Water and sewage systems for future cities. Cases: New York and Bangalore

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Infrastructure 2013: Water

Presentation from the first 'Infrastructure 2013' evening seminar on access to clean water and water managment in growing cities. Seminar held in Oslo 20 March 2013.

Vann og avløpsløsninger i fremtidens byer. Case Bangalore/New York
Petter D Jenssen, Universitetet for Miljø og Biovitenskap (UMB)Association for International Water Studies)

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  • Jeg skal gjennom endel eksempler illustrere hva Norge kan bidra med for å arbeide mot de målene som FN har satt.
  • On the other hand many rivers and waterways are running sewers in the dry season due to discharge of untrited sewage containing large amounts of organic matter and nutrients that cause both eutrophication and saprobication. In addition to the water pollution, aesthetic and odor problem this situation that unfortunately is very common poses a local health problem.
  • Kan teknologien løse disse utfordringene?
  • Separating toilet waste (blackwater) and greywater at the household level gives many new and promising possibilities for recycling and resource saving. In the nutrient and energy loop we produce fertilizer and bioenergy from excreta and organic household waste. And in the water loop we can purify the greywater to be meet water quality standards for irrigation, groundwater recharge and even drinking water.
  • Separating toilet waste (blackwater) and greywater at the household level gives many new and promising possibilities for recycling and resource saving. In the nutrient and energy loop we produce fertilizer and bioenergy from excreta and organic household waste. And in the water loop we can purify the greywater to be meet water quality standards for irrigation, groundwater recharge and even drinking water.
  • The greywater treatment system at Klosterenga is part of the landscaping of the backyard. The biofilter is locatied under the playground. The treated water meets the EU-standards for bathing water quality. The clear water is very low in organic matter and exposed in a water cascade and in a shallow effluent pond. The system ha been in operation for 10 years and with consistent high effluent quality.
  • I bakgården til miljøboligene på Klosterenga i Oslo ligger et naturbasert renseanlegg som renser gråvannet fra de 33 leilighetene i miljøboligene. Anlegget er en del av den parkmessige utformingen av bakgården. Institutt for tekniske fag har vært ansvarlige for anleggets funksjon. Landsklpsarkitetkfirmaet Grindaker har stått for estetisk utforming. Fosfor 10g/d bindingskap. 2kg/m2.
  • I bakgården til miljøboligene på Klosterenga i Oslo ligger et naturbasert renseanlegg som renser gråvannet fra de 33 leilighetene i miljøboligene. Anlegget er en del av den parkmessige utformingen av bakgården. Institutt for tekniske fag har vært ansvarlige for anleggets funksjon. Landsklpsarkitetkfirmaet Grindaker har stått for estetisk utforming. Fosfor 10g/d bindingskap. 2kg/m2.
  • I bakgården til miljøboligene på Klosterenga i Oslo ligger et naturbasert renseanlegg som renser gråvannet fra de 33 leilighetene i miljøboligene. Anlegget er en del av den parkmessige utformingen av bakgården. Institutt for tekniske fag har vært ansvarlige for anleggets funksjon. Landsklpsarkitetkfirmaet Grindaker har stått for estetisk utforming. Fosfor 10g/d bindingskap. 2kg/m2.
  • I bakgården til miljøboligene på Klosterenga i Oslo ligger et naturbasert renseanlegg som renser gråvannet fra de 33 leilighetene i miljøboligene. Anlegget er en del av den parkmessige utformingen av bakgården. Institutt for tekniske fag har vært ansvarlige for anleggets funksjon. Landsklpsarkitetkfirmaet Grindaker har stått for estetisk utforming. Fosfor 10g/d bindingskap. 2kg/m2.
  • Dr. Roshan Shresta som er leder for UN-Habitat programmet water for Asian Cities har laget sin egen autonome løsning. Shresta er bortimot selvforsynt med vann og har tilnærmet 0-utslipp. Huset til Shresta ligger midt et tett bebygd boligstrøk ii Kathmandu. Shresta høster og lagrer regnvann. Han har et urinsorterende toalett som bruker svært lite vann og han bruker kompost laget av fekaliene og urin i grønnsakhagen. Renset gråvann blir brukt til vanning av grønnskahage og grøntarealer.
  • Fekaliene blir til kompost som brukes i hagen
  • Grønnsaker fra egen hage
  • Bilder fra pryd og nyttehage
  • I tørre perioder er Shreta den eneste i nabolget som har vann til å vaske bilen
  • I tørre perioder er Shreta den eneste i nabolget som har vann til å vaske bilen
  • I slummen i Bangalore har svært få tilgang på sanitærfasiliteter.Dette skaper store problemer særlig for kvinner som må holde seg hele dagen. Mange tar venn fra lokale brønner som er sterkt forurenset.
  • Kuching hadde som nevnt ikke noe avløpssystem. De har imidlertid vannklosett som går via en septiktnk og ut i rennesteinen eller stiemkanler. Gråvannet går urenset ut. Kuching vurderer både sentrle og desentrale løsninger. Danida har leid ekspertise fra UMB v´fo å utrede desentrale løsninger.
  • Den desentrale løsningen går ut på å installere lavtspylende toaletter og gjøre om septiktanken til en tett tank. Uen har allerede vakuumtankbiler som renser septitanker og mottak for dette. Danskene foreslår å bygge et sentralt biogassanlegg for mottak av bl.a. Toalettavfall. Dette kan da bli til gjødsel og energi. Fordi dette er en stor by hvor volumene blir store vurderes å lage fast gjødsel av utløpet fra biogassproduksjonen. Gråvannet skal renses lokalt.
  • Det foreslåtte biogassanlegget
  • Pilotprosjektet med lokal gråvannsrensing og tette tanker for svartvann for 10 lliligheter i rekkehusbebyggelse (50 personer). Våtmarken er bygd med leca (2-4mm) i forfilteret og lokal kalkstein i våtmarksfilteret.
  • Renseresultatene er svært gode. Dette viser gjennomsnittstall for de 3 første prøveår.
  • In principle it will look like this with a dual piping system
  • It is intended process the blackwater and organic household waste to biogas and fertilizer that can be used in agriculture or green areas. The science part of the project aims at producing a solidified fertilizer from the biogas effluent.
  • The greywater will be treated through a series of unit processes developed by Norwegian companies. These processes have never been tried in sequence before, but the new combination can produce water for GROUNDWATER RECHARGE, IRRIGATION AND EVEN DRINKING WATER
  • If the greywater is recycled for inhouse use 90% watersaving are possible, thus the need for new water can be reduced 10-fold
  • The greywater treatment system at Klosterenga is part of the landscaping of the backyard. The biofilter is locatied under the playground. The treated water meets the EU-standards for bathing water quality. The clear water is very low in organic matter and exposed in a water cascade and in a shallow effluent pond. The system ha been in operation for 10 years and with consistent high effluent quality.
  • Water and sewage systems for future cities. Cases: New York and Bangalore

    1. 1. 1 Phewa lake, Pokhara
    2. 2. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen Habitat Norway - Infrastructure 2013 20. mars,2013 Vann- og avløpsløsninger for framtidens byer med eksempler bl.a. fra New York og Bangalore Petter D. Jenssen Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, 1 Norwegian University of Life Sciences www.umb.no
    3. 3. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES3,4 million people die anually 1,2 billion people dodue to diseses caused by not have access tolack of proper water clean waterand sanitation UN summit Johannesburg 2000 - goals: • Halve the number of people without access to clean water within the year 2015 • Halve the number of people lacking proper sanitation within the year 2015 3 2,5 billion people lack proper sanitation www.umb.no
    4. 4. Kathmandu, NepalNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Dry season:  DO less than 1 mg/l  BOD - 250 mg (Pandey et al. 2005) 4 Department of Plant and 4 Environmental Sciences www.umb.no
    5. 5. wastewater in the world is discharged 90% of the untreated www.umb.noCurrent situation:Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 5 5NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    6. 6. Repair of infrastructure (Norway) 500 billion NOK6 P.D. Jenssen IPM/UMB
    7. 7. Data from: Cordell et al. 2009 www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 7NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    8. 8. www.umb.no Photo: P. JenssenDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 89 8NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    9. 9. Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES 20-40% of the water consumption in sewered cities is used for flushing toilets (Gardner 1996) P.D. Jenssen IPM/UMB 5 9 Photo: P. Jenssen www.umb.no
    10. 10. Future solutions for megacities ? www.umb.no Photo: P. JenssenDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 10 89NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    11. 11. (Alsen and Jenssen2005) Source separation of wastewater www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 11 12NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    12. 12. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen Nutrients and volume of domestic wastewater fractions 100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % Greywater 50 % Faeces 40 % Urine 30 % 20 % 10 % 0% 12 Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Volume (Jönsson et al., 2000). www.umb.no
    13. 13. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen Nutrients and volume of domestic wastewater fractions 100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % Greywater 50 % Faeces 40 % Urine 30 % 20 % 10 % 0% 13 Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Volume (Jönsson et al., 2000). www.umb.no
    14. 14. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen Nutrients and volume of domestic wastewater fractions 100 % 90 % 1 % of 80 % 70 % the volume 60 % contains: Greywater 50 % Faeces 40 % Urine 30 % >80% 20 % of the 10 % resources 0% 14 Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium Volume (Jönsson et al., 2000). www.umb.no
    15. 15. (Alsen and Jenssen2005) Source separation of wastewater www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 15 12NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    16. 16. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JenssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Future toilet types (commercially available today) • Composting /dry sanitation 0 - 0.1 liter/visit • Low flush (urine diverting) 0.1 - 4.0 liter/visit • Low flush (vacuum&gravity) 0.5 - 1.0 liter/visit 16 www.umb.no
    17. 17. Clean odourless Composting toilet at roadside facility - Sweden toilets www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 17NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    18. 18. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Composting toilet at roadside facility - Sweden Elected the best roadside facility in Sweden 2003 18 www.umb.no
    19. 19. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Dual flush urine -diverting system • Urine flushed with 1-2 dl 19 • Faeces - flushed with 2-4 liters (Jønsson et al. 1998) www.umb.no
    20. 20. www.umb.no Kastrup airport Copenhagen Waterless urinalsDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 20NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    21. 21. 1 liter/flush Gravity Lavtspylende toaletter www.umb.no 0.5 - 1.5 liters/flush VacuumDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 21NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    22. 22. Future solution using source www.umb.noseparation:Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 22 8NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    23. 23. Is it technically urban areas? possible inFuture solution using source www.umb.noseparation:Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 23 8NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    24. 24. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JenssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Future solution using source separation: Is it technically possible in urban areas? What is the cost? 8 24 www.umb.no
    25. 25. Decentralized greywater treatment in urban areas -Klosterenga, OSLO Klosterenga Compiled by: Petter D. Jenssen, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)
    26. 26. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen Klosterenga oversikt Greywater treatment in urban areas - Klosterenga, OSLO Pretreatment Biofilter (PBF) Horisontal subsurface • 33 apartments flow CW • 100 persons • Area 1m2/person
    27. 27. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen Greywater treatment at Klosterenga Oslo Effluent values: Fecal coliforms: <10 Total-N: 2,5 mg/l Total-P: 0,02 mg/l www.umb.no
    28. 28. www.umb.no Local dischargeDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. JenssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    29. 29. www.umb.no IrrigationDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. JenssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    30. 30. Groundwater recharge www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. JenssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    31. 31. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. Jenssen s e? s eu h ou In Greywater treatment at Klosterenga Oslo Effluent values: Fecal coliforms: <10 Total-N: 2,5 mg/l Total-P: 0,02 mg/l www.umb.no
    32. 32. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen Rainwater catchment House Without City Water Supply Reuse & Recycle of Waste Built in 2002 occupies 135 m2 Area Urine diverting toilet Dug well for Ground water recharge Greywater Treatment Plant 38 5 Water collection (R. Shrestha 2006) www.umb.no Tank
    33. 33. (R. Shrestha 2006) 5 to 6 months Faeces after www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 39 6NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    34. 34. (R. Shrestha 2006)Composted faeces and urine as fertilizer www.umb.no Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 40 7 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    35. 35. Treated greywater for irrigation and groundwater recharge (R. Shrestha 2006) www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 41 8NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    36. 36. (R. Shrestha 2006) Watering and car washing even in dry periods www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen 42 9NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    37. 37. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen House Without City Water Supply Reuse & Recycle of Waste Built in 2002 occupies 135 m2 Area 42 9 www.umb.no (R. Shrestha 2006)
    38. 38. www.umb.no Bangalore India Well Photos: J. Heeb SewerDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 38 16NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    39. 39. www.umb.noEcosan toiletcenter Photos: J. HeebDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 39 17NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    40. 40. Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Ecosan toilet center Bangalore India Faeces Urine Wash water 18 40 Photos: J. Heeb www.umb.no
    41. 41. Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Ecosan toilet center Bangalore India  Serves 800 people  Produces 50 tonn bananas/year  Produces compost for sale  Employs 10 people  Annual cost 10 US$/user Photo: J. Heeb 74 41 www.umb.no
    42. 42. www.umb.no resource Waste as a Photos J. HeebDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 42 20NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    43. 43. Solutions for megacities ? www.umb.no Photo: P. JenssenDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 43 89NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    44. 44. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES 20-40% of the water consumption in sewered cities is used for flushing toiles (Gardner 1996) 3 Department of Plant and 4 Environmental Sciences www.umb.no Photo: P. Jenssen
    45. 45. Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Vacuum technology Marine installations • 1660vacuum toilets 90 45 • > 2km of vacuum sewer line www.umb.no (Jets TM)
    46. 46. (Jets TM) Vacuum technology www.umb.no Marine installationsDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 46 91NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    47. 47. Biofilter Rotating biological contactorsNorwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)
    48. 48. Plant for production of bioenergyKildesep prinsipp ? Challenges and solidified fertilizer • Logistics of blackwater transport •Treatment of blackwater
    49. 49. From: Jenssen and Vatn 1991 www.umb.no  Jenssen og Vatn inn herCost aspectsDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 50NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    50. 50. P.D. Jenssen IPM/UMB www.umb.no Population: 500 000 Sarawak Malaysia KuchingDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 51 79NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    51. 51. Source separating system - Kuching, Malaysia www.umb.no Norwegian technologyDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 52 80NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    52. 52. Costs (MYR) conventional vs. decentralized www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 53NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    53. 53. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Investment cost of centralized sewer systems  Collection system 70 - 90%  Treatment 10 - 30% Sewer lines (Otis 1996, Mork et al. 2000) Wastewater treatment plant 82 54 www.umb.no
    54. 54. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES The blackwater system Kuching Converting the septic tank to a holding tank 3. Fitting a quick coupling for easy pump out Metering gage Holding tank 84 55 www.umb.no
    55. 55. The blackwater system - Kuching Pump out time reduced to 6 minutes/tank www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 56 85NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    56. 56. P.D. Jenssen IPM/UMB Proposed biogas plant www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 57 86NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    57. 57. (Alsen and Jenssen2005) Source separation of wastewater www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jensssen 58 42NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    58. 58. (Alsen and Jenssen2005) Source separation of wastewater www.umb.noDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 59 42NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    59. 59. Pilot project Hui Sing Garden Greywater treatment www.umb.no Photo: P. D. JenssenDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences 60 87NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
    60. 60. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Greywater treatment - Hui Sing Garden  Preliminary results: BOD < 2 mg/l Total N 2.2 mg/l Total P 1.9 Faecal coliforms 50/100ml (Jenssen et al. 2005) 88 61 Photos: P. D. Jenssen www.umb.no
    61. 61. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Source separation of domestic wastewater - Pinggu Blackwater 62 Greywater www.umb.no P. D. Jenssen IPM/UMB
    62. 62. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Source separation of domestic wastewater - Pinggu Blackwater to biogas and fertilizer 63 Greywater www.umb.no P. D. Jenssen IPM/UMB
    63. 63. NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Drinking water Irrigation Groundwater recharge Blackwater to biogas and fertilizer 64 Greywater to: www.umb.no P. D. Jenssen IPM/UMB
    64. 64. 90% watersaving is possible !NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Drinking water ? Greywater recycling Irrigation Groundwater recharge Blackwater to biogas and fertilizer 65 Greywater to: www.umb.no P. D. Jenssen IPM/UMB
    65. 65. Conclusion:Large scale urban application of ecological sanitation is no longer a far fetched scenario
    66. 66. Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Greywater treatment at Klosterenga Oslo Effluent values: 67 Fecal coliforms: <10 Total-N: 2,5 mg/l Total-P: 0,02 mg/l www.umb.no
    67. 67. Conclusions - source separatingsystemsCan be implemented sector by sector,thus distributing investment cost in time c Treatment/collection site Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)
    68. 68. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Conclusions - source separation  Systems using separate treatment of excreta and greywater provide many new solutions to sanitary challenges in rural and peri-urban areas, but these source separating systems can also be used to sewer urban areas in a sustainable way.  Source separating systems facilitates production of bioenergy (biogas) as part of blackwater treatment. The gas production is greatly improved by co- treatment of blackwater and other waste resources as organic 69 household waste. www.umb.no
    69. 69. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Conclusions - source separation Water saving up to 40% due to use of water efficient toilets. If greywater is treated and recycled >90% water saving is possible, thus reducing the water footprint by a factor 10. Greywater can be treated to bathing water in compact in-house systems or in simple biological systems integrated in green areas. This opens for local discharge, groundwater recycling, use in irrigation or uprading to potable water quality through e.g. membrane filtration. 70 www.umb.no
    70. 70. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Conclusions - source separation It is assumed that an immediate transfer to source separating systems in urban areas will initially be more costly than continuing the present systems, but with time environmental benefits will make source separating systems more cost efficient (Jenssen and Vatn 2001) In the environmental building at Klosterenga in Oslo a dual plumbing system with vacuum toilets was calculated to the same investment cost as traditional plumbing. In Kuching (a city of 500000 people) in Malaysia with a non existent sewer collection system a source separating system with processing of blackwater to biogas and fertilizer and local greywater treatment was calculated 71 to be 25% cheaper than centralized collection and biological treatment. www.umb.no
    71. 71. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. JensssenNORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES Conclusion For urban areas without a centralized collection system, especially: Consider to go straight to water-saving and recycling, often decentralized and source separating sanitary systems 72 www.umb.no

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