Carson River East ForkTitleHada EstradaProfessor LawlerGeology 103
Content* Geological formation of rivers* Historical information* Location and size* Flora* Rocks / Minerals* Fauna* Summary
Geological formation of a river“Rivers usually begin as a trickle of waterhigh in hills ormountains.Some come from rainwaterormelting snow.Most of the time they emerge from underground streams, formedafterrain orsnow seeps into the ground then bubbles back to thesurface.As the waterflows downhill, the trickle swells into a streamand then, as side streams called tributaries join it, into a widerriver”(Weimeyer, 2001).Photo by Author
Historical InformationCarson RiverThe Carson river was formed during the last iceage, from 12,000 to 75,000 years ago, the climatewas so wet that the lower portion of the CarsonRiver Watersh was covered by the immenseprehistoric Lake Lahontan, which was created bymeltwater from numerous glaciers (Loomis, 2007).During the wettest period, the surface level of LakeLahontan, refuge was approximately 700 feetabove the current ground level! For the last 12,000years, the climate has varied, but the region hassettled into a desert environment with wetlands fedby snowmelt from the Sierra headwaters (Loomis2007).Photo by Author
The Present Situation➲ “The Carson River Basin encompasses an area of approximately3,966 square miles”➲ The river travels in both California & Nevada➲ The Carson River Watershed encompasses portions of sixcounties: Alpine, Douglas, Carson City, Storey, Lyon, andChurchill. The Carson River is 184 miles long from theheadwaters on the East Fork to the end point in the Carson Sink(Drew, 2010).Location and SizePhoto by Author
Flora“Lupine cultivation is at least 2,000 yearsold most likely it began in Egypt or in thegeneral Mediterranean region.The lupine plant, like other grainlegumes fixes atmospheric nitrogen,and produces seed high in protein”LupineIndian PaintbrushGolden Brodiaes“Indian paintbrush belongs to agroup of perennial herbs native toNorth and South America. Morethan 30 species come from theUnited States and Mexico, andone species originates in northernAsia. These plants are seldomgrown in gardens because theyare partly parasitic and often needthe roots of a host plant”.“The Golden Brodiaea isgenerally described as a perennialforb/herb.(Tappe, 1942)
FloraJeffrey PineKingdom: PlantaeDivision: PinophytaClass: PinopsidaOrder: PinalesFamily: PinaceaeGenus: PinusSubgenus: PinusSpecies: P. jeffreyiPhoto by AuthorAspen treeJeffrey PineJeffrey Pine and Ponderosa Pine are common species of pine trees inthe Tahoe Basin. The Jeffery pine evolved from the Pinus. The Pinusevolved from the middle latitude of the Northern Hemisphere in themiddle of the Mesozoic period. Changing climates in the early Tertiaryestablished warm and humid tropical/ subtropical conditions.Pines and their relatives despaired for much area during this periodand were replaced by diverse angiosperm taxa of the flora. The effectof this climate change and spread of boreotropical flora was todisplace pines from their former habitats (Fowler, 1970)..
Rocks & MineralsPhoto by AuthorThis rock that I found in the CarsonRiver is a product of River erosion,this occurs because of the grindingagainst the bed and sides, andthis is what produces the pot holeappearance.This particular rock is a classificationof sedimentary sandstone.* Circular depressions on the river bed* Formed by corrotion* Most effected in flood conditions* Pebbles which are trapped in hollowson the river bed are wirled about inturbulent fast flowing waterThis is a clastic sedimentary rock. Sandstone is formed by quartz and feldspar(McCarthy, 1906).
Rocks & MineralsI found this rock along side the Carson river and Ibelieve thatThis type of rock is a breccia. The breccia rock ismade of smaller rocks, like conglomerate. Butbreccia contains sharp, broken clasts whileconglomerate has smooth, round clasts. Avolcanic or igneous breccia forms during eruptiveactivities (Ogden, 1988).This type of rock is around the area because of theVolcanic activation that occurred 4 million years ago duringThe Mesozoic period.Photo by Author
Lahontan Cutthroat TroutKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: ActinopterygiiOrder: SalmoniformesFamily: SalmonidaeGenus: OncorhynchusSpecies: O. clarkiSubspecies: O. c. henshawi(California Trout and Rivers, 2010)Photo by nas.er.usgs.govThe Lahontan Cutthroat is a Speciationamong Oncorhynchus. the split betweenOncorhynchus and Salmo must haveoccurred well before the Pliocene.Photo by Author
FaunaPhoto by AuthorOrder: Lepidoptera(butterflies and moths)Family: Papilionidae (apollos,swallowtails, and birdwings)Genus: Papilio (trueswallowtails)Species: glaucas“The Appalachiantiger swallowtail,Papilioappalachiensis,evolved from mixingbetween the Easterntiger swallowtail, P.glaucus, and theCanadian tigerswallowtail, P.canadensis”(Stephens, 1906).Photo by Google imagesCoyotes evolved from C. l. orcutti, and itwas a larger, more robust,and more wolf-like coyote than Holocenepopulations.The earliest Holocene coyotes from RLBpit 10 show a distinct change inmorphology within 1,000 y of themegafaunal extinctions.Biotic interactions are the most likely causefor morphological evolution in coyoteKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: MammaliaInfraclass: EutheriaOrder: CarnivoraFamily: CanidiaeGenus: CanisSpecies: C. latrans
Work Cited* Drew, Stephen. “Lake Tahoe History”. pp. 343. Retrieved 2010-10-16* Fowler, Catherine S. Fowler, Stephen Powers (Summer-Autumn, 1970). "Stephen PowersEthnohistory, Vol. 17, No. 3/4: 117–149.* Fitz-James MacCarthy (1906-02-18). “High Grade Rock” Nevada State Journal. Retrieved 2011-07-10* Loomis, David (2007-07). “East Carson River Strategy” (Report). USDA Forest Service. pp. 43.Retrieved 2012-12-09* Stephens, Frank (1906). “California Mammals”. San Diego, California: The West CoastPublishing Company. p. 97. Retrieved 2010-06-19.* Tappe, Donald T. (1942). “The Status of The Flora in California” i. Game Bulletin No. 3(California Department of Fish & Game). Retrieved 2010-10-28.* U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. TheNational Map” accessed March 17, 2011* Weimeyer, S. N. (2001). “Humbold River”(Report). USFWS, Reno Field Office. Retrieved 2010-10-28.