the air can hold at a temperature.• Saturation Point – The point when the air can no longer absorb any more water.• Dew Point Temperature – The temperature when the saturation point is reached. – Temp where water vapour condense
  • Relative Humidity • Proportion of water vapor present in the air, in relation to the maximum amount the air can hold1 at particular temperature • expressed as % 100 - • 1hold: contain 50 - Actual amt. of water vapour in air X 100 %Max amount of water vapour air can hold 25 - relative humidity = 50 %
  • Relative Humidity change in temperature100 - 50 - 100 - 25 - 50 - same amount of water vapour 25 - relative humidity= ? relative humidity = 50 %
  • Relative Humidity change in temperature100 - 100 - same amount of 50 - same amount of water vapour 50 - water vapour 25 - relative humidity > 100% relative humidity= 100%  beyond saturation point
  • Relative Humidity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CL5cgXwKUXc
  • Relative Humidity• Recall, what is meant by “saturation”? – Air is carrying the maximum amount of water vapor it can hold at that temperature
  • Relative Humidity: Changes in Holding Capacitym heat transferred by 6000 conduction and convection 4000 2000 temperature changes with increasing altitude 0 sea level
  • Relative Humidity: Changes in Water Vapour air parcel wind more water vapourland surface large lakes/ oceans
  • Revisiting The Water Cycle http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQKdkponoZM
  • Relative Humidity: Precipitation• Definition: water falling from the atmosphere onto the Earth’s surface• form depends on the temperature of the place where it falls Liquid Freezing Frozen Drizzle Freezing Drizzle Snow Rain Freezing Rain Hail Ice Crystals precipitation ≠ rain
  • Relative Humidity: Cloud Formation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKmLEgUivj4
  • Relative Humidity: Relation to Cloud Formation• Name the processes shown in the video – Condensation/ Evaporation/ Precipitation/ Saturation• Explain each process and describe how the relative humidity changes at each stage of the process 46
  • Pit stopAre we able to:Explain howevaporation, condensation, precipitationand saturation affect relative humidity?
  • Convectional Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Convectional Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Convectional Rain• occurs when there is intense heating of Earth’s surface which usually takes place in the morning and early afternoon• common in Tropics – high temperatures increase capacity of air to hold large amounts of water vapour – high relative humidity
  • Convectional Rain• characteristics of rain, usually – in the morning and early afternoon – covers only a few square kilometers – heavy but short-lived – often accompanied by thunder and lightning
  • Relief Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Relief Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Relief Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Relief Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Relief Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Relief Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Relief Rain• occurs mainly in places where moist air from the sea is forced to rise above a highland such as a mountain range• windward side: side facing the oncoming wind• leeward side – receives little or no rain – on descending, air is warmed by heat near the Earth’s surface becoming dry wind • “rain shadow” effect
  • Air Pressure and Wind
  • Air Pressure and Wind• Downward force exerted by the weight of air per unit area• Air moves from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure – wind
  • Air Pressure and Windhigh pressure wind low pressure
  • Air Pressure and Temperature cold air warm air windhigh pressure low pressure Ground
  • Scale and Effect WeatherGlobal Scale eg. Maritime Effect which Months affects Annual TemperatureRegional Scale Weeks eg. Land and Sea BreezeLocal Scale which affects Day and Night Hours Temperatures
  • Quick Recap: “Maritime Effect”Concept: Water bodies heats up and cools down slower SLOWER Land bodies Water Bodies 64
  • Land and Sea Breeze pg 101and for the brave, page 93: maritime effect
  • Land and Sea Breezehttp://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/pd/oceans_weather_climate/media/sea_and_land_breeze.swf 66
  • Land and Sea Breeze explain why? 67
  • Land and Sea Breezeexplain why? 68
  • Checkpoint 2 (Share)explain why? 69
  • Checkpoint 2 (Share) explain why? 70
  • Recap from last Lessons• Convection Rain• Relieve Rain• Water Cycle (Hydrological Cycle)• Air Pressure • High Temp = Warm Air = Low Pressure • Low Temp = Cold Air = High Pressure• Wind • Air moves from region of high pressure to a region of low pressure• Land Breeze• Sea Breeze
  • Recap from last Lessons
  • Recap from last Lessons
  • South Asian Monsoons
  • The Coriolis Effecthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wda7azMvabE 75
  • The Coriolis Effect:Playground Visualisationhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_36MiCUS1ro 76
  • A flooded town in India during the Southwest Monsoon
  • A town destroyed.
  • Indians playing along a flooded street during the SouthwestMonsoon between
  • Flood victims scrambling for aid relief packages.
  • The Southwest MonsoonFrom June to Sept, the Northern Hemisphere experiencessummer while the Southern Hemisphere experiences winter.Northern Hemisphere => Summer = > higher temperatures =low pressureSouthern Hemisphere => Winter => the lower temperatures =high pressure.The air then moves from an area of high pressure to an area oflow pressure.In this case, air moves from the Australia continent in SouthernHemisphere to the Central Asia in Northern Hemisphere
  • Regional Winds: SE, SW Monsoon winds
  • The Southwest Monsoon• When the air moves from Australia continent in Southern Hemisphere, it travels in the Southeast direction• (Why? Because it gets deflected to the left in Southern Hemisphere - Coriolis effect).• Once it passes the Equator, it will be deflected to the Southwest direction• (Why? Because it gets deflected to the right in Northern Hemisphere).• This Southwest Monsoon passes by Indian Ocean and picks up a lot of moisture from it and thus brings heavy rain to Indian and Bangladesh.• Singapore will not receive much rain from the Southwest Monsoon as most of the moisture will be lost in Sumatra and the air will be quite dry when it reaches Singapore.
  • The Northeast Monsoon• From Oct to Jan, the Northern Hemisphere experiences winter while the Southern Hemisphere experiences summer.• Northern Hemisphere => Winter => lower temperatures = high pressure• Southern Hemisphere => Summer = > higher temperatures = low pressure.• Wind results due to the difference in air pressure. The air then moves from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.
  • Regional Winds: NE, NW Monsoon winds
  • The Northeast Monsoon• In this case, air moves from the Central Asia in Northern Hemisphere to the Australia continent in Southern Hemisphere• When the air moves from the Central Asia in Northern Hemisphere, it travels in a Northeast direction.• This Northeast Monsoon blows from the inland areas (offshore winds), thus it is very dry and brings little rain when it reaches India and Bangladesh.• However, the Northeast Monsoon will bring heavy rain to Singapore as it passes by South China Sea, thus picking up a lot of moisture which falls heavily as rain in Singapore.
  • Mini Quiz Monsoon Month/Wind DirectionSouthwest Monsoon • June – September• Blows from ____to ____ Australia – mainland AsiaNortheast Monsoon• Blows from ____to ____ • December – February China to Australia
  • Lesson objectives• By the end of the lesson, we will be able to explain – The distribution of tropical equatorial, tropical monsoon and cool temperate climates – The characteristics of : • Equatorial Climate, Monsoon and Cool temperate – Explain the weather and climate of Singapore with reference to • rainfall • relative humidity • temperature
  • By the end of the lesson…We will be able to,• Describe temperature and rainfall using key concepts• List and describe the different types of climate.• Explain the distribution of the different types of climate.
  • Climograph• Climatic Graph• graph of average temperatures and average rainfall for a place over the twelve months of a year• drawn by reference to data presented in a climatic table Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Decmm 238.5 165.1 173.6 166.4 170.7 163.1 149.8 171.3 163.5 191 250.1 268.7°C 26 26.6 27 27.3 27.5 27.5 27.3 27.2 27 27 26.6 26.2
  • Climograph City, Country 93
  • Climograph: Temperature• Temperature Scale on the left• Dots or Line• Take note of units either °F or °C 94
  • Climograph: Rainfall • Rainfall Scale on the right • One column for one month • Take note of units either cm or inches
  • Climograph• May have other data such as – elevation – latitude / longitude – maximum/ minimum temperatures
  • Describing Temperatures• Daily temperature range : – Difference between maximum and minimum temperatures recorded in a day• Mean monthly temperatures: Sum of daily mean temperatures in a month Number of days in a month
  • Describing Temperatures• Annual Temperature range: – Difference between maximum and minimum monthly temperatures in a year• Mean annual temperatures: Sum of mean monthly temperatures in a month/12
  • Describing Rainfall• Mean monthly rainfall:Sum of daily rainfall in a monthNumber of days in a month• Annual rainfall: – Total amount of rainwater collected throughout the year
  • Types of Climate Types Tropical Temperate Tropical Tropical Cool TemperateEquatorial Monsoon
  • Tropical Equatorial Climate
  • Tropical Equatorial Climate• Between latitudes 10°N and 10°S• E.g. South America, Southeast Asia
  • Question Climograph: Singapore 300 27.2 27.5 27.1 27 27 27 Temperature (°C) 26.9 250 26.8 27 26.7Rainfall (mm) 26.6 26.5 200 26.5 26 Rainfall 150 26 25.5 Temp 100 25.5 50 25 255 200 210 220 185 190 186 200 185 200 255 260 0 24.5 J F M A M J J A S O N D Months Describe the climate of Singapore using the climograph above.
  • Describing Tropical Equatorial climate• High mean annual temperature of 26.7°C• Low annual temperature range of 1.7°C• High annual rainfall 2546mm• Rain fall throughout the year with no distinct wet or dry seasons
  • Tropical Monsoon Climate
  • Tropical Monsoon Climate• Between latitudes 10°N and 25°N and South of the Equator• E.g. Vietnam, India
  • Question Climograph: India 1200 30 28.8 29 28.5 28.7 Temperature (°C) 1000 29 28 Rainfall (mm) 28 800 27 26.3 27 Rainfall 600 26 26 Temp 25 25.2 25.3 25.4 400 25 200 24 0 0 2 5 29 960 1100 620 300 20 10 3 0 23 J F M A M J J A S O N D MonthsDescribe the climate of India using the climograph above.
  • Tropical Monsoon Climate• Temperature – High mean annual temperature around 26°C – Low annual temperature range 6°C• Precipitation – High annual rainfall between 1500mm – 1900mm – Unevenly distributed
  • Cool Temperate Climate
  • Cool Temperate Climate• Between latitudes 40°N and 70°N and South of the Equator• E.g. Canada, Northeast USA Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec mm 20.8 21.5 19.5 16.5 17.7 30.4 48.2 59.6 67.5 45.7 25.9 30.7 °C -10.3 -8.2 -4.2 1.8 8 12.2 14.6 13.5 9.1 0.7 -6.8 -9.5
  • Question Climograph: NE USA 120 30 25 23 Temperature (°C) 25 100 20Rainfall (mm) 18 20 15 80 12 15 10 Rainfall 60 10 5 Temp 5 40 0 0 0 -6 -5 20 -5 20 20 30 50 90 100 100 80 85 75 45 30 0 -10 J F M A M J J A S O N D Months Describe the climate of NE USA using the climograph above.
  • Cool Temperate Climate• Temperature – Low mean annual temperature between 0°C to 10°C – High annual temperature range between 15°C to 30°C• Precipitation – Low precipitation between 250mm to 1000mm – Unevenly distributed
  • Types of Climate Types Tropical Temperate Tropical Tropical Cool TemperateEquatorial Monsoon
  • Recap before Test
  • How is Weather different from Climate?• Weather refers to the conditions of the atmosphere at a specific place over a relatively short period of time, whereas climate refers to the average atmospheric conditions over a specific place over a considerable period of time, usually 30 to 35 years.
  • • Condensation – process in which cooled water vapour changes into water droplets• Relative Humidity – increasing and approaching saturation point
  • • Saturation – air is carrying the maximum amount of water vapour it can hold at that temperature• Relative Humidity – 100 per cent
  • • Precipitation – water falling from the atmosphere onto the Earth’s surface• Relative Humidity – Decreases, water vapour has condensed and thus its amount has reduced
  • Recap from last Lessons
  • 130
  • 131
  • 132
  • Convectional Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Relief Rainhttp://www.curriculumbits.com/prodimages/details/geography/types-of-rainfall.html
  • Recap from last Lessons
  • Recap from last Lessons• Air Pressure • High Temp = Warm Air = Low Pressure • Low Temp = Cold Air = High Pressure• Wind • Movement of the Air from region of high pressure to a region of low pressure
  • Climate Change is…• Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). – When due to natural processes, it is usually referred to as global climate variability – Usually refers to changes forced by human activities that change the atmosphere
  • Global warming is…• …the increase in the average surface air temperature of the planet that is a result of the build-up of heat-trapping or "greenhouse" gases in the atmosphere.
  • Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxideNitrous oxide Methane Water Sulfur hexafluoride
  • Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxideNitrous oxide Methane Water Sulfur hexafluoride
  • Attributions to climate change include: Natural causes: Man-made causes: 1. Arctic tundras and wetlands. 1. Transportation. 2. Earth’s cycle. 3. Cow manure. 2. Deforestation. 4. Sun spots. 5. Volcano eruptions. 3. Population.
  • Global Warming is negatively affecting the Earth and it’s occupants. Effectsof Global Warming include: 1. The spread of disease 2. Warm waters, hurricanes 3. Droughts and heat waves 4. Economic consequences
  • 5. A major effect of Global Warming is the melting of polar ice caps. This is a “four-pronged” danger resulting in different situations. Raised sea levels Global ecosystem off balance Changing landscapes in the arctic Global Warming increases with the circle endangers animals melting of ice caps.
  • Global Warming Causes Natural Anthropogenic Variation Solar Volcanic Changing Land Burning Deforestatio Output Eruption Use Fossil Fuel n Agriculture Industries Urbanization Green House Gases Green House Effect Enhanced Green House Gases
  • Global Warming Effect/ Impact Sea Level More Frequent Spread of Infectious Lengthening Rises Extreme Weather Insect-borne diseases growing events seasons Melting Ice Floods, Droughts etc Heavy Rainfall Longer growing caps season Higher Temperature Malaria and Dengue Higher on land and sea Temperature resulting In greatercause melting amount of water UK China Glacier and vapor and latent inwater in seas & warmer atmosphere ocean to expand
  • Global Climate Change
  • Content1. Summary of global climate change2. Possible risks to human health3. What are the main risks to human health / health impact?4. Action taken previously and currently to prevent / mitigate the health risks / health impact5. Possible actions to prevent /lessen the health impact related to global climate change6. Roles for doctors and other health professionals to reduce health risk
  • Summary of global climate change
  • WeatherWhat is weather?•Weather is the state of atmospheric conditions(i.e., hot/cold, wet/dry, calm/stormy, sunny/cloudy)that exist over relatively short periods of time (hoursto a couple of days).•Weather includes the passing of athunderstorm, hurricane, or blizzard, and thepersistence of a heat wave, or a cold snap.
  • ClimateWhat is Climate?• Climate is the weather we expect over the period of a month, a season, a decade, or a century.• More technically, climate is defined as the weather conditions resulting from the mean state of the atmosphere-ocean-land system, often described in terms of "climate normals" or average weather conditions
  • Climate Change is…• Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). – When due to natural processes, it is usually referred to as global climate variability – Usually refers to changes forced by human activities that change the atmosphere
  • Global warming is…• …the increase in the average surface air temperature of the planet that is a result of the build-up of heat-trapping or "greenhouse" gases in the atmosphere.
  • Climate Change or Global Warming?• The term CLIMATE CHANGE is often used interchangeably with GLOBAL WARMING.• The phrase climate change‘ is growing in preferred use to global warming because it convey there are other changes in addition to rising temperatures.” (National Academy of Sciences)
  • Climate Change Is Happening Now.• Warming of the global climate is clear and is shown by – increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, – widespread melting of snow and ice – rising global average sea level – the 10 warmest years on record have all occurred since 1990.
  • How do we know?Scientists learn about the past climate conditions from such things as tree ringanalysis, fossil evidence, and analysis of patterns and chemical composition incoral skeletons and ice cores.
  • What causes Earth’s climate to change?Natural causes:• Variations in the Earths orbital characteristics.• Atmospheric carbon dioxide variations.• Volcanic eruptions• Variations in solar output.Anthropogenic: Human activities – any activity that releases “greenhouse gases” into the atmosphere
  • The Greenhouse Effect• The Earth receives ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, absorbs it, and then radiates the energy out as infrared radiation• The Earth is warmer because our atmosphere traps some of the outgoing IR radiation. This is a natural process known as the greenhouse effect.• The greenhouse effect is a good thing, without it the Earth would become too cold for life to exist.• However, man’s activities appear to be altering the natural balance.
  • Greenhouse Gasses• Greenhouse gases are atmospheric gases that trap infrared radiation emitted from the earth.• Most of the significant greenhouse gases are long-lived and well- mixed: • Long-lived means they are chemically stable and therefore last years in the atmosphere • Well-mixed means they are evenly distributed in the atmosphere. • This family includes carbon dioxide, methane, oxides of nitrogen, and halocarbons.• Water vapor is a greenhouse gas that is neither well-mixed nor long-lived. Because of this, its overall effect on global warming is the least understood.
  • Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxideNitrous oxide Methane Water Sulfur hexafluoride
  • Possible risks to human health
  • Modulating Health effects Health Effects influences Temperature-related illness and death Extreme weather- Extreme weather- related related health effects (floods, storms, etc.) Human health effects Air pollution -related pollution-related exposures health effects Regional weather Microbial changes: Contamination Water and food-borneClimate changes pathways Contamination paths diseasesChange •Heat waves Transmission dynamics Vector -borne and •Extreme weather dynamics rodent borne diseases rodent- borne diseases •Temperature • •Precipitation Changes in agro- Effects of food and •Sea-level rise ecosystems, hydrology water shortages Socioeconomic and Mental, nutritional, demographic disruption infectious-disease and other effects
  • The gases that used to make life on Earth possible are now threatening our very existence. CARBON METHANE NITROUS OXIDE DIOXIDE CH4 NO2 CO2
  • Greenhouse Gases: Gases that contribute to the Greenhouse Effect. Overall contribution to Gas Main Source increased global warming H2O Evaporation of oceans and lakes - CO2 Combustion of fossil fuels and biomass 50% CH4 Anaerobic decay of organic matter caused by intensive 18%% farming N2O Artificial fertilizers and combustion of biomass 6% O3 Secondary pollutant in photochemical smogs 12%CFCs Refrigerants, repellants, foaming agents, solvents. 14%Some Greenhouse Gases occur in nature- such as water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. Others are man made.
  • Attributions to climate change include: Natural causes: Man-made causes: 1. Arctic tundras and wetlands. 1. Transportation. 2. Earth’s cycle. 3. Cow manure. 2. Deforestation. 4. Sun spots. 5. Volcano eruptions. 3. Population.
  • 1. Arctic tundras and wetlands.
  • The burning of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas is the main cause of climate change.Countries by Carbon Dioxide Emissions
  • As these gases and chemicals arereleased into the air, the concentrationof the Ozone layer in the stratosphere decreases.
  • Global Warming is negatively affecting the Earth and it’s occupants. Effectsof Global Warming include: 1. The spread of disease 2. Warm waters, hurricanes 3. Droughts and heat waves 4. Economic consequences
  • 5. A major effect of Global Warming is the melting of polar ice caps. This is a “four-pronged” danger resulting in different situations. Raised sea levels Global ecosystem off balance Changing landscapes in the arctic Global Warming increases with the circle endangers animals melting of ice caps.
  • Global Warming Causes Natural Anthropogenic Variation Solar Volcanic Changing Land Burning Deforestatio Output Eruption Use Fossil Fuel n Agriculture Industries Urbanization Green House Gases Green House Effect Enhanced Green House Gases
  • Global Warming Effect/ Impact Sea Level More Frequent Spread of Infectious Lengthening Rises Extreme Weather Insect-borne diseases growing events seasons Melting Ice Floods, Droughts etc Heavy Rainfall Longer growing caps season Higher Temperature Malaria and Dengue Higher on land and sea Temperature resulting In greatercause melting amount of water UK China Glacier and vapor and latent inwater in seas & warmer atmosphere ocean to expand
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