Hadorn Acal 2009 02

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Embryogenic evolution emulates in silico cell-like entities to get more powerful methods for complex evolutionary tasks. As simulations have to abstract from the biological model, implicit information hidden in its physics is lost. Here, we propose to use cell-like entities as a real-world in vitro testbed. In analogy to evolutionary robotics, where solutions evolved in simulations may be tested in real-world on macroscale, the proposed vesicular testbed would do the same for the embryogenic evolutionary tasks on mesoscale. As a first step towards a vesicular testbed emulating growth, cell division, and cell differentiation, we present a modified vesicle production method, providing custom tailored chemical cargo, and present a novel self-assembly procedure to provide vesicle aggregates of programmable composition.

Vesicular Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems – How to Connect Wet and Soft Artificial Life. The Fourth Australian Conference on Artificial Life (ACAL09), Melbourne, Australia (1-4 December 2009), 20 minutes oral presentation.

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Hadorn Acal 2009 02

  1. 1. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 « Living Technology = Engineering living from non-living by... Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems pp. 169-178 … exploiting life’s principles in technology. » Bedau MA, McCaskill JS, Packard NH, and Rasmussen S Living Technology: Exploiting Life's Principles in Technology. Artificial Life in press (doi:10.1162/artl.2009.16.1.16103). Vesicular Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems – How to Connect Wet and Soft Artificial Life Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  2. 2. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 ASIMO www.flickr.com Background: Traditional Engineering Methods = masterpieces of human design Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  3. 3. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 Background: HYDRA = ‘living’ building blocks for self-designing artefacts Despite their well-known advantages, traditional engineering methods are inflexible and unreliable when compared to biological organisms. The experts behind the HYDRA project, therefore, are contemplating a novel architecture for the development of artefacts inspired by cell- biology and based on simple building blocks. The potential of the new design standard will be exemplified through the construction of robotic systems that can change morphology, and result in flexible, robust and applicable artefacts far beyond any known conventional engineering perspective. HYDRA, IST-2001-33060, 2001–2004. « » http://hydra.mip.sdu.dk/home.html Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  4. 4. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 http://hydra.mip.sdu.dk/home.html Background: Modular Robotics = getting inspired by nature Ability to reconfigure Robustness Adaptivity Ability of self-repair Lower production costs Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  5. 5. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 http://hydra.mip.sdu.dk/home.html Background: Modular Robotics Meets Traditional Engineering = struggle with technical problems Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  6. 6. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 http://video.google.ch/videoplay?docid=-5865891654546717645&hl=de# Background: Soft Is Smart = exploiting material properties Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  7. 7. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 Dumais J (2007). Can mechanics control pattern formation in plants? Current Opinion in Plant Biology 10(1):58- 62. Background: Soft Is Smart = exploiting material properties Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  8. 8. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 James Estrin/The New York Times Background: Soft Is Smart = exploiting material properties Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  9. 9. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 [Dr. Walker of Clemson] cautioned that soft is hard and that the road ahead could be far longer and more difficult than it seems today for the Tufts researchers [because] “it’s very hard to engineer with all- soft components. We had to make compromises along the way”. « » http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/27/science/27r obo.html?pagewanted=2&_r=3&ei=5070&en=9 1395fe7439a5b72&ex=1177128000 Background: “Soft Is Hard” (Dr. Walker) = struggle with nasty little technical problems There [are] other challenges. Designing computer programs to operate the arm was something “we thought we would spend six months working out,” he recalled. “Two or three Ph.D. theses later, we finally understood the problem. Not that we had solved the problem. We understood the problem.” http://www.ces.clemson.edu/~ianw/ Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  10. 10. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 Eggenberger Hotz P, 2004. Artificial Life IX. Eggenberger Hotz P, 2003. in On Growth, Form and Computers. Eggenberger Hotz P, 2004. CEC 2004. Background: Keep It Simple = control inspired by nature Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  11. 11. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 Background: Vesicles = the C of the CMP-model (Compartment, Metabolism, Program) Hadorn M, Burla B, and Eggenberger Hotz P (2009). Towards Tailored Communication Networks in Assemblies of Artificial Cells. 4th Australian Conference on Artificial Life. Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  12. 12. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 Hadorn M and Eggenberger Hotz P (2010). Towards Personalized Drug Delivery: Preparation of an Encapsulated Multicompartment System. Valencia, Spain, Jan 20-23, 2010. Result: Multiple Addresses = self-assembled MCCNs of defined architecture α‘ / γ α / β β‘ / γ‘ Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  13. 13. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 Discussion: Bring in the Genes = bring in the M and P of the CMP-model (Compartment, Metabolism, Program) Noireaux V and Libchaber A (2004). A vesicle bioreactor as a step toward an artificial cell assembly. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(51):17669-17674. Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems
  14. 14. M. Hadorn / P. Eggenberger University of Zurich, Department of Informatics, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Southern Denmark, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute Why vesicles Multivesicular aggregates could: • serve as models for biological tissue • lead to new methods for processing artificial tissues / ‘soft’ composite materials • be used as bioreactors Why multivesicular aggregates ACAL’09, 03-Dec-09 Acknowledgments Enrico Martinoia Prof. Institute of Plant Biology University of Zurich Bo Burla Doctoral Student Institute of Plant Biology University of Zurich Peter Eggenberger Hotz Associated Professor Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute University of Southern Denmark Rolf Pfeifer Prof. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory University of Zurich Eva Bönzli Doctoral Student Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Zurich SNF-Project EES 200020-118127 EU_Project PACE EU-IST-FP6-FET-002035 Multivesicular Assemblies as Real-world Testbeds for Embryogenic Evolutionary Systems

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