2. The interview Group 5 Group 6 Nhữ Thị Vân Anh Vương Vân Anh Hoàng Thị Kim Chi n Minh Đông Hoàng Thu Hằng (26/9) Nguyễn Thị Giang a Nguyễn Thị u. Hà(14/5)
3. Including1. Interview data.2. Types of interviews3. Planning and conducting interviews.4. How to use the interview data in your paper.
4. 3.1: Interview Data The oral interview has been widely used as a research tool in applied linguistics and survey research. In survey research has been used by second language acquisition. Researchers seek data on stages and processes of acquisition and also by language testers. “Sociolinguistic interview” has been used to investigate linguistic variation, conversational analysis,…
5. 3.2. Types of interview3.2.1 Unstructured interview- Definition: the unstructured interview is an interviewing technique whereby questions are not specifically limited and set, and the conversation can flow freely
6. Characteristics of unstructured interview:•The interviewer has a clear plan in mindregarding the focus and goal of theinterview. This guides the discussion.•Questions tend to be open-ended andexpress little control over informantsresponses.
7. It is guided by the responses of the interviewee rather than the agenda of the researcher. The researcher exercises little or no control, and the direction of the interview is relatively unpredictable Ethnographic, in depth interviews are unstructured. Fontana and Frey (1994) identify three types of in depth, ethnographic unstructured interviews – oral history, creative interviews and postmodern interviews.
8. Advantages It can help gain large information which was not planned and can be helpful in areas which need more explanations Unstructured interview is more like a conversation than an interview so interviewees may feel more comfortable to give their true feelings as it is a relaxed atmosphere
9. DisadvantagesIt brings low predictive validitiesBecause: “The question asked were not really related to the job or were unable to be scored reliably. Interviewers can also base their information on appearance instead f performance on the job” (Hunter and Hunter- 1984)
10. The information gathered from all the respondents is different, it is difficult to have a base for comparison, which affects reliability and validity
11. 3.2 . Types of interview 3.2.2 . Semi-structured interview•Definition: A semi-structured interview is a flexibleinterview in which the interviewer does not follow aformalized list of questions. Instead, he has a list ofgeneral topics, called an interview guide.• The interviewer will tailor his questions to the specificinterviewee, allowing for a more fluid conversation. Thesemi-structured interview format also permits two-waycommunication; both the interviewer and interviewee canask each other questions
12. 3.2 . Types of interview3.2.2 . Semi-structured interview .Characteristics of Semi-structured interview The interviewer and respondents engage in a formal interview. The interviewer develops and uses an interview guide. This is a list of questions and topics that need to be covered during the conversation, usually in a particular order. The interviewer follows the guide, but is able to follow topical trajectories in the conversation that may stray from the guide when he or she feels this is appropriate
13. 3.2 . Types of interview3.2.2 . Semi-structure interview Advantages of semi-structure interview• This allows the interviewer to be prepared and appearcompetent during the interview.•Semi-structured interviews also allow informants the freedomto express their views in their own terms.•Semi-structure interviews can provide reliable, comparablequalitative data.•Semi-structure interviews gives the interviewee a degree ofpower and control over the course of the interview.•Semi-structure interviews gives the interviewer a greater dealof flexibility
14. 3.2 . Types of interview 3.2.2 . Semi-structure interview. Disavantages of semi-structure interview • Interviewing skills are required • Need to meet sufficient people in order to make general comparision • Flexibility of interview may lessen reliability • Time consuming and resources intensive • Difficult to compare answers.
15. 3.2. Types of interview 3.2.3 The structure of interview Definition A structured interview is sometimes called a standardized interview A structured interview involves one person asking another person a list of predetermined questions about a carefully- selected topic
16. 3.2. Types of interview 3.2.3The structured interview Characteristics of the Structured Interview The same questions in the same order are asked of all respondents The questions are created prior to the interview, and often have a limited set of response categories.
17. 3.2. The structured interview Characteristics of the Structured Interview Questioning is standardized and the ordering and phrasing of the questions are kept consistent from interview to interview. The interviewer plays a neutral role and acts casual and friendly, but does not insert his or her opinion in the interview.
18. 3.2. Types of interview 3.3.3 The structured interview Advantages of the structured interview It enables the researcher to examine the level of understanding a respondent has about particular topic- usually in slightly more depth than with a postal questionnaire All respondents are asked the same question in the same way. This makes it easy repeat the interview. In other words, this type of research method is easy to standardize The researcher is able to contact large number of people quickly, easily and efficiently
19. 3.2 Types of interview3.2.3The structured interviewAdvantages of the structured interview Provides a reliable source of quantitative data There is a common format, which makes it easier to analyze, code and compare data (especially closed questions are used ) A detailed interview guide can permit inexperienced researcher to do a structured interview
20. 3.2.Types of interview 3.2.3The structured interview Disadvantages of the structured interview The quality and usefulness of the information is highly dependent upon the quality of the questions. The interviewer cannot add or subtract question A substantial amount of pre-planning is required There is limited scope for the respondent to answer questions in any detail or depth
21. 3.2.Types of interview 3.2.3 The structured interview Disadvantages of the structured interview A problem common to both postal questionnaires and structures interviews is the fact that by designing “ a list of question” , a researcher has effectively decided- in advance of collecting the data-the things they consider to be important and unimportant Can be time consuming if sample group is very large (this is because the researcher or their representative need to be present during the delivery of the structured interview and record the results )
22. 3 .2.3 The structured interview Disadvantages of the structured interview There is the possibility that is presence of the researcher may influence the way a respondent answer the various questions, thereby biasing the response e.g. an aggressive interviewer may intimidate a respondent into giving answers that don’t really reflect the respondent’s beliefs. a young male researcher asking a middle aged women how frequently she has sexual intercourse in the past month may be embarrassing for the respondent and make her unlikely to answer truthfully. This is known as the interview effect
23. 3.3 planning and conductinginterviews1. Preparing the interview schedule2. Piloting3. Selecting information4. Elements of interview.5. Conducting effective interview6. Steps in conducting the interview
24. 3.3.1.Preparing the interview schedule what is “interview schedule” ?1. It is a list of every question in the exact order it should be asked in.2. It begins with a brief introduction explaining who the interviewer is and a little bit about the research project
25. 3.3.1.Preparing the interviewscheduleCohen and Manion( 1985) recommend: the variable under investigationbe written down by name in order to facilitate this stage. The question format and response mode need to be consider. The researchers still need to decide on the type of questions to be used ( open- ended verus closed, direct or indirect) and in what form the responses are to be collected and analyse.
26. 3.3.2. Piloting What does “piloting” mean? How to pilot the interview? It is important that interview questions are piloted with a small sample of subject before used. This gives the researcher the opportunity to find out if the question are yielding the kind of data required. It also eliminates any questions which may be ambiguous to the interviewee.
27. 3.3.3. Selecting information who are “informants”? Bell(1987):efforts should be made to rescue a representative sample, even in a small scale study. It involves: Selecting appropriate proportion of subgroup of the population. Using whatever variables you have determined to be important. Negotiating access to informants or data collection sites with individuals or institutions
28. 3.3.4.Elements of the interview Briefing and explanation: Explaining the nature of the research and the purpose of the interview. Answering any question that the interviewee may have. Telling the interviewee how the data are to be used.
29. 3.3.4. Elements of the interview Questioning: Spradley(1979): the researcher may use a varitety of other strategies to encourage the respondent to recount his or her experiences or opinion. Walker(1985) sitting side by side can offer result in a more productive interview than sitting face to face Tape – recording and note-taking are not simply alternative data collection techniques but represent quite different way of going about doing research.
30. instruments strength weaknessesTape- recording •Preserves actual language •Possibility of data overload •Naturalistic •Time consuming to •Objective record transcribe •Interviewer’s contributions •Context not recorded recorded •Presence of machine off •Data can be reanalyzed putting after the event •Core issues masked by irrelevantNote- taking •Central issues/ facts •Recorded bias recorded •Actual linguistic data not •Context can be recorded recorded •Economical •Encoding may interfere •Off-record statements not interview recorded •Status of data may be questioned
31. 3.3.5. Conducting effectiveinterviews
32. Introduction Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participants experiences. Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents to questionnaires, e.g., to further investigate their responses. Usually open- ended questions are asked during interviews (e.g. “ What…?” , “What about…?” , “How….?, “Could it be….?”) Before you start to design your interview questions and process, clearly articulate to yourself what problem or need is to be addressed using the information to be gathered by the interviews.
33. Preparation for Interview1. Choose a setting with little distraction.2. Explain the purpose of the interview.3. Address terms of confidentiality.4. Explain the format of the interview.5. Indicate how long the interview usually takes.6. Tell them how to get in touch with you later if they want to.7. Ask them if they have any questions before you both get started with the interview.8. Dont count on your memory to recall their answers.
34. Types of Interviews Informal, conversational interview General interview guide approach Standardized, open-ended interview Closed, fixed-response interview
35. Types of Topics in Questions Behaviors Knowledge Opinions/values Sensory Background or Feelings demographics
36. Sequence of Questions1. Get the respondents involved in the interview as soon as possible.2. Before asking about controversial matters (such as feelings and conclusions), first ask about some facts.3. Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview4. Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future.5. The last questions might be to allow respondents to provide any other information they prefer to add and their impressions of the interview.
37. Wording of Questions1. Wording should be open-ended.2. Questions should be as neutral as possible.3. Questions should be asked one at a time.4. Questions should be worded clearly.5. Be careful asking "why" questions.
38. Carrying Out Interview1. Occasionally verify the tape recorder (if used) is working.2. Ask one question at a time.3. Attempt to remain as neutral as possible.4. Encourage responses.5. Be careful about the appearance when note taking.6. Provide transition between major topics.7. Dont lose control of the interview.
39. Immediately After Interview1. Verify if the tape recorder, if used, worked throughout the interview.2. Make any notes on your written notes.3. Write down any observations made during the interview.
40. 3.3.6 Step in conducting the interview:1. Establish rapport: Introduce yourself Be polite, friendly ,but also professional.2. Describe the project: tell the person Who you are What requirements the project fulfills for you Who is working with you in the project Why you are interested in this project
41. 3.3.6 Step in conducting theinterview:3.Obtain informed consent: In psychologycal research,you should obtain informed . A written consent form will contain the types of information you described your written notes, eg: to clarify any scratchings, ensure pages are numbered, fill out any notes that don’t make senses...
42. 3.3.6 Step in conducting theinterview:4.Go ahead with the interview:The goal is to get the person to express their ideas about particular issues.You will be trying to help the interviewees to Open up and express their ideas Express their ideals CLEARLY Explain and elaborate on their ideas Focus on the issues at hand rather than wander to unrelated topics
43. 3.3.6 Step in conducting theinterview:Techniques:a.Clarification: to get the person to clearly,explain himself or herself Example: Would you mind saying that? Excuse me, but I didnt catch the last part / the part about... Im sorry, but what did you say about...? Do you think you could repeat the part about...once again please?
44. 3.3.6 Step in conducting theinterview: b.Reflection: Reflecting back something important the person just said in order to get them to expand on that idea: Example: What did you observe? Is this what you mean? How did you feel about that reaction?
45. 3.3.6 Step in conducting theinterview:c.Encouragement: Help them think more about topic: It is quite good!Could you add some more… This part is interesting.Could you say more about that? Tell me more about your own idea…d.Summary: Try to summarize their ideas to understand more clearly Yourideas contain…… So what you are saying is…..... So your major point is that…....
46. 3.3.6 Step in conducting theinterview:5.Ending the interview: Be sensitive to the persons schedule and time limits. Try to "windown"rather than and abruptly. you should summarize their major points. Ask them again if they have any questions about the project. Let your address if they need to contact Thank them for their help
47. 3.3.6 Step in conducting theinterview:6.Take notes: After an interview you should: sit down and jot down your impressionof the interview-things. These notes will help you remember and explore the "process" of the interview
48. How to use the Interview data in your paper The interview data should be an important part of your final paper
49. How to use the Interview data in your paperIf we want to integrate the interview data into our research report, we should consider these question:1- Does the interview data support or contradict your thesis?2- Did what the interviewee say support the articles you read?3- Did what she say contradict the articles? What might this mean?
50. How to use the Interview data in yourpaper4- Did what he say support or contradict the other interviewee?5- Did what she say add new dimension to the articles or to what other interviewees said?6- What was the “big picture”of what each interviewee said and how does relate to your thesis?7- How did the “process” of the different interview compare, and does this reveal
51. How to use the Interview data inyour paper Citing the interviewees and using quotes1. Summarise in your own words what she or he said2. Use short quotes ( for phrases and one or two short sentences)that you embed into a paragraph3. Use a separate intended paragraph (a block) for longer quotes ( three or more sentences)
52. E.g : “They are waiting to die of deformities, cancers and strange diseases,” Tam emphasised “I always look closely for activities and information relating to Agent Orange in Vietnam and around the world with a hope of finding out a useful way of assisting victims,” Trinh said.
53. How to use the Interview data inyour paper Identifying the interviewees In the method section of the paper you should describe who each of the interviewee is, why you askes them participate in the study, and how you lacated them. In some projects, you must always obtain permission to mention their name in your paper
54. How to use the Interview data in your paper If the interviewees wish to remain anonymous, you can mention their real age, marital status, occupation,etc. But use a false name.