Tourism Destination Quality Management - Part 2


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Tourism Destination Quality Management - training material - PART 2.
The material has been developed by PhD Heli Tooman - Pärnu College, University of Tartu, Estonia. The material has been developed with partial EU funding in Leonardo da Vinci -funded project Quality Boost for Tourism.

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Tourism Destination Quality Management - Part 2

  1. 1. !  Lecture: !  Estonian tourism quality programme and other quality systems used in tourism. !  Tourism destination quality management discussions and models. !  Practical work: !  Is there a need for a quality system that would encompass tourism destinations soundly? What Heli Tooman, PhD should it look like? Who should coordinate it? H.Tooman 2010 2!  Europe ise the leading tourism destination in the !  Between 2007–2013 EU-s direct spending on world. tourism in the frames of communion politics make !  This is why tourism plays a leading role in the up more that 6 billion euros. It is 1.8% of the whole development of many European regions. budget. !  Sustainable tourism assures the preservation and improvement of European cultural and natural heritage. !  3.8 billion euros are budgeted for improving tourism !  The objective of the communion politics covering 2007– services, 1.4 billion euros for the protection and 2013 is the complete mobilisation of tourism for the sake development of natural heritage and 1.1 billion of regional development and creating new work places. euros for the promotion of natural objects.!  Structural Funds and Cohesion Fund offer necessary support for improving the competitiveness of !  In addition to that it is possible to support tourism tourism and quality on a regional and local level. infrastructure and services with other means as well, !  Infrastructure that is being created for tourism is i.e. research and innovation, the promotion of small supporting local development and creating or mainitaining and medium sized enterprises, information work places even in regions that are described by the technology applications and human capital. fading of industry or rural activity or where urbanism is being resurrected. !  For more information: European Commission – !  This is why tourism is an important tool for the integration Tourism of less developed regions or for allowing them access to equal benefits that accompany economic growth. H.Tooman 2010 3 H.Tooman 2010 4
  2. 2. !  Tourism plays a great role in the reorganisation and !  The purpose of tourism politics is to enhance the development of economy. Thanks to strong ties with other international competitiveness of Estonian tourism. For this economic branches tourism influences the whole economy it is important to: and increases the demand for products and services in other !  broaden product selection and improve their quality; areas. !  broaden the geografical and seasonal distribution of!  About 8% of the Estonian GDP is created by tourism industry. tourism in Estonia; Estonian tourism politics is a part of the state’s economic !  improve the accessibility of Estonian tourism policies with a general purpose of gaining economic and information in Estonia and other countries; social benefits for Estonian citizens by maintaining stable !  improve Estonian tourism logistic position and economic growth. accessibility;!  The economy in general benefits from tourism when more !  enhance investments in marketing Estonia and in and more visitors values Estonian showpieces: historical and tourism information; natural heritage, natural environment, traditional lifestile, !  predisposing investment in developing tourism infrastructure, especially on a regional level; hospitality !  strengthen public and private sector cooperation. Source: The Principles of Estonian Tourism Politics http:// H.Tooman 2010 5 H.Tooman 2010 6 Vision. By 2013 Estonia is an attractive tourism destination and with its nordic nature, unique cultural heritage and qualitative tourism products induces the wish to visit Estonia, stay here longer and return in the future. By 2013: !  Estonia as a tourism destination is well-known and valued !  Seasonality has decreased, i.e. we are being visited throughout the year !  Information on Estonia and its tourism products is easily accessible and up-to-date !  Our tourism competence is professional !  Domestic networks and cooperation with neighbouring countries are working !  All Estonian regions are attractive for visitors Objectives: !  Estonia is well-known on an international level and a valued tourism destination on a national level. !  Estonian tourism products and services are qualitative, diversified and in harmony with the principles of sustainable development. !  Tourism information is up-to-date and easily accessible to everyone. H.Tooman 2010 7 H.Tooman 2010 8
  3. 3. !  Enterprise Estonia coordinates two tourism quality !  Estonian Tourism Quality Programme is a collection of possibilities to study in order to help tourism programmes: entrepreneurs start with developing quality in their !  Estonian Tourism Quality Programme a.k.a A Sign enterprises. Tourism enterprises all over Estonia who are of Definite Development interested in a persistent development of their businesses have a chance to join the programme. The main emphasis !  International Environment Management System of the quality programme is on developing customer a.k.a the eco-sign Green Key. ! focuse in tourism enterprises. !  The model of the quality programme is tourism and service-specific. The programme is simple and most suitable for small or medium sized enterprises. The Tourism Quality Programme is based on the philosophy of sound quality management and the ideas of organizational excellence. !  The model of the programme suggests that any tourism enterprise that has chosen the right target group is under the right management able to meet or exceed its clients’ expectation, i.e. offer quality. The main emphasis of the quality management model is improving customer focusing. H.Tooman 2010 9 H.Tooman 2010 10 !  Objectives of the quality programme: ! !  Estonia started to give out the Green Key label in 1. The objective of the quality programme is to raise the 2001 and today (10.08.2010) 21 accommodation competitiveness of Estonia as a tourism destination by enterprises have joined. improving the quality of tourism products and services and by broadening the variety. ! !  The aim of the Green Key in Estonia is: 2. To raise entrepreneurs’ awareness of the need to develop their business and employees, opportunities and the ideas of !  The accommodation enterprises that have joined the Green quality management! Key in Estonia shape their environmental politics, set up 3. To raise entrepreneurs’ awareness on the market! environmental objectives and meet the criteria that the sign 4. To raise tourists’ satisfaction with Estonian tourism products sets forth.. and service quality.! !  The criteria are connected to a more sustainable usage of The role models for the quality programme resources by an accommodation enterprise (i.e. electricity, !  European quality award model Committed to Excellence heat, water, waste, cleaning), using Estonian food products !  Irelands national acknowledgement system aimed at micro and small in their restaurants and promoting nature and local cultural enterprises (Optimus) !  Swiss’ tourism quality programm (Qualitätsmanagement in Schweizer heritage activities in their region. Tourismus) !  More detailed information: H.Tooman 2010 11 H.Tooman 2010 12
  4. 4. EHE (Estonia – the Natural Way) – quality sign is a product sign. We do not label enterprises but tourism products. This means that the sign leads to tourism products that meet the standards of qualitative eco-tourism. The same way ecological farm products !  The objective of tourism innovator / EDEN is in have eco-signs to show their consumers which vegetables, fruits Estonia for the first time with the aim of or other products have been cultivated with ecological methods. acknowledging this high potential sustainable tourism destination on a European level (the award is given to one destination per year). EHE Estonian eco-tourism programme !  This ambitious and extremely popular European !  Is based on natural experiences that are complemented by award project is being brought to Estonia for the cultural experiences first time. !  Uses maximum cautiousness and minimum effect on tourism !  The destination that receives the EDEN sign gets destination’s natural and cultural values the chance to promote itself at a special event in !  Supports natural and heritage protection actively Europe. !  Aims at high quality of tourism experience but considering certain ethical, economical and ecological values H.Tooman 2010 13 H.Tooman 2010 14!  Towards quality urban tourism. Integrated !  Why does tourism need integrated quality quality management (IQM) of urban tourist management, IQM? destinations. (2000). Brussels, European IQM takes into account and has a positive effect Commission. Enterprise Directorate-General !  on all people related to tourism industry Tourism Unit. (entrepreneurs, tourists, locals) but also on the!  Towards quality rural tourism. Integrated environment (economic, natural and cultural Quality Management (IQM) of rural tourist environment etc) destinations. (1999). Brussels, European !  IQM expects systematic approach Commission. Enterprise Directorate-General !  If the traditional approaches of quality management Tourism Unit. dwell from the quality maganement of a certain!  Tooman, H., Müristaja, H. (2008). enterprise then Development and Marketing of Tourism !  Tourism destination quality management expects the inclusion of a broad range of parties and a systematic Destination. Tallinn: Argo, 166 lk. approach H.Tooman 2010 15 H.Tooman 2010 16
  5. 5. !  The general situation of the destination, Takes a look at both internal and external quality development strategies and plans, !  Internal quality is the value experienced by economic and social situation, business tourist throughout their journey (customer activity, employment etc journey, visitor journey, quality journey). Public services, condition of roads, quality!  The environment of the destination, culture of drinking water, maintenance, safety etc. and heritage Objectives of quality management quite short-term.!  Image, markets, visitors !  External quality is greatly connected to!  People – entrepreneurs, specialists, locals sustainability – including land, water, energy, natural resources, usage of heritage etc. Objectives of quality management are set long-term. H.Tooman 2010 17 H.Tooman 2010 18 !  Commonly used (together with Malcolm Baldridge, USA) and (Deming Price, Japan models of similar principles) also in measuring and evaluating destination quality !  Is mainly based on self-evaluation !  Consists of three stages: !  Strategy (aims, objectives, management of human resources etc) !  Measuring (incl. each sector separately- accommodation, transport etc) !  Evaluating results (through measurement – visitor satisfaction, effects on environment etc) H.Tooman 2010 19 H.Tooman 2010 20
  6. 6. H.Tooman 2010 21 H.Tooman 2010 22!  The integrated quality management of tourism 1.  Defining partners: shared project, lead partner, allocation destination is a quite new approach in the whole of roles, working order. Europe (was started at the end of 1990s). 2.  Defining activities: strategy, analysis of present situation, setting general objectives, following the principles of!  It enables to compare different destinations, to sustainability, analysis of human resources, inclusion of public and private sector and local citizens, lead partner highlight best examples and bottlenecks. and other partners.!  IQM enables to find out: 3.  Acting out: initiatives of the public sector, support by specialists and services for partners, all services for !  Visitor satisfaction tourists before the visit, during the visit and after it, lead partner and other partners. !  Employee satisfaction 4.  Measuring quality: satisfaction of tourists, employees and !  Locals’ satisfaction locals, effect on economy and environment, lead partner !  Sustainability of the area (ecological, economical, socio- and other partners. 5.  Evaluating quality: evaluating results from the cultural) measurement, defining areas of improvement, suggestions on improvement, lead partner and other partners. + coordination of phases and their mutual connection (intergation) H.Tooman 2010 23 H.Tooman 2010 24
  7. 7. !  Enables to collect and analyse different !  Does it concern an urban or a rural area? aspects of destination quality !  How accessible is it? !  What is the local infrastructure like (water supply,!  Enambles to summarize the results, electricity, roads etc)? !  What is the maintenance like? Safety? Waste management? generalise and define practical suggestions Etc. What is the tourism toleration of the area (does it need on improvement: !  specific research)? !  What kind of sights are there to see? !  Improving cooperation !  What kind of tourism institutions and services does it !  Better coordination of activities and putting them include? !  What kind of other services necessary for tourists does it into practice offer? !  Improving measurement and evaluation and !  How has the cooperation worked so far? !  How are the vertical and horizontal integration working? defining areas of improvement Etc. H.Tooman 2010 25 H.Tooman 2010 26!  Is there a need for such quality management system at all? !  Who should be the main partners of the project and Why? What are the present problems?!  Who should be leading such destination quality management how should they be connected to each other? project and should there be other project partners? !  Local government!  What should the strategy be like based on which we could !  Neighbouring local governments define the objectives of the project, methods and mechanisms of measurement, evaluation and control of !  Tourism organizations of the destination quality? !  Enterprises (only tourism enterprises or should enterprises!  Who should be the initiator? from linking fields be included as well?!  Should such system in Estonia be nationwide (what would be !  Education and research institutions its pros and cons?) or should each region deal with it on their own (what could follow that?) !  Who else? !  Who should play the leading role? H.Tooman 2010 27 H.Tooman 2010 28
  8. 8. !  Competitive advantage !  The approaches of quality management!  Leading and managing enable us to set very different objectives or!  Tourism resources and infrastructure combinations of different objectives, i.e. :!  Marketing !  Enhance the number of visitors and prolong tourism season in order to financially benefit the!  Strategic planning most!  Assurance of the destination frequency of visitation !  Improve local living environment and the living!  Travel commerce standards of local people!  Sustainability !  Prolong visits at the destination, turning attention to enhancing visitor focuse and achieving!  Support systems excellent quality!  Support services !  Diversify tourism products and services using the natural and cultural resources of the destination in a better way and cooperate more efficiently H.Tooman 2010 29 H.Tooman 2010 30 !  Defend and improve the living standars of local !  One can not develop tourism without people people, one can not create quality without !  Create new work places and improve the quality people! of working !  What kind of people are we thinking of !  Improve the reputation of the destination !  Create a strong destination brand etc. when we talk about the human resources of!  It depends on the objectives which quality a destination and developing them? management strategy to choose in order to reach !  To whom and what kind of trainings should those objectives be organized? !  Who should organize those trainings? H.Tooman 2010 31 H.Tooman 2010 32
  9. 9. !  An excellent, relevant and up-to-date There are many quality activities: information on training necessities and opportunities !  Public sector activities: !  Vocational education, higher education, extended !  Activities concerning environmental sustainability education etc !  Activities concerning accessibility !  Training possibilities in the field of tourism for working !  Activities concerning safety people (what kind of trainings, for which target groups? !  Communication activities: !  Trainings for the workers of connecting fields (bus !  Internal and external communication of the destination drivers and taxi drivers, customer service !  Training programmes representatives, public servants, police officers etc) !  Seasonal workers !  Implementing new technologies and required trainings !  Trainings of local people, including working !  Activities concerning tourists possibilities in tourism !  Informing, information signs !  Extremely important for everyone: foreign languages, !  Accommodation, catering etc customer service, knowledge on destination, using !  Cooperational products, diversifying services etc information technology etc !  Aknowledgements for participants of trainings (certificates, diplomas, omitting qualifications, recognition in media etc H.Tooman 2010 33 H.Tooman 2010 34!  Activities concerning environmental !  Who needs to be contacted to kick-start sustainability and put the destination quality management plans into practice? !  ? !  Local governement!  Activities concerning accessibility !  Partners !  ? !  Local citizens !  Who else?!  Activities concerning safety !  Why is it important to cooperate and how !  ? can it be done? !  The communication plan is an important part of the quality management plan H.Tooman 2010 35 H.Tooman 2010 36
  10. 10. !  Trade fairs, fairs, conferences, meetings etc – !  Tourism information communication between tourism professionals !  Visiting centres, information points!  Conferences, meetings, seminars – people related to the destination tourism industry, local people !  Destination information in hotels, travel agencies,!  Seminars, meetings, e-mails etc - communication shopping centres etc between project partners !  Event programmes, special offers,!  Marketing materials (prints, catalogues, CDs etc) !  Feedback from visitors for tourism professionals, visitors, locals!  Well-functioning and user-friendly technologies !  High quality public services (police, health care, (information, subscription, answering visitors’ retail selling, bus and taxi drivers, banks – who else letters, responding to complaints contact with tourists?)!  What would you add? H.Tooman 2010 37 H.Tooman 2010 38!  Using standardized acronyms and pictograms !  Does the accommodation facility meet its name and rank (Is!  Well–functioning reservation systems everywhere the spa hotel really a spa hotel or a hotel with a sauna and a bath tub?)!  Quick and hospitable adminission of visitors, polite and !  Does the restaurant meet its categories and marketing helpful service everywhere messages (an example of the Greek restaurant)!  First rate additional information and materials (maps, travel !  Do the accommodation facilities and restaurants have plans, events) followed through quality programmes? If not then how to!  Hospitality and helpfulness of local people encourage them?!  Different ways for doing payments (cash, credit cards) !  What has been done to enhance environmental friendliness and sustainability (energy usage etc), hygiene, cleanness,!  Hospitality and helpfulness in terminals, gas stations etc maintenance etc!  What would you add? !  What are the internal service standars,NB! An example from Mexico City airport of disabled people !  Is there a quality plan? working in the airport !  Are there enough trainings for employees in accommodation facilities and restaurants? !  How are disabled visitors serviced? Etc H.Tooman 2010 39 H.Tooman 2010 40
  11. 11. !  How have destination resources been integrated !  Defining quality objectives and planning required activities into tourism products? alone is not enough The quality process takes observation, measuring (i.e getting Activities, events, sights to see etc ! !  confirmation on certain features), evaluating (analyzing!  Are the expectations, needs and wishes of different results) and adapting one’s activities accordingly. target groups met? !  Unfortunately the systems for measuring destination quality!  Are opening hours reasonable and flexible? are still being developed and there are little ready-made measuring methods being used.!  How have changing weather conditions been taken !  Quality management is mainly based on feedback and not into account? only once but on regular feedback on the different aspects of!  How is it arranged – organization, transport, the quality. activities of a guide or an escort, foreign language speakers etc? H.Tooman 2010 41 H.Tooman 2010 42!  Data collection on the visitor groups of the !  Measure visitor satisfaction destination !  Measure the socio-economic effects on the destination that!  Developing an integrated quality management accompany visitors system which allows us to take the expectations !  Measure the environmental effects on the destination and its and needs of different target groups into environment that accompany visitors concideration and gather both qualitative and !  Measure the congruity of demand and offer, changes of quantitive feedback market etc!  Gathering statistical data, traditional !  Compare the situation in the destination with other similar questionnaires, the analysis of complaints and destinations suggestions of visitors and locals must be added to !  Analyse data collected and make the results accessible and the measuring system understandable to all people related to tourism industry (local!  The measuring system must enable us to find out government, tourism entrepreneurs, service providers, whether the objectives were achieved or not visitors, local citizens etc)!  The measuring system must enable us to !  Listen carefully to the feedback of people related to tourism generalize results and to change the strategy if industry and take it into account when going for a new round needed of IQM. H.Tooman 2010 43 H.Tooman 2010 44
  12. 12. !  Quantitative indicators: !  Number of visitors by segments, target markets and target !  Qualitative indicators: groups; place of residence, age, sex, purpose of the trip !  Do the facilities visited meet the expectations, (work, holiday, event etc), a group or individual tourist, quality standards and how are they compared family tourist etc; what kind of accommodation was used, to other destinations (better, worse, why), do for how long was stayed, what kind of transportation was they possess quality labels and do they meet their standards? etc used etc. !  Visitor satisfaction trends (better, worse, the !  What kind of expenditures and to what extent were done by same) tourists (accommodation, catering, entertainment, !  Destination maintenance, cleanness, level of transportation, shopping etc) noise, regulation of traffic etc !  Number of visitors at tourism information centres, !  Destination organizations’ efforts on training questions asked, complaints, suggestions etc their staff to offer better and more qualified service (to whom, what kind of trainings etc) H.Tooman 2010 45 H.Tooman 2010 46!  Is done rarely although employees make up a large !  Very important! A tourist perceives the quality of a part of the quality sensed by visitors and their destination in many ways based on the attitude of evaluation on it. An unhappy employee can locals, their hospitality, helpfulness etc. probably not guarantee excellent service. !  How does tourism affect the lives of local people, their living standards, employment etc?!  Measuring employees’ satisfaction must include: !  What would you ask from the local people? !  Measuring personal satisfaction and motivation !  Whom would you question? Why? !  Finding out training necessities !  Let’s take Pärnu for example: !  The inclusion of employees in following the !  How do tourists affect the lives of local citizens? quality plan !  How do tourists affect the lives of people living in the beach area? !  How do tourists affect the lives of people living in Raeküla? Etc H.Tooman 2010 47 H.Tooman 2010 48
  13. 13. !  How to help tourists act responsibly? This is !  One of the objectives of implementing IQM is an important question in quality finding possibilities to enhance financial outcomes management. from tourism.!  Tourists might be extremely impolite (be Tourism creates jobs and almost all other economic loud, break things, throw garbage on the !  street, harm nature, make fire where it’s fields benefit from it (construction, agriculture, forbidden etc) manufacturing (furniture, tableware, textile etc),!  All this might influence the way other bakers, retail selling etc. tourists perceive quality !  It is typical to consider the influence of tourism on local economy only by how much it benefits to the local!  What would you do to help tourists and government’s budget (tourism workers’ salary taxes). This teach them in a positive way? What kind of approach is wrong. activities would you add to the destination !  How should and could the real profit from tourism be quality management plan? measured? (also as creating indirect and seasonal work places, profit to connecting business fields etc) H.Tooman 2010 49 H.Tooman 2010 50!  What kind of quality needs to be measured? !  Tourism destination integrated quality management is based on self-evaluation, feedback and continuity with the aim of!  Natural resources (drinking water, air, soil, usage constant quality improvement. of nature, biological diversity etc) !  In order to improve you need to know what needs improving and it can only be found out only by measuring!  Cultural heritage, including buildings !  Indicators are needed for measurement and those indicators!  Local government expenditures on conservation must enable us to receive both quantitative and qualitative!  Conservation related projects and their success feedback from visitors, employees and local citizens, usage of resources, environmental responsibility, socio-cultural and!  Enterprises’ conservation politics and activities economic sustainability.!  Raising enterpreneurs’ and locals’ awareness on !  Results from the measurement must carefully be analyzed, the roundups published, feedback and suggestions gathered environment (trainings, prints etc) and taken into account when going for a new round with IQM. H.Tooman 2010 51 H.Tooman 2010 52
  14. 14. 1.  What kind of tourism activities and to what extent does the 12. How should developing human resources be reflected in destination quality Cohesion Fund support? management system?2.  What are the principles of Estonian tourism politics? 13. What are quality activities? (public sector, communication and tourist3.  What are the objectives of Estonian National Tourism Action Plan concerning activities) 2007 – 2013? 14. Who need to be contacted in order to put quality activities into practice?4.  What kind of quality programmes are being used in Estonian 15. How to make hospitality and concern visible? tourism? 16. What needs to be taken into account when improving the quality of5.  What does integrated quality management stand for? accommodation, catering and entertainment?6.  What does systematic approach to tourism destination mean? 17. Why is it necessary to measure, evaluate and adapt quality?7.  What kind of quality gaps are described by the quality gap model? 18. What and how is measured?8.  What is EQFM and what are its key factors? 19. How can satisfaction of local citizens be measured?9.  What should the five most important stages of destination quality 20. How are tourists taking part in creating quality? management be? 21. How can quality’s economic effect on destination be measured?10.  Who should be partners in destination quality management 22. Why is it important to measure and what is being measured concerning system? environmental quality and sustainability?11.  What should be the objectives of destination quality management system? H.Tooman 2010 53 H.Tooman 2010 54