Au Psy492 E Portfolio Switzer(Sweeney) K
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Au Psy492 E Portfolio Switzer(Sweeney) K Au Psy492 E Portfolio Switzer(Sweeney) K Presentation Transcript

  • 1
    Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio
    Kayla Switzer
    Psychology, 2001
  • Personal Statement
    Personal Statement
    My family and friends would describe me as fun-loving, loyal, honest, passionate, nerdy, and loving. I believe in the goodness of people and everyone deserves the chance to live a happy and healthy life. I know what it is like to sacrifice for the good of someone. My husband has been dealing with Epilepsy for the past couple of years and it has been a long hard road. I do what I have to in order to give him the best quality of life as possible considering the obstacles that have been in the way. I have also helped care for my grandmother till she passed. My goals for the future are having a family and if prompted take care of my parents when they cannot take care of themselves. I am also an animal lover and grew up with many pets. I always thought I would grow up and work at SeaWorld with the dolphins and orcas as my career; however, this is not the path for me. I am someone who does the best they can in order to achieve a desired effect. I was a CNA for a couple of years and have seen how some of my clients lived and dealt with their problems.
  • Personal Statement
    My family and friends would describe me as fun-loving, loyal, honest, passionate, nerdy, and loving. I believe in the goodness of people and everyone deserves the chance to live a happy and healthy life. I know what it is like to sacrifice for the good of someone. My husband has been dealing with Epilepsy for the past couple of years and it has been a long hard road. I do what I have to in order to give him the best quality of life as possible considering the obstacles that have been in the way. I have also helped care for my grandmother till she passed. My goals for the future are having a family and if prompted take care of my parents when they cannot take care of themselves. I am also an animal lover and grew up with many pets. I always thought I would grow up and work at SeaWorld with the dolphins and orcas as my career; however, this is not the path for me. I am someone who does the best they can in order to achieve a desired effect. I was a CNA for a couple of years and have seen how some of my clients lived and dealt with their problems.
  • Personal Statement
    I have also worked in retail for a long time and have gotten leadership skills and group skills while working in that environment. Of on my supervisors would give me the tasks needed for the day and delegate them to my associates while doing my own supervision to make sure they were getting done the way they needed to be done. Even though the position had no job title, I learned many different skills in order to become a leader and make sure the group is operated successfully and efficiently.
    Through my childhood, I have been active in my church as an alter server and as part of the church’s Leadership Team for a couple of years. I have accomplished honors and high-honors while in school and graduated with the Rhode Island Honor Society. I was in the vocal ensemble and select choir while in high school, played different sports, and danced for many years. I love to read and enjoy horror, fantasy, and mysteries. In addition, I enjoy non-fiction books with topics in psychology and history. When not reading I do like to put together jigsaw puzzles and word search puzzles to keep my brain active even during leisure time. I enjoy being around my friends and being in group settings.
    My professional goals would be to continue my education to obtain a Master’s degree in Addictions with specialization in chemical substance dependence. We all have some type of addiction and I am not immune to them as well. My husband has an addiction to nicotine, while I am allergic to the smoke. I have always been opposed to alcohol since I was a child. I never liked how my father would get angry and yell at my mother. I did not like the person he had become. During the past decade numerous studies have shown why alcohol is one of the worst substances out in the world today and entirely legal.
  • Personal Statement
    I would use my knowledge to help people fight their addictions and live a better life and would also like to help the children who are dealing with their parents addictions. I choose Psychology because I have always wondered why people act the way they did and why I am the way I am. Throughout my studies I have come to know myself even more than I would have if I did not self examine myself. I have taken courses on substance abuse (i.e. Substance Abuse in the Family and Substance Abuse Treatment I) during my undergraduate studies at Argosy University Online. I understand being sober takes a life time and I am patient and willing to take the time to get the best outcome for them. I also have taken psychology classes as electives while completing my Associates; Behavior Modification and Psychology of Personal Adjustment. I believe I have the passion to make a difference in people’s lives by helping them achieve their best quality of life.
  • Reflection
    During my time at Argosy University, I have found my strengths and weaknesses. I always knew I was not good at math do it was no surprise I had a hard time with Psychological Statistics and Quantitative Literacy. I excelled in classes such as Substance Abuse Treatment I, Physiological Psychology, Interpersonal Effectiveness, and Writing in Psychology. I have mostly been an A or B student. I believe my critical thinking skills are moderate. I am skeptical on mostly every topic and try to learn the truth. I have had significant exposure with information literacy. A lot of the assignments for Argosy requires a lot of information gathering and compare and contrasting. I have had moderate exposure to understanding research methods. This is one area which I have to concentrate more on because of the mathematics this subject entails. I have had moderate exposure to oral communication skills. I took a speech class while at the Community College of Rhode Island and I used to read for my church for a little while. However, there was not much of a chance to hone oral communication skills while at Argosy University. However, there were many chances for me to have significant exposure to written communication skills. Every assignment had to be APA formatted and had to adhere to the APA guidelines. I have had moderate exposure to ethics since I am not working in the current field. I have taken an Ethics class and most of the courses go through ethics as part of the curriculum. I have had significant exposure to diversity in many classes which included multicultural sensitivity and disabilities. There was moderate exposure to the basic knowledge of psychology. I have had significant exposure to applied psychology. A lot of the courses dealt with applied psychology and required applying our studies to many case studies. I have had significant exposure to active listening communication skills. I have always been told I am a good listener. The courses I have taken has helped me to look at the deeper meaning and apply my knowledge to others.
  • Table of Contents
    Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
    Research Skills
    Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Foundations of Psychology
    Applied Psychology
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
  • Critical Thinking
    Cognitive Abilities
    Assignment 2 Module 8
    Final Project
    PSY420 Disabilities
    Kayla Sweeney
    March 3, 2010
  • Critical Thinking
    The flow chart can be used to incorporate different disabilities. Each category is broken down to categories which the interviewer need to go over with the interviewee. The flow chart covers what accommodations the person will need; employment, housing, and education and if the accommodation will be reasonable or not for the company. Support for the individual is given by the state and/or federal level and from family members.
  • Critical Thinking
    Support from the state and federal government will be based on ethics, legal, and medical needs. The flow chart can be used to help others like Kate in Module 1. Under accommodations, Kate needs her home to be redone so she can get her wheelchair around easily. Will this accommodation cost the homeowner, if not Kate, an undue hardship? If yes, then Kate may need to find another place to live. If no, then Kate will have whatever work needs to be done so she can go through her home with her wheelchair. Under support, Kate can find out her rights and what can be done to find a place where she can move around unobstructed.
    Karen has a physical disability which would be considered mild since she is at the beginning stages of the disease. Accommodations can be given to Karen at her place of work and because the company is not a small business, they can accommodate Karen.
    This flow chart may need some changes; however, this will help interview a person with a disability and find what can be done to help.
  • Research Skills
    Research Skills
    Assignment 3 Module 7
    PSY302 Research Methods
    Brian Uldall
    Kayla Sweeney
    February 26, 2010
  • Research Skills
    Assignment 3 Module 7
    The participants are taking written tests so there should be no harm to the participants. There is no deception in the study.
    People with Epilepsy
    and Depression Show
    Lower Quality of Life
    Kayla Sweeney
    Argosy University
    February 26, 2010
  • Research Skills
    People with Epilepsy and Depression Show Lower Quality of Life
    Purpose: To determine if people with epilepsy and depression have a lower quality of life.
    Methods: Subjects with epilepsy and depression will be administered three self- report surveys and scales. Information for background was reported by participant and medical records. The participants will be administered the surveys by their physician over a two week period.
    Conclusion: Subjects with higher seizure frequency have reported lower quality of life than subjects with lower seizure frequency. Depression is an important condition that is not treated in people with epilepsy and there is evidence depression does lower quality of life.
  • Research Skills
    Epilepsy and Depression are starting to be shown as co-conditions. Depression has been overlooked and has not been treated in the past. Numerous articles and studies have been coming to the forefront in the recent past and present. Evidence has been gathered, biologically, medically, and emotionally, which shows people with Epilepsy are more likely to have Major Depression. An article by Andres M. Kanner, M.D. (2005), reviews the current research which demonstrates neurotransmitters and parts of the brain may be a cause of epilepsy and depression in humans and animals. Regula S Briellmann et al. (2007) conducted a study showing depression in epileptics and having a neuropsychological impact. The amygdala, if there are abnormalities, may be a key to why depression is common among epileptics. Another study by S. Paradiso et al. (2001), people with temporal lobe epilepsy show symptoms of depression and had negative effects. Across the IQ board, participants with depression had lower scores than participants without depression. Seizure frequency was also taken into account and the results showed the scores remained the same. Pharmacology has found a new path in trying to help epileptics with depression. A new drug, Lamotrigine which is an antiepileptic drug, may help treat the depression and seizure activity in the individual with its antidepressant effects. Erica K. Johnson et al. (2004) conducted a study to understand whether Anxiety and Depression are connected to a person’s quality of life. Even though the participants were having seizures, their quality of life was not significantly lowered. Their depression and anxiety produced significantly poor quality of life than their epileptic symptoms. Epilepsy and Depression in adults are co-conditions which affect the quality of life of the individual.
  • Research Skills
    The participants are referrals from doctors all across the U.S. The participants would be 18<years old with the diagnosis of epilepsy for 5< years. The participants also have a diagnosis of depression by their physicians. The participants will be divided by seizure frequency reported by the participant.
    The participants completed self report scales: Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, The Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the QOLIE-89. The BDI-II will give the severity of the person’s depressive state. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale measures depressive symptoms in the present. The QOLIE-89 is a 17 multi-item survey which measures the overall quality of life, emotional well-being, role limitations due to emotional problems, social support, social isolation, energy/fatigue, worry about seizure, medication effects, health discouragement, work/driving/social function, attention/concentration, language, memory, physical function, pain, role limitations due to physical problems, and health perceptions.
    The tests will be sent out and taken while under the observation of their physician over the course of two weeks. The physicians will fax the documents for analysis by professionals who have scored the scales before. The t-tests will be used to show if there is any difference between the scores of the self reporting scales. The Pearson correlation will be used to show correlation. The Spearman correlation will also show if there is a correlation between the quality of life of a person with epilepsy and depression.
  • Research Skills
    Briellmann, Regula S; Hopwood, Malcolm J; Jackson, Graeme D. (2007). Major depression in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: clinical and imaging correlates. J Neural Neurosurgery Psychiatry. 78, 1226-1230.
    Fakhoury, Toufic A.; Miller, J. Mitchell; Hammer, Anne E.; Vuong, Alain. (2008).
    Effects of Lamotrigine on Mood in Older Adults with Epilepsy and Co-Morbid
    Depressive Symptoms: An Open-Label, Multicentre, Prospective Study,
    Drugs and Aging, 25, (11), 955-962.
    Johnson, Erica K.; Jones, Jana E.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruse P. (2004)
    The Relative Impact of Anxiety, Depression, and Clinical Seizure Features
    On Health-related Quality of Life in Epilepsy, Epilepsia, 45, (5), 544-550.
    Kanner, Andres M. (2005). Depression in Epilepsy: A Neurobiologic Perspective,
    Epilepsy Currents, Vol. 5, No.1, pp. 21-27.
    Paradiso, S; Hermann, B P; Blumer, D; Davies, K; Robinson, R G. (2001). Impact of
    Depressed Mood on Neuropsychological Status in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy,
    Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 70, 180-185
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Communication Skills
    Effective Mediated Communication
    Diane Burrell
    Laura Roberts
    Kayla Sweeney
    Agnes Pearcy
    Argosy University
    June 26, 2009
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Communication is the corner stone of the human experience. From conversing with a friend or family member to a current or potential employer, being able to communicate effectively with one another is extremely important. From verbal to the written word to non-verbal communication, we are constantly communicating every day – even if we are not fully aware that we are communicating. The focus of the paper is how effective mediated communication is, and how it has changed the way we communicate.
    Several advances in technology have allowed people to communicate faster and more efficiently.  With media sources that are becoming readily available, it is changing how people live their daily lives. When Bell invented the telephone in 1876, to when the first computer was developed in the 1930s, there have been strides made to be able to communicate with one another better.  The internet being the biggest addition to communication in modern time. Not only is it allowing people to stay in touch with one another over many miles with e-mail and social networking but friends and family that are demographically challenged are able to see pictures and hear about the day-to-day happenings of that person’s life.
      The internet has changed how some employers conduct their business. Where once it would take days, even weeks, to gather information and get signatures to another source, now only takes several minutes. Some employers rely on sites such as Facebook and My Space to further evaluate a potential candidate for employment. Being available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, communication is an always-on source to stay in touch.  With the boom in technology, we need to use it to harness its capabilities and use it to our advantage. Today telephones can take pictures, organize one’s schedule remind them of a meeting and access the internet, not to mention being able to make a phone call. All of that and it is small enough to toss in a person’s pocket or handbag. As meaningful as all these extras are, one cannot have successful communication without the know how to communicate effectively. 
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Talking on the telephone is not just communicating, it’s an important tool in communicating first impressions for businesses and it’s important for maintaining contact with personal friends and family. Communicating first impressions by phone are an essential part of any business. It is important to have customers impressed on the first take of any conversation. For those individuals that don’t think they can do it on their own, seminars are offered on the subject that can run as high as $1500.00 (Harris, 1998). With a little research anyone can accomplish effective telephone skills without having to spend so much money.
          Being knowledgeable on the phone is an asset to any company. Knowing your basic general skills of simple telephone etiquette is important. Smile. This gives the impression of being more accessible by altering the muscles in the face making one appear less threatening (Moustafa).   In other words, the voice should convey the feeling and tone of calling a friend.  Answer the phone promptly and speak clearly and distinctly.  Never chew gum or eat while conversing and never cough or sneeze into the phone (Moustafa). When a cough or sneeze can’t be helped, cover your hand on the phone or push the mute button.  While these are the underlying basic essential skills, there are a few other techniques that one needs to possess.
          Possessing basic skills is important, but one must also learn to be friendly, proficient and intelligent.  Show the caller that you are genuinely interested in helping by being friendly. Build rapport to the customer by asking their name and addressing them properly; doing something as simple as this can lead to strong customer relations. (Dillahunty). Show your proficiency by handling the call quickly without delay. One should be able to handle the caller’s request without any hold-ups. Show your intelligence by being familiar with the company’s products or services so that you can converse about it (Tellervision). The objective is to satisfy most of the standard inquiries.
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    While learning simple telephone etiquette for businesses is important for communicating effectively, being able to communicate on the phone to family and friends is equally important. One doesn’t have to be as strict as in business communication, but the basic skills of smiling while you are on the other end of a telephone, not talking with your mouth full are essential for any communication.  But, when you are on a personal call, turn off the television or turn it down so the caller on the other end doesn’t have to compete.  If you’re not alone, your phone rings and you decide to answer your phone, stop talking to the person beside you; give you caller your attention and excuse yourself from your friend.  Sherifi says it best when talking about the essence of good telephone communication, “do unto others as you would have done unto you” (p. 30). 
    The computer and the internet have changed the way people live.  Electronic mail, e-mail, is a free service used to get mail over the internet than getting tons of mail from the post office. E-mail has helped family, friends, and businesses stay in touch with other people all over the world.  However, business e-mails are a different style than personal e-mails you send to friends and family.
          Businesses use printed documents as a formal way of communication.  Now with e-mail, formal printed documents are not used as much.  It is quicker to send an email to more than one person at a time.  If a manager has to send out the profit margin to many departments within the company, he could send the message all at once to the appropriate e-mail box.  When writing a business e-mail, use formal language, grammar, and manners (Huggins, Diana., 2009).  Always start an e-mail with a greeting and end with a closing. The message should be depersonalized and efficient.    Never use CAPS because they symbolize shouting.  Most people never read an e-mail if it is long so make the message short or have the important information at the beginning of the e-mail.  All the email correspondence should also be business related and not damaging to the company or the person sending it (Speedbrake Publishing., 2008). 
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    In business, a company might have branches in other countries and remembering cultural differences will help the communication go smoothly. Because of the cultural differences between the US and Japan, the message should reflect the appropriate cultural meanings.  In a different country, the word “free” could mean without charge in the US, could mean a “favor” in another.    Business e-mail is a formal style compared to personal e-mails.
      Personal e-mails are communication with friends and family. The message does not have to be formal.  The use of nicknames, slang, and IM speech is mostly used.  There is no need to have good grammar. The e-mail can contain pictures, backgrounds, and emoticons.  The message is casual and not formal and is an easier way to ask questions (Karth, Danelle. 2009).  People go to mate matching websites and it is easier for those people to get to know each other over e-mails first before they move on to the telephone.  The anxiety level is brought down because there is no face to face interaction.  They can ease into a communicative relationship.  However, people can send spam or chain letters to your e-mail box.  This is inappropriate use of e-mail if the recipient does not want the spam or chain letter. 
    Because mediated communication provides leaner messages than face to face communication, you need to be very aware and cautious of the information you are communicating (Adler, 2010).    When determining what information you are going to include, you have to be very careful in what you want to reveal and disclose about yourself knowing that any of your friends now have access to this information (Adler, 2010). The information we choose to disclose is because we want our friends to perceive us in a certain way.  We are trying to make an impression with those who see it.   If we want to accurately portray ourselves, we need to be honest when disclosing information.
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
          Social networking sites have become a very popular way for people to communicate daily with their “friends”.  Friends are those people that you identify as having a relationship with (Boyd, 2007). Friends on the social networking sites are not necessarily friends as we use the term in daily life.  These “friends” can be people that we have connected with in various settings; such as a classmate, member of your church or coworker (Boyd, 2007).  Facebook was launched in 2004 (MSU, 2009).  Since its inception Facebook has grown to approximately 200 million registered users, 100 million of these users log on to Facebook daily (Facebook, 2009).  Facebook allows you to communicate through photographs, updates and links to organizations.  You can also include personal information such as your birthday, age, education and employer.  Some employers even have their own Facebook site.
          On social networking sites, such as Facebook, you have the option to provide status updates and posts.  These provide your friends with a snap shot of what is on your mind.  For example: “For dinner tonight I am making spaghetti and meatballs.”  When engaging in these online statuses updates we lose the non verbal cues that we have when in face to face communications, so it is more difficult to know the effectiveness of what we are posting. How would some people react when reading the post about having spaghetti for dinner?   Happy?  Bored? Disgusted?  Those non verbal cues are no longer available in this form of mediated communication.  Facebook can also be a useful tool in your personal life to maintain friendships.  By logging on and reading the status updates, you can keep up with you friends and engage in online conversations more frequently then you might otherwise.
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    You have to keep in mind that more and more employers are using Facebook as a means to gather information.  It is stated that 32% of Human Resource and Business Managers use Facebook to gather background and behavior information (MSU, 2009).  The behaviors that they are looking for are poor writing, bad grammar, radical political views, comments and complaints.  Facebook can be a useful tool in the business world for network and maintaining contacts.  In can also be a useful tool in your personal life to maintain friendships.  Facebook can be used to start a dialogue that may have not otherwise been started if not for the information you disclose.
          When communicating any personal information on a social networking site, you need to think about how the information will be interpreted, what impressions it will form and how private the information is.    Because this is on the internet, anyone can have access. 
    The ability to communicate successfully is an ongoing learning process for most people. Dealing with hectic lives and a barrage of technological advances - having the tools in multiple media sources help accomplish the narrowing gap in communication. We now, more then ever, have access to such a plethora of information.
    With the continuing advances being made with the telephone, internet and site specific networks it is helping narrow that gap of disconnect between the population. These advances are affording the public to communicate with one another in real-time situations never before available to the masses. However, like with any form of new technology it must be used appropriately for which it was intended. Keeping that in mind will make for it to truly be successful and a benefit to the community. Being able to connect with people on a multitude of media levels, anytime, any place has truly continued the trend of shrinking this vast world.
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Adler, Ronald B., Rosenfeld, Lawrence B., & Proctor II, Russell F., (2010). Interplay, The
    Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Boyd, d. m., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship.
    Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 11.  
    Dillahunty, Jim (1999). Superior telephone skills can increase business. San Diego      Business
    Journal, 20(2), p.25.
    Facebook. (2009). Press Release Statistics.  Retrieved June 21, 2009, from Facebook Website: 
    Harris, Elizabeth E. (December 23, 1998). In a hi-tech age, smiling and dialing are still key to
    keeping clients happy.  Bond Buyer, 326, p. 26.
  • Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Huggins, Diana., 2009. Best Practices for Email in the Workplace., workplace-part-i/. IT Professionals and Lockergame. 1996-2009.
    Karth, Danelle., 2009., Effective ways to personal communication through e-mail. communication-through-e-mail.
    Mississippi State University (2009).  Using Social Networking Sites Effectively: Communication InanOn-Line World.  Retrieved June 2009 from
    Moustafa, Karen. (August 10, 1998, Issue 322340). Using the phone effectively can save time, money, customers. Business Journal serving Fresno & the Central San Joaquin Valley, 10797394.
    Polish your telephone skills. (1999, March 10).  Tellervision, 1225, 1-3.
    Sherifi, Jim (2007). How to maintain good telephone skills [Electronic version]. P ulseFinance. 
    Top 10 Workplace Email Tips., Speedbreak Publishing. Revised: 22 April 2008.
  • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Final Project Week 1
    PSY430 Ethics in Psychology
    Kayla Switzer (Sweeney)
    Katina Clarke
    January 14, 2011
  • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Week 1: Final Project
    Read the case study and analyze the behavior of the counselor, as a professional, which you consider unethical or unprofessional.
    After reading the case study, Joe behaved both unethically and unprofessionally while providing counseling services for Jill. Joe unprofessionally and unethically breached confidentiality with his client, cultural sensitivity, informed consent, counseling plan, personal values, conflict of interest, exploitative relationship, accurate representation, and professional competence. (ACA, 2005) Joe was not a good counselor for Jill and may have done her some harm concerning her issues.
    Unprofessionally, Joe could not stay objective and keep his composure when Jill said she was sexually confused. He also did not hold back about giving spiritual advice. He brought up a technique not researched enough and did not think whether it may be right for Jill’s situation. Joe was very unprofessional when he said he was not required to understand about her culture because of his geographical location. It was very unprofessional for Joe to get into a relationship with Jill. In addition, calling her boss to see how she was doing was unprofessional.
    Unethically, Joe did not inform Jill about trying to hypnotize her. He was not culturally sensitive. He caused harm which made her quit her job and end up in the hospital. He breached confidentiality when talking with her boss on the phone and telling him why she was going into therapy for. He tried to push his personal values when he said it was wrong for her to feel the way she does and the subject is closed. He started a relationship with her even before she was referred to another counselor.
  • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Write a brief summary of the unbecoming behavior. Substantiate the summary with reasons for your analysis.
    Joe’s first breach was when Jill told him about her confusion about her sexuality. He responded in an unprofessional manner; wide eyes and shocked look. This reaction should have been suppressed. In addition, he did not stay objective and pushed on her his personal values; religion. Joe should not have told her that she is wrong and should pray for forgiveness. “A.4.b. Personal Values Counselors are aware of their ownvalues, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviorsand avoid imposing values that are inconsistent with counseling goals.” (ACA, 2005) When he pushes the issue away, he is not thinking about the well-being of Jill and why she is there for therapy. Joe should not have brought up the new technique because it is not approved in the United States and may not be tested enough to show it could be beneficial. The technique may not be appropriate to Jill’s situation. In addition, when she declined using the technique, he tries to use hypnosis without her consent. This is a breach of informed consent. Using hypnosis may cause irreparable harm and should be done with consent. Joe is not capable of understanding Jill and be helpful to her because was not and did not want to understand about her culture. In order to successfully help Jill, he has to know as much as he can and understanding the culture she is from and be culturally sensitive when going forward in therapy. It was also wrong for Joe to tell Jill he did not have to read and/or study her cultural background, especially because of his geographic location; this does not make sense. Some patients may start to think about a relationship with their therapist; transference.
  • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Even though Joe and Jill decided to stop being counselor and client, Joe did go to see Jill out of the office and engaged in a sexual relationship with Jill for awhile. “A.5.b. Former Clients: Sexual or romantic counselor–clientinteractions or relationships withformer clients, their romantic partners,or their family members areprohibited for a period of 5 years following the last professional contact.” (ACA, 2005) Not providing a referral for Jill and helping her get the help she needs is a conflict of interest. He is not thinking objectively about Jill and is too close in order to help her completely. Joe is unethical concerning his relationship with his supervisor. Joe breached Jill’s confidentiality when he called her boss at work to see how she was. In addition, he told her boss why she was going to see him. Joe decided to change from a general counselor to family and marriage counseling. He cannot do this because he does not have the specialized training which would give him license to practice in this specialization. “C.2.b. New Specialty Areas of Practice Counselors practice in specialty areasnew to them only after appropriateeducation, training, and supervisedexperience.” (ACA, 2005) The degree Joe holds is not enough to go into another specialization.
  • Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA Code of Ethics. Retrieved January 14, 2011,
  • Foundations of Psychology
    Knowledge of Foundations of the Field
    Writing Assessment: Self-Reflection Paper
    PSY300 Developmental Psychology
    Submitted By: Kayla Sweeney
    July 12, 2010
  • Foundations of Psychology
    Self-Reflection Paper
    This week you'll analyze the impact of the physical, cognitive, and socioemotional processes on the Early Childhood stage and focus on maximizing physical and emotional health. Use your own life as a case study. Describe an event or a series of events in your life which occurred during early childhood that directly relate to the developmental processes/issues identified in the reading.
    In the context of the event(s) you described, refer to the online lectures and textbook to help you address all of the following areas:
    Analyze the influences that contribute to the physical development in early childhood
    Physical development is substantial; however, not as fast as in infancy. But significant parts of the body are still rapidly growing. The brain grows in size and myeilinization of the nerves occurs in the central nervous system. (Argosy University, 2010) Gross and fine motor skills speed up in development as the child gets into their 2nd and 3rd year. When I was 2 years old, my mother said I would help carry in a gallon of water and by the time I was 3 years old I was able to carry a gallon in each hand. Another influence of physical development is nutrition. Children need good nutrition so their bodies can grow strong and not become overweight. Nutrition problems can have a negative impact on the body and makes the body more prone to diseases and illnesses. I seemed to always have an ear infection or a runny nose when I was little. My mother says she never understood why I was always sick and the doctor did not really know why.
  • Foundations of Psychology
    Present specific recommendations for maximizing the physical development in early childhood
    Great nutrition is a key factor on growth development. The parents should look into a nutrition program for the child or put them on the ©Gerber Baby Plan. Adult food is not appropriate and some baby foods are missing key nutrients which promote healthy growth. Vaccines have been shown to keep dangerous diseases away from the child. Though there is controversy whether vaccines can cause Autism, “vaccines have nearly eradicated disabling bacterial meningitis and have become available to prevent measles, rubella, mumps, diphtheria, polio, and chicken pox.” (Argosy University, 2010) The parents should encourage their children to be outside and run, jump, and climb as much as possible, this will help with gross motor skills. Bringing children to the park where there are jungle gyms to stimulate many types of movement is recommended. To help with fine motor skills, toys such as blocks and puzzles should be used. My maternal grandfather bought me puzzles to work on, yet I still do them to this day.
  • Foundations of Psychology
    Analyze the influences that contribute to the cognitive development in early childhood
    Cognitively, children are developing a sense of the world. Their attention span increases and it is easier to keep a child occupied as long as they are kept stimulated. My mother would put on my favorite shows because she knew I would sit at the TV while she did housework. Children’s memory is lasting longer and this helps the child know more about their parents and others in the child’s life. “Studies clearly show that working memory capacity, which is the amount of information that can be held in working memory at any given moment, increases during early childhood.” (Argosy University, 2010) As stated before, children are sensing the world around them more. “…the theory of mind. It refers to what children understand about mental life, for example, understanding that they themselves have thoughts and beliefs, that other people have thoughts and beliefs, and that most of their behaviors are based on what they think and believe.” (Argosy University, 2010) They understand why a person goes to the bathroom and brushes their teeth before bed. However, children start with the “Me” attitude. Everything is for them and no one should have anything but the child. Language grows and the child is able to express themselves more. My mom said I would go around with my grandfather and ask him, “Why…?” My grandfather would have to tell me to stop asking questions or I would talk his ear off.
  • Foundations of Psychology
    Present specific recommendations for maximizing the cognitive development in early childhood
    Helping to maximize memory, repetition will help the child remember many different things. Before eating, tell the child to go and wash their hands. If kept up, the child will go and wash their hands before every meal without prompting. Using flash cards with the child can help them learn their colors and shapes. Children talk more at this age and encouraging talk will help the child express about the environment around them.
    Analyze the impact of family in early childhood socioemotional development
    The emotional stability of the family is very important on the child’s socioemotional development. If the parents are always angry and do not know how to express their feelings and emotions, the child will grow up angry, “As per the studies in the area of mother-child relationships, positive socioemotional development of children is positively related to the patterns of emotional language between mothers and children.” (Argosy University, 2010) The child’s temperament is affected by the family dynamic. The child will express their emotions the way they see their parents express their emotions.
  • Foundations of Psychology
    Analyze the influences that contribute to the socioemotional development in early childhood
    The family is not the only influence in the socioemotional development in early childhood. The order of the birth of the child is significant. “The oldest child is the only one who does not have to share parental love and affection with other siblings.” (Argosy University, 2010) My parents had 2 daughters and I am the older one. My sister and I are different in many ways and actually have a hard time communicating with each other. She has told me it is because she was jealous of me and how our parents always made time for me and my hobbies. Children learn a lot about themselves and their environment through playing. Whether playing with other children or make-believe playing, children get to understand how to interact with people. Children also learn morality. They get to understand what is wrong or right behaviors. They learn this by watching their parents and family. What happens after doing the behavior decided whether the behavior is going to be repeated. “There is little understanding of motives or intentions; in other words, young children judge the act by what happens as a result and not by a person’s intentions.” (Argosy University, 2010) When I was little, I would hit other children at pre-school and my parents would disciplined me by keeping me in my room, no TV, and no going outside to play.
    Present specific recommendations for maximizing socioemotional development in early childhood
    Parents should bring the child to places where there are other children to play with. Promote positive attitudes and a good parenting style where the child can be open in what they do, but there are rules to keep the child safe. Let the child be creative and shoe positive emotions even during stressful times.
  • Foundations of Psychology
    Argosy University. (2010). Developmental Psychology, PSY300, Module 2,
    Online Lectures. Retrieved July 12, 2010, from
  • Applied Psychology
    Knowledge of Applied Psychology
    Week 6 Final Project
    I/O Psychology
    Submitted by: Kayla Sweeney
    December 8, 2009
  • Applied Psychology
    Week 6 Final Project
    Florida Sun Company hires Frank for the position of Senior Staffing Manager at an annual salary of $40,000. This is far below the national average salary of $65,000 for this type of position. Although Frank feels the salary is low, he takes the job because he feels the organization may recognize him and allow him to advance to higher-paying jobs in the future.
    The Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory of motivation says we have needs that have to be filled to be satisfied. These needs are broken down into motivators and hygienes. The motivators are described according to Motivation (Blount, 2009),
    “The aspects of the job based on an individual’s need for personal growth. Effective motivators can result in employee satisfaction. Therefore, employees will be motivated to do their jobs. However, if motivators are ineffective or absent, employees will feel neutral about their jobs. Some examples of motivators are recognition, interesting work, and job responsibility.”
    The motivators get people to do the best work they can. One of the motivators for Frank is how he feels the company may recognize him and allow him to advance to higher-paying jobs in the future. This will keep Frank from slacking in his work. This could lead to job satisfaction.
    The hygienes are the backbone of job satisfaction. Hygiene is a need which will keep the person at least neutral towards their job. According to Motivation (Blount, 2009),
    “The aspects of the job focused on avoiding unpleasantness at work. If employees consider hygiene factors insufficient, they may be dissatisfied with and not motivated to do their jobs. However, if hygiene factors are sufficient, employees will feel neutral about their jobs. Some examples of hygiene factors are salary, working conditions, and the quality of supervision.”
  • Applied Psychology
    Using this description, Frank will not be dissatisfied with the company completely because he is getting a low salary. As he has stated he does not mind the low salary because there are some motivators which keeps him looking forward. In addition, these may lead to job satisfaction. If Frank continues to keep doing his job well, then the company may promote him higher in the company which will lead to a better pay.
    Another theory of motivation is the Equity theory which is considered a cognitive
    theory. We look at others around us and compare their status to ours. We look at the other’s salary, time with the company, experience, how hard they work, and their title.
    Tension and cognitive dissonance (Blount, 2009) affects motivation. If the balance in the employees mind goes off, the employee will start to dislike the job and not do the job as well as could be done. Absenteeism starts to go up and an attitude may develop which could turn customers away from the company. Other people would have to pick up the slack left by the employees who do not finish what they had to do because they seem lazy.
    I currently do not like my job. My motivation is lacking because of several reasons, I make minimum wage, the management are mean, they make me nervous, and they even swear at you, the environment is a little crowded, monotonous, and told to choose between my job and my health, my fiancé, and his health. They have a lack of regard for their employees. We are timed for our orders so we have to rush and get them done before time is up or we will eventually get yelled at. Because of these things I am not satisfied with my job.
    Employees may have a problem with motivating their employees when the job is not eventful, there is not much to do, and there are not many benefits. The employer may want to create a contest, a recognition box, a employee of the month, or some sort of good job object which can be given out anytime. The company needs to be creative in order to keep the employee’s interest to do the necessary work.
  • Applied Psychology
    Blount, Rebecca. 2009. Motivation, Module 6, retrieved December 3, 2009, from
  • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Is Asperger’s Syndrome a Different Classification than
    High-Functioning Autism?
    Kayla Sweeney
    PSY250 Writing in Psychology
    Bradley Waltman
    Argosy University
  • Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Please see PowerPoint Presentation: Is Asperger’s Syndrome a Different Classification than High-Functioning Autism?
  • My Future in Learning
    Being a lifelong learner is important in my life. If it is possible, I would keep going to school till my brain cannot hold any more information or my health prevents me from further education. Obtaining my Bachelor’s degree has been a tough road, but I was determined to make it this far. I am still very determined concerning future education. I had many obstacles in the way after I left high school. I did not go to college right away, but took a year off to get a job. Once I went back to school at Community College of Rhode Island, I went through many personal obstacles concerning family and other relationships. I loved the atmosphere of the classrooms. I passed all of my basic classes and enjoyed being able to take science classes; Anatomy and Human Physiology; and literature classes; Science Fiction and Fantasy and World Literature to the 1600’s. Taking the psychology classes was my focal point of going to the community college. I was able to dab in many different fields and found many interesting topics in many fields. After graduating from CCRI, I took time off to get my life back on track and get myself financially situated.
  • My Future in Learning
    When I decided to go back to school, my family and my current husband were very supportive. I looked at many different colleges in Rhode Island and the surrounding states and online colleges looking for the program and financially right for me. After narrowing my decision down to three colleges, I decided on Argosy University. I believed I would get the best education in the field of Psychology. Because I obtained my Associates Degree from CCRI, I was able to transfer most of my classes so I could get right into the psychology courses. I was able to take many different fields in Psychology from forensic psychology, counseling, I/O psychology, to social psychology. It was hard the years I was with Argosy because going to school full time, working, and caring for my spouse’s mental and psychical conditions. I do believe I got a lot of my time at Argosy and hope to continue my studies at a future university with a focus on addictions and substance abuse.
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