2. ::Content::1. Introduction of Food Processing.2. About Fermentation and Fermented Products.3. Processed Foods: Cheese/ Yogurt.4. Processing of Foods: Food Spoilage and Preservation.5. Conclusion.
3. Introduction of Food Processing :The productive enterprises concerned with food processing are known as TheFood Processing Industry.Food processing is the set of methods andtechniques used to transform rawingredients into food or to transform foodinto other forms for consumption byhumans or animals either in the home or bythe food processing industry.Food processing typically takes clean,harvested crops or butchered animalproducts and uses these to produceattractive, marketable and often long shelf-life food products.Similar processes are used to produceanimal feed.Extreme examples of food processinginclude the delicate preparation of deadly Industrial Cheese Productionfugu fish or preparing space food forconsumption under zero gravity.
4. History and principle of Food Processing:The History of Food Processing:The origin of food processing goes all the way back to ancient Egypt, yet theperiod of those developments seems to symbolize the history of the culture ofmankind.Nowadays, bread, which is characterized by its use of the fermentation action ofyeast and which uses wheat flour as its raw material, is baked all over the world.The origins of beer also go back to Babylon and Egypt in the period from 3,000 to5,000 BC.The foundation of the modern industry was built up with the introduction ofmachinery and technology of new methods from Germany.Nowadays, the processed foods that are thriving in grocery shops are modernprocessed foods and traditional foods, but their manufacturing technology, processcontrol and manufacturing and packaging environmental facilities have beenadvanced and rationalized to an incomparable extent in the last 30 years.As a result, products with high quality and uniformity are now beingmanufactured.This is based on the advancement of food science, and is, moreover, due to thegeneral introduction of hygienics, applied microbiology, mechanical engineering,chemical engineering, electronic engineering and high-polymer technology.
5. Benefits and Drawbacks:Benefits:Benefits of food processing includetoxin removal, preservation, easingmarketing and distribution tasks, andincreasing food consistency.In addition, it increases seasonalavailability of many foods, enablestransportation of delicate perishable foodsacross long distances and makes manykinds of foods safe to eat by de-activatingspoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.Processed foods are usually lesssusceptible to early spoilage than freshfoods and are better suited for longdistance transportation from the source tothe consumer. Processed seafood - fish, squid, prawn balls and simulated crab sticks (surimi).
6. Processing can also reduce the incidence of food borne disease.Fresh materials, such as fresh produce and raw meats, are more likely to harbourpathogenic micro-organisms (e.g. Salmonella) capable of causing serious illnesses.Drawbacks:Any processing of food can have slight effects on its nutritional density.Vitamin C, for example, is destroyed by heat and therefore canned fruits have alower content of vitamin C than fresh ones.Another safety concern in food processing is the use of food additives. The healthrisks of any additives will vary greatly from person to person, in example sugar asan additive would be detrimental to those with diabetes.Food processing is typically a mechanical process that utilizes large mixing,grinding, chopping and emulsifying equipment in the production process. Theseprocesses inherently introduce a number of contaminate risks.Food manufactures utilize industrial metal detectors to detect and rejectautomatically any metal fragment
7. About Fermentation and Fermented products:Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates toalcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or acombination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. A more restricted definition of fermentation is the chemical conversion of sugarsinto ethanol.The science of fermentation is known as zymurgy.Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desirable, andthe process is used to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer and cider. Fermentation is also employed in the leavening of bread, and for preservation techniques to create lactic acid in sour foods such as sauerkraut, dry sausages, kimchi and yogurt, or vinegar (acetic acid) for use in pickling foods. French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first known zymologist, when in 1856 he connected yeast to fermentation. Pasteur originallyBeer fermenting at a brewery defined fermentation as "respiration without air".
8. Fermented products:Bean-based Dairy-basedSoy sauce, stinky tofu, Cheese, kefir, kumissoybean paste, Beijing (mare milk),culturedmung bean milk. milk products such as yogurtGrain-basedBeer, bread, rice wine, Fish-basedmalt whisky, grain Fish sauce, Garum,whisky, idli, dosa. jeotgal, rakfi, shrimp pasteVegetable-basedKimchi, mixed pickle, Meat-basedIndian pickle Chorizo, Salami, pepperoni Batter made from RiceFruit-based and Lentil (Vigna mungo)Wine, vinegar, cider, Tea-based prepared and fermentedperry Kombucha for baking idlis and dosasHoney-basedMead, metheglin
9. Processed Food: Cheese/ YogurtConvenience food, or tertiary processedfood, is commercially prepared food designedfor ease of consumption. Products designated asconvenience foods are often prepared foodstuffs that can be sold as hot, ready-to-eatdishes; as room-temperature, shelf-stableproducts; or as refrigerated or frozen productsthat require minimal preparation (typically justheating).These products are often sold in portioncontrolled, single serve packaging designed forportability for "on-the-go" eating.Convenience food can include products such ascandy; beverages such as soft drinks, juices andmilk; fast food; nuts, fruits and vegetables infresh or preserved states; processed meats andcheeses; and canned products such as soups andpasta dishes. A rack of convenience foods
10. Processed cheese:Processed cheese, process cheese, cheese slice, preparedcheese, or cheese food is a food product made from normalcheese and sometimes other unfermented dairy ingredients,plus emulsifiers, extra salt, food colorings or whey Manyflavors, colors, and textures of processed cheese exist.The Laughing Cow is an example of processed cheese.Although processed cheese was first invented in 1911 by Processed cheeseWalter Gerber of Thun, Switzerland, it was James L. Kraft (wrapped slices)who first applied for an American patent for his method in1916.Advantages:Processed cheese has several technical advantages over unprocessed cheese,including extended shelf-life, resistance to separation when cooked, anduniformity of product.The use of emulsifiers in processed cheese results in cheese that meltssmoothly when cooked.Disadvantages:Processed cheese is often criticized for its possible health effects (associated withchemical preservatives, artificial colors/flavors, and trans-fats), inferior taste, andsmall range of flavors, which is far narrower than the range for unprocessed cheesesand normally very mild.
11. Yoghurt:Yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterialfermentation of milk.The bacteria used to make yoghurt are known as "yoghurtcultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteriaproduces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to giveyoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang.Dairy yoghurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillusdelbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius Yogurtsubsp. thermophilus bacteria.In addition, Lactobacillus acidophilus, bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus caseiare also sometimes added during or after culturing yoghurt.The milk is first heated to about 80 C (176 F) to kill any undesirable bacteriaand to denature the milk proteins so that they set together rather than form curds.The milk is then cooled to about 45 C (112 F). The bacteria culture is added,and the temperature is maintained for 4 to 7 hours to allow fermentation.Varieties:Sweetened and flavoured yoghurt.Strained yoghurts.Beverages.
12. Processing of Food: Food Spoilage andPreservation:Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform rawingredients into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption byhumans or animals either in the home or by the food processing industry.Food processing typically takes clean, harvested crops or butchered animalproducts and uses these to produce attractive, marketable and often long shelf-lifefood products.Similar processes are used to produce animal feed.Food Spoilage:Spoilage is the process in which fooddeteriorates to the point in which it is not edible tohumans or its quality of edibility becomesreduced.Various external forces are responsible for thespoilage of food. Food that is capable of spoilingis referred to as perishable food. Rotten Apple
13. Reasons:Harvested crops decompose from the moment they are harvested due to attacksfrom microorganisms. These include bacteria, mold, yeast, and enzymes.Bacteria:Various bacteria can be responsible for the spoilage of food.When bacteria breaks down the food, acids and other waste products are createdin the process.While the bacteria itself may or may not be harmful, the waste products may beunpleasant to taste or may even be harmful to ones health.Yeasts:Yeasts can be responsible for the decomposition of food with a high sugar content.The same effect is useful in the production of various types of food and beverages,such as bread, yogurt, cider, and alcoholic beverages.Signs:Signs of food spoilage may include an appearance different from the food in itsfresh form, such as a change in color, a change in texture, an unpleasant odor, oran undesirable taste. The item may become softer than normal. If mold occurs, itis often visible externally on the item.
14. Consequences:Some spoiled foods are harmless to eat, and may simply be diminished in quality.But foods exhibiting certain types of spoilage may be harmful to consume.Uncooked or under-cooked animal flesh that spoils is typically quite toxic can resultin serious illness or sometimes death.The toxic effects from consuming spoiled food are known colloquially as "foodpoisoning", and more properly as "foodborne illness".Food Prevention:A number of methods of prevention can be used that can either totally prevent, delay,or otherwise reduce food spoilage.Preservatives can expand the shelf life of food and can lengthen the time long enoughfor it to be harvested, processed, sold, and kept in the consumers home for areasonable length of time.Refrigeration can increase the shelf life of certain foods and beverages, though withmost items, it does not indefinitely expand it. Freezing can preserve food even longer,though even freezing has limitations.Canning of food can preserve food for a particularly long period of time, whethercanned at home or commercially. Canned food is vacuum packed in order to keepoxygen out of the can that is needed to allow bacteria to break it down. Canning doeshave limitations, and does not preserve the food indefinitely.Dried foods can last a long time, sometimes nearly indefinitely.
15. Food Preservation:Food preservation is the process oftreating and handling food to stop orslow down spoilage (loss of quality,edibility or nutritional value) and thusallow for longer storage.Preservation usually involvespreventing the growth of bacteria, yeasts,fungi, and other micro-organisms(although some methods work byintroducing benign bacteria, or fungi tothe food), as well as retarding theoxidation of fats which cause rancidity.Food preservation can also include processes which inhibit visual deterioration thatcan occur during food preparation; such as the enzymatic browning reaction inapples after they are cut.Many processes designed to preserve food will involve a number of foodpreservation methods.Preserving fruit, by turning it into jam, for example, involves boiling (to reduce thefruit’s moisture content and to kill bacteria, yeasts, etc.), sugaring (to prevent theirre-growth) and sealing within an airtight jar (to prevent recontamination).
16. There are many traditional methods of preserving food that limit the energy inputsand reduce carbon footprint.Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is an important aspectof food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically altered thecharacter of the food being preserved.In many cases these changes have now come to be seen as desirable qualities –cheese, yoghurt and pickled onions being common examples.Preservation processes:Preservation processes include:Heating to kill or denature micro-organisms (e.g., boiling)Oxidation (e.g., use of sulfur dioxide)Ozonation (e.g., use of ozone [O3] or ozonated water to kill undesired microbes)Toxic inhibition (e.g., smoking, use of carbon dioxide, vinegar, alcohol etc.)Dehydration (drying)Osmotic inhibition (e.g., use of syrups)Low temperature inactivation (e.g., freezing)Ultra high water pressure (e.g., Fresherized®, a type of “cold” pasteurization;intense water pressure kills microbes which cause food deterioration and affect foodsafety)
17. Dehydration:Drying is one of the most ancient food preservation techniques, which reduceswater activity sufficiently to prevent or delay bacterial growth.Refrigeration:Refrigeration preserves food by slowing down thegrowth and reproduction of micro-organisms andthe action of enzymes which cause food to rot. Theintroduction of commercial and domesticrefrigerators drastically improved the diets ofmany in the Western world by allowing foods suchas fresh fruit, salads and dairy products to bestored safely for longer periods, particularly during Refrigeration processwarm weather. Freezing: Freezing is also one of the most commonly used processes commercially and domestically for preserving a very wide range of food including prepared food stuffs which would not have required freezing in their unprepared state. For example, potato waffles are stored in the freezer, but potatoes themselves require only a cool dark place to ensure many months storage.. Freezing process
18. Cold stores provide large volume, long-term storage for strategic food stocksheld in case of national emergency in many countries
19. Vaccum Packing:Vacuum-packing stores food in a vacuumenvironment, usually in an air-tight bag orbottle. The vacuum environment stripsbacteria of oxygen needed for survival,slowing spoiling. Vacuum-packing iscommonly used for storing nuts to reduce lossof flavor from oxidation. Vaccum Packing process Salting: Salting or curing draws moisture from the meat through a process of osmosis. Meat is cured with salt or sugar, or a combination of the two. Nitrates and nitrites are also often used to cure meat and contribute the characteristic pink color, as well as inhibition of Clostridium botulinum. Salting processSugar:Sugar is used to preserve fruits, either in syrup with fruit such as apples, pears,peaches, apricots, plums or in crystallized form where the preserved material iscooked in sugar to the point of crystallisation and the resultant product is thenstored dry. This method is used for the skins of citrus fruit (candied peel),angelica and ginger.
20. A modification of this process produces glacé fruit such as glacé cherries where thefruit is preserved in sugar but is then extracted from the syrup and sold, thepreservation being maintained by the sugar content of the fruit and the superficialcoating of syrup.Canning:Canning involves cooking food, sealing it in sterilecans or jars, and boiling the containers to kill orweaken any remaining bacteria as a form ofsterilization. It was invented by Nicolas Appert.Foods have varying degrees of natural protectionagainst spoilage and may require that the final stepoccur in a pressure cooker.High-acid fruits like strawberries require nopreservatives to can and only a short boiling cycle,whereas marginal fruits such as tomatoes requirelonger boiling and addition of other acidic elements. Canning processLow acid foods, such as vegetables and meats require pressure canning. Foodpreserved by canning or bottling is at immediate risk of spoilage once the can orbottle has been opened.Lack of quality control in the canning process may allow ingress of water or micro-organisms.Most such failures are rapidly detected as decomposition within the can causes gasproduction and the can will swell or burst.
21. However, there have been examples of poor manufacture (underprocessing) andpoor hygiene allowing contamination of canned food by the obligate anaerobeClostridium botulinum, which produces an acute toxin within the food, leading tosevere illness or death.This organism produces no gas or obvious taste and remains undetected by taste orsmell. Its toxin is denatured by cooking, though. Cooked mushrooms, handledpoorly and then canned, can support the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, whichproduces a toxin that is not destroyed by canning or subsequent reheating.Pasteurization:Pasteurization is a process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specifictemperature for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately. Thisprocess slows microbial growth in food.The process of heating wine to preserve it longer was known in China sinceAD.1117, and is documented in Japan in 1568 in the diary Tamonin-nikki, but themodern version was created by the French chemist and microbiologist LouisPasteur, after whom it is named.The first pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard inApril 1862.The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wie andbeer from souring.Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is not intended to kill all micro-organisms in thefood.
22. Process of Pasteurization of milkAntibiotics:Nisin- It is often added to cheese to avoid the growth of endospore forming spoilagebacteria, its an example of bacteriocin, a protein that is produced by one bacterium andinhibits another. Nisin is present naturally in small amount in many dairy products.Natamycin- an antifungal antibiotic used in foods. Example: Cheese.
23. Conclusion:Thereby we conclude up this topic with a quick review about The Food ProcessingIndustry. The productive enterprises concerned with food processing is Known asThe Food Processing Industry. The Food Processing is the process of transformingfood into other form for the consumption either by humans or animals or The FoodProcessing Industry. The origin of food processing goes all the way back to ancientEgypt, yet the period of those developments seems to symbolize the history of theculture of mankind and as man evolved from its ancient time, the processing of foodhas also entered a new era.As every possible thing has some merits, it shows some demerits too. Like wise,preservation of food shows some merits like it minimizes the risk of toxins and itsdoesn’t gets spoiled easily like fresh foods. On the other hand its harmful on sonenutritional basis too.Fermentation and processing of food gives certain new kind of products.Fermentation is done with the use of micro-organisms. Processed foods as discussedabove are foods that are made for the consumption by humans or animals forexample. Processed Cheese and Yoghurt.
24. Food spoilage is another important reason for making or producing processedfoods. The reason behind this spoilage is bacteria and yeast, but through certainpreventive measure it can be stopped. Food preservation can be done by certainmethods like dehydration, refrigeration, canning, freezing, salting, sugar, vaccumpacking, pasteurization and antibiotics.