Seven countries projectJake


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Seven countries projectJake

  1. 1. Seven Countries Project Jake Meizinger
  2. 2. Netherlands Jake Meizinger
  3. 3. Maps of the Netherlands
  4. 4. Country Description <ul><li>Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea between Belgium and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 41,543 sq km or 16,035 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Land Area: 33,893 sq km or 13,082 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Water Area: 7,650 sq km or 2,952 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Coordinates: 52 30 N, 5 45 E </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: temperate; marine; with cool summers and mild winters </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 16,847,007 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Netherlands’ Flag
  6. 6. Geographic Features <ul><li>Mostly coastal lowland and some hills in southeast </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers: the Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde </li></ul><ul><li>Highest point: Mount Scenery 862 m or 2,828 ft but the highest continental point is Vaalserberg at 322 m or 1,056 ft </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism: Netherlands receives about 10 million foreign visitors every year from mostly Germany, the United States, and Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Points of Interest for travelers are the Hoogenweerth, Loevestein, and Muiden Castles </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mount Scenery
  8. 8. Hoogenweerth Castle
  9. 9. Loevestein Castle
  10. 10. Muiden Castle
  11. 11. Indigenous Animals and Plants <ul><li>Red Squirrel European Badger Stoat </li></ul><ul><li>Red Deer Twinflower Red Currant </li></ul><ul><li>White Birch Sessile Oak </li></ul>
  12. 12. History <ul><li>Julius Caesar founded this land inhabited by Germanic tribes-the Batavians in the west and became Roman province, and the east inhabited by the Frisians </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth and eighth centuries A.D., most of the land was conquered by the Franks. </li></ul><ul><li>Then passed on to the House of Burgundy and the Austrian Habsburgs. </li></ul><ul><li>Philip II of Spain had harsh rule of the land in the 16 th century, in 1579 the Dutch revolted under leader Willem of Orange. </li></ul><ul><li>In, 1579 in the Union of Utrecht the seven northern Dutch provincies became the Republic of the United Netherlands </li></ul>
  13. 13. History (con’t) <ul><li>17 th century was its “golden era,” it became a great sea and colonial power. During that time painters Rembrandt and Hals immerged and later artists like Mondriaan and Van Gogh. </li></ul><ul><li>1602, Dutch East India Company was established </li></ul><ul><li>Establish independence in 1648 after Thirty Years’ War with Spain </li></ul><ul><li>In 1688, English Parliament invited William of Orange and his wife, Mary Stuart, to rule England. </li></ul><ul><li>England and the Netherlands went to war on Louis XIV’s France. </li></ul>
  14. 14. History (con’t) <ul><li>1795, French troops ousted Willem V of Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, the Netherlands and Belgium joined, “Kingdom of the united Netherlands” under King Willem I, son of Willem V of Orange. In 1830, Belgians left the union. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1940, Queen Wilhelmina went to London when the Nazis invaded and she came back when the Netherlands were liberated in May 1945. She abdicated in 1948 and her daughter Juliana took power. Juliana abdicated in 1980 and her daughter Beatrix took over. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1848, a liberal constitution was adopted </li></ul>
  15. 15. Netherlands in Wars <ul><li>Fought against Spain in the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch United Provinces supported the Americans in the Revolutionary War </li></ul><ul><li>In both World Wars, the Netherlands was neutral. In WWI it escaped occupation but in WWII German troops over ran it in May 1940. Germany killed over 75% of its 140,000 Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1949, after a four year war with the Dutch East Indies they won their independence, it became the Republic of Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands joined NATO that year too. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Government Officials <ul><li>Head of State: Queen Beatrix </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister: Mark Rutte </li></ul><ul><li>Minister of Finance: Jan Kees de Jager </li></ul><ul><li>Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation: Maxime Verhagen </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Minister: Uri Rosenthal </li></ul><ul><li>Defense Minister: Hans Hillen </li></ul>
  17. 17. Political <ul><li>Constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted constitution in 1815 </li></ul><ul><li>Won independence on 26 July 1581 with an Act of Abjuration but Spain did not recognize its independence until 30 January 1648 wit the Peace of Westphalia </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Branch: Chief of State Queen Beatrix. Head of Government is Prime Minister Mark Rutte </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Branch: Bicameral States General consists of First Chamber (75 seats) they’re elected by country’s 12 provinicial councils to serve four-years terms and the Second Chamber (150 seats) elected by popular vote to serve four year terms </li></ul>
  18. 18. Political (con’t) <ul><li>Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA led by Maxime Verhagen </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Union led by Andre Rouvoet </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats 66 of D66 led by Alexander Pechtold </li></ul><ul><li>Green Left led by Jolande Sap </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Party of PvdA led by Job Cohen </li></ul><ul><li>Party for Freedom or PVV led by Geert Wilders </li></ul><ul><li>People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD led by Mark Rutte (liberal) </li></ul><ul><li>Reformed Political Party of SGP led by Kees Van Der Staaij </li></ul><ul><li>Socialist Party led by Emile Roemer </li></ul>
  19. 19. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture Products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables, livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Industries: agroindustires, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: Germany 17.16%, China 11.58%, Belgium 8.68%, US 7.77%, UK 5.72%, Russia 4.47%, France 4.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: Germany 25.54%, Belgium 12.49%, France 9.27%, UK 8.17%, Italy 5.07%, US 3.97% </li></ul>
  20. 20. Daily Life <ul><li>Life expectancy: male 77 years female 82 years </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: of males 99% and of females 99% </li></ul><ul><li>Internet users: 14.872 million </li></ul><ul><li>Only 7% of the population is unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>Men wear pants, shirts, jackets and dress very similar to a person in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Women wear pants, shirts, jackets, dresses, shorts, and skirts, or anything a female in the United States would wear </li></ul>
  21. 21. Culture <ul><li>Religion: Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Hold festivals to celebrate their plants and flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Food: erwtensoep (pea soup), boerenkool me worst (curly kale with sausage), hacée (beef and onion soup), zuukool met worst (sauerkraut with sausage) </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: Dutch host would issue an invitation for 10:30 Am. The guest would be offered a cup of coffee with a pastry and then a second cup with one more pastry. The guest would be expected to leave when finished. If invited for dinner a present like flowers of a box of chocolates is expected but something expensive is in bad taste. Female friends greet each other by touching cheeks three times: right, left, right. Men greet women the same way. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Culture (con’t) <ul><li>Sports: the favorite sports are rugby, soccer, and archery </li></ul><ul><li>Music: The Amserdam Musical Silvestra Orchesta usually plays the day before Christmas </li></ul><ul><li>Holidays: Christmas is celebrated the same way with cookies, hanging up lights singing Christmas carols, and going to Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting Places: In big cities there are certain places away from the crowed streets were “incurable” drug addicts can receive drugs so there is no addicts mugging people of homeless junkies. The red-light district in Amsterdam is famous for legal prostitution </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>I have learned that there is a lot of interesting things in the Netherlands to see such as the three castles, which look incredible. The Netherlands is a peacefully place that never tries to get involved in war. The only times it wanted to fight was for its independence. The Netherlands seems like a very beautiful and peaceful place to go and visit. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 25. Iraq Jake Meizinger
  26. 26. Maps of Iraq
  27. 27. Country Description <ul><li>Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 44 00 E </li></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 438,317 sq km or 169,235 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Land Area: 437,367 sq km or 168,868 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Water Area: 950 sq km or 366 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: mostly desert, mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 30,399,572 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Iraq’s Flag
  29. 29. Geographic Features <ul><li>Northern: mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows </li></ul><ul><li>Central and Southern: can experience extensive flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain: mostly broad plains, reed marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas, mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Water: Persian Gulf, Tigris and Euphrates rivers </li></ul>
  30. 30. Indigenous Animals and Plants <ul><li>Dorcas Gazelle Desert Horned Viper Onager </li></ul><ul><li>Terebinth Prickly Acacia Palestine Sage </li></ul>
  31. 31. Points of Interest <ul><li>Ctesiphon Samarra Hatra </li></ul><ul><li>Kadhimain Mosque Ur Karbala </li></ul>
  32. 32. History <ul><li>First known as Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced civilization by 4000 B.C. in this area. Center of ancient Babylonian and Assyrian empires. Conquered by Cyprus the Great of Persia in 538 B.C. and by Alexander in 331 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by Arabs 637-640, Baghdad became the capital of the ruling calipahte. </li></ul><ul><li>End of WWI Ottoman control was taken by British mandate </li></ul><ul><li>1932, declared independence, Hashemite family ruled as constitutional monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>1945- joined the United Nations and founded Arab League </li></ul>
  33. 33. History (con’t) <ul><li>1956- Baghdad Pact, became allied w/Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and United Kingdom. Its headquartered in Baghdad. </li></ul><ul><li>July 1958-Gen. Abdul Karim Qasim took power. He was assassinated in February 1963. Aran Socialist Renaissance Party (Ba’ath Party) took over under Gen. Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr as prime minister and Col. Abdul Salam Arif as president. </li></ul><ul><li>Arif was killed, April 1966, in a plane crash. Brother Gen. Abdul Rahman Mohammad Arif took his place. </li></ul><ul><li>July 17, 1968-Ba’athists overthrew Arif regime. Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr became President and Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). </li></ul>
  34. 34. History (con’t) <ul><li>July 1979- Bakr resigned, his cousin Saddam Hussein took over. </li></ul><ul><li>Iran-Iraq War- from 1980-1988. Iraq won. </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Kuwait in August 1990 but U.S. coalition acting under United Natinos kicked them out in Feb. 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>April 2003-U.S. led Coalition invaded to remove Ba’ath regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 30, 2006- Saddam Hussein is executed by Government of Iraq. </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 2005- new constitution is finalized </li></ul><ul><li>June 2009- U.S. forces withdrew from urban areas </li></ul>
  35. 35. Political <ul><li>Parliamentary democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: baghdad </li></ul><ul><li>President- Jala Talabani </li></ul><ul><li>Vice Presidents- Adil Abd al-Mahdi and Tariq al-Hashimi </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister-Nuri al-Maliki </li></ul><ul><li>Parties- Badr Organization (Hadi al-Amiri), Da’wa al-Islamiya Party (Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki), Goran List (Nowshirwan Mustafa), Independents Blox (Husayn al-Shahristani), Iraqi Front for National Dialogue (Salih al-Mutlaq) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Economy <ul><li>Labor force- Agriculture 21.6% Industry 18.7% Services 59.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture Products- wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton, cattle, sheep, poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Industries- petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing </li></ul><ul><li>Exports- crude oil 84% excluding fuels, food, and live animals </li></ul><ul><li>Imports- food, medicine, manufactures </li></ul><ul><li>Export Partners- U.S. 27.62%, India 14.45%, Italy 10.14%, South Korea 8.62%, Taiwan 5.61%, China 4.23%, Netherlands 4.13%, Japan 3.99% </li></ul><ul><li>Import Partners- Turkey 24.99%, Syria 17.36%, US 8.66%, China 6.79%, Jordan 4.17%, Italy 3.98%, Germany 3.97% </li></ul>
  37. 37. Daily Life <ul><li>Literacy- Total 74.1%, Male 84.1%, Female 64.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing- Men : dishdasha, (ankle-length, white, loose-fitting, shirtlike garment), aba, (a long clock, tan or neutral color). Kaffiyeh, (white or checked square scarf folded into a triangle). An agal (circular black rope or plaited-cord to hold the kaffiyeh in place) Women : Hijab (vieling), abayah (long black cloak worn over a dress from head to foot), asha (black head scarf) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage- 325,900 people </li></ul>
  38. 38. Culture <ul><li>Foods: rice w/soup or sauce, and lamb and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions: Sacrifice a lamb or goat to celebrate holidays, few Iraqis do this today </li></ul><ul><li>Language: Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Muslim 97% (Shia 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%) Christian or other 3% </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: Friends greet with a handshake and kiss each check first the right. Gifts: if invited to an Iraqi’s home bring cookies, pastries, or chocolates. They are to be given with two hands and are not opened when received. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinner: Remove shoes. Don’t discuss business. If eating on the floor sit cross legged and never let your feet touch the food mat. Use the right hand for eating and drinking. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Conclusion <ul><li>I have learned that even though most people picture the Iraqi horribly, because of the Muslim extremists, they are kind and caring people. The traditions and etiquette of their people so that the people in Iraq have lots of character. This leads me to believe that the people there display a lot of hospitality. I first thought Iraq was just a baron desert with some majors cities but there are some amazing places to visit like Ur, Samarra, and Ctesiphon. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  41. 41. Poland Jake Meizinger
  42. 42. Maps of Poland
  43. 43. Country Description <ul><li>Geographic Coordinates: 52 00 N, 20 00 E </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Central Europe, east of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 312,685 sq km or 120,728 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Land Area: 304,255 sq km or 117,473 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Water Area: 8,430 sq km or 3,254 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Land boundaries: Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Baltic Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation, mild summers, with frequent showers, and thundershowers </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 38,441,588 </li></ul>
  44. 44. Poland’s Flag
  45. 45. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: mostly flat plain, mountains along southern border </li></ul><ul><li>Water: Baltic Sea is to the north, Vistula and Oder rivers, Lubuskie Lakes </li></ul>
  46. 46. Indigenous Animals <ul><li>European Bison White Tailed Eagle </li></ul><ul><li>European Lynx Corncrake </li></ul><ul><li>Brown Long-eared Bat </li></ul>
  47. 47. Indigenous Plants <ul><li>Corn Poppy or Red Poppy Water Lobelia </li></ul><ul><li>Marsh Gentian </li></ul>
  48. 48. Points of Interest <ul><li>Auschwitz Lubuskie Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>St. John’s Cathedral The Royal Castle </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Royal Castle
  50. 50. St. John’s Cathedral
  51. 51. History <ul><li>966- Founded Great (north) Poland by Mieszko I (Piast dynasty). Tribes in southern Poland formed Little Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>1047- Casimir I the Restorer united them </li></ul><ul><li>1772, 1792, 1795- when Poland was partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. For more than a century there was no Polish state </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 1918- Poland was formally reconstituted </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 1, 1939- Hitler invades Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 17, 1939- Soviet Union invades eastern Poland </li></ul><ul><li>WWII- 400,000 Poles fought under Soviet command </li></ul>
  52. 52. Political <ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><li>President: Bronislaw Komorowski </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister: Donald Tusk </li></ul><ul><li>Independence: November 11, 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Political Parties: Civic Platform or PO (Donald Tusk), Democratic Caucus of the Democratic Party SD or DKP SD (Bogdan Lis), Democratic Left Alliance or SLD (Grzegorz Napieralski), Democratic Party or PD (Brygida Kuzniak) </li></ul>
  53. 53. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture: potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat, poultry, eggs, pork, dairy </li></ul><ul><li>Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: machinery and transport equipment, intermediate manufactured goods, miscellaneous manufactured goods, food and live animals </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: machinery and transport equipment, intermediate manufactured goods, chemicals, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials </li></ul>
  54. 54. Economy (con’t) <ul><li>Export partners: Germany 26.06%, Italy 6.84%, France 6.78%, UK 6.38%, Czech Republic 5.85%, Netherlands 4.14% </li></ul><ul><li>Import Partners: Germany 28.08%, Russia 8.65%, Italy 6.5%, Netherlands 5.59%, China 5.27%, France 4.6% Czech Republic 4.05% </li></ul><ul><li>GDP: $725.2 billion (21 st in the world) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Daily Life <ul><li>Literacy: Total population 99.8%, male 99.8%, female 99.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 22.452 million (19 th in the world) </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: influenced by Eastern ornamental style with Islamic textures. Delia- dress meant for men, made of wool or velvet and finished with fur. It has short sleeves and metal buttons, that are above the chest. Traditional clothes are typically brightly colored with decorated with embroidery. Contemporary style is similar to eastern countries like t-shirts and jeans. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Culture <ul><li>Traditions: Feast of Greenery is organized with the end of summer on 8 th of September. This tradition is for farmers. They make a bouquet with vegetables, herbs, and corn and take them to church for the priest to bless it. The bouquet are taken home to cure diseases for humans and animals. Wigilia is held on Christmas Eve. It is a family feast where a vegetarian dinner is served. A guest is not welcome because it is believed to be a bad omen. </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: Times to give gifts are Christmas and name days (birth date of the saint after whom they are named after). When at dinner wait until the hostess invites you to start eating. Overly expensive gifts may embarrass the recipient. Employees bring cake and champagne to their work for their name day. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Customs (con’t) <ul><li>Religions: Roman Catholic 89.8%, Eastern Orthodox 1.3%, Protestant 0.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Bigos: traditional stew includes sauerkraut, various meats and sausages like bacon, beef, pork, ham or veal, tomatoes, honey, mushrooms. It is kept in a pot for a week or more and then reheated. Pierogi: boiled dumplings stuffed with varying ingredients like potato, cheese, mushrooms, or fruit. After boiled they are fried with butter and finely chopped onions. Wild Mushroom Soup. Golabki: Cabbage rolls wrapped around minded pork or beef meat, chopped onions and rice and baked with usually a spicey tomato sauce. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Culture (con’t) <ul><li>Music and Dance: Composers are Chopin or Lutoslawski. Folk musicians was popular now rock and hip hop dominate over pop music, one of the few countries in Europe. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Conclusion <ul><li>Poland went threw great struggles to become an independent nation after being partitioned three times. I learned that even through it was partitioned for a while Poland was still able to provide and hold on to its traditional values of music or clothing which shows how strong a nation it is. The Royal Castle and St. John’s Cathedral in Poland are beautiful masterpieces. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  61. 61. Somalia Jake Meizinger
  62. 62. Maps of Somalia
  63. 63. Country Description <ul><li>Geographic Coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti </li></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 637,657 sq km or 246,200 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Land Area: 627,337 sq km or 242,216 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Water Area: 10,320 sq km or 3,984 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: principally desert, northeast monsoon (Dec. to Feb.), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south, southwest monsoon (May to Oct.), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods, tangambili, between monsoons </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 9,925,640 </li></ul>
  64. 64. Somalia’s Flag
  65. 65. Geographic Features <ul><li>Water: bordered by Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north </li></ul>
  66. 66. Indigenous Animals <ul><li>Somali Golden Mole Hirola Dibatag </li></ul><ul><li>Somali Elephant Shrew Dugong Ammodile </li></ul>
  67. 67. Indigenous Plants <ul><li>Papaya Kapok Baobab </li></ul><ul><li>Acacia Thorntrees Mangrove Candelabra </li></ul>
  68. 68. Points of Interest <ul><li>The Independence Monument </li></ul><ul><li>The Central Mosque </li></ul>
  69. 69. History <ul><li>7 th -10 th century- Arab and Persian trading posts were along the coast </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic tribes lived here </li></ul><ul><li>16 th century-Turkish rule on northern coast and sultans of Zanzibar controlled the south </li></ul><ul><li>1920- Britain and Italy made Somalia a protectorate </li></ul><ul><li>1941- Britain ruled entire area until 1950 when Italy took over as United Nations trustee </li></ul><ul><li>July 1, 1960- Became the Republic of Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 15, 1969- President Abdi Rashid Ali Shermarke was assassinated and army took power. Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre, as president of renamed Somali Democratic Republic </li></ul>
  70. 70. History (con’t) <ul><li>Jan. 1991- President Siad Barre fled leaving the country in hands of warlords and clan-based guerilla groups and the government has struggled since </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 3-4 1993- Battle of Mogadishu aka Black Hawk Down, which was part of Operation Gothic Serpent. Between United States, supported by UNOSOM II and Somalia militia fighters loyal to president Mohamed Farrah Aidid. The Task Force Ranger, led by General William F. Garrison were trying to capture the leaders of the Habr Gidr clan, and led by their warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Political <ul><li>No permanent national government, transitional parlimentary federal government </li></ul><ul><li>No national legal system </li></ul><ul><li>No central judicial branch rather regions have local forms of their own conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>No political parties or leaders </li></ul><ul><li>2004-interim government was created but other regional and local governing bodies continue to exist and control various regions of the country </li></ul>
  72. 72. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture products: bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans, cattle, sheep, goats, fish </li></ul><ul><li>Industries: few industries like sugar refining, textile, wireless communication </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction material, qat </li></ul><ul><li>Export Partners: UAE 58.27%, Yemen 20.32%, Saudi Arabia 3.78% </li></ul>
  73. 73. Economy (con’t) <ul><li>Import Partners: Djibouti 30.84%, Kenya 8.06%, India 7.86%, China 6.97%, Brazil 6.59%, Yemen 4.97%, Oman 4.72%, UAE 4.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Despite not having a national government, Somalia still has a healthy economy </li></ul><ul><li>GDP: $5.896 billion </li></ul>
  74. 74. Daily Life <ul><li>Literacy- Total population: 37.8%, male 49.7%, female 25.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Users-106,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing- Bantu people- Women: Shaash dango (headscarf), cambuur-garbeet (locally styled blouse), gonfo (large wraparound, like an Indian sari). Men (in refugee camps/older): Buttoned shirts or t-shirts w/traditional wraparound cloth that other Somalis wear around waist. Younger Men: pants rather than wraparound for labor. Some men put on Muslim cap or less often a turban. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Culture <ul><li>Tradition/Customs: People greet each other w/handshakes but never w/the opposite sex. The American’s sign of “thumbs up” is considered obscene. It’s impolite to point the sloe of your foot/sole at another person or use the index finger to call somebody. Marriages (in rural areas) are normally arranged and weddings are spread over three nights of dancing and singing, women and men celebrate separately. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Sunni Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Breakfast: Flatbread called canjero or laxoo, liver, or cereal made of millet or cornmeal . Lunch: Biggest meal. Made up of rice and noodles sometimes meat. Dinner: Smallest meal. Mostly beans, muffo (patties made from oats or corn) or small salad. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Culture (con’t) <ul><li>Food: Drinks: Spiced tea but sheep or goat’s milk is the most popular. Travelers store milk in haan, a covered pitcher, or a wooden basket which keeps the milk cool. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and Dance: Use native instruments like Batar drum. Maryam is a popular music artist. Mursal has has started to fuse traditional music w/ rock, bossa nova, hip hop, jazz. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Conclusion <ul><li>I have learned that Somalia’s government is very unstable and is almost inexistent except for the local warlords’ and their governments. I think Somalia is a very unsafe place but the people in the area, who are not fighting for the warlords, have good character and customs that could be respected by any person and impress any foreigner. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> ) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  79. 79. Bibliography (con’t) <ul><li> </li></ul>
  80. 80. Panama Jake Meizinger
  81. 81. Maps of Panama
  82. 82. Maps of Panama (con’t)
  83. 83. Country Description <ul><li>Location: Central America, bordered by North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, between Costa Rica and Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W </li></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 75,420 sq km or 29,119 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Land Area: 74,340 sq km or 28,702 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Water Area: 1,080 sq km or 416 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: tropical maritime, hot humid, cloudy, prolonged rainy season (May to Jan.), short dry season (Jan. to May) </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 3,460,462 </li></ul>
  84. 84. Panama’s Flag
  85. 85. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains, coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills </li></ul><ul><li>Water: Caribbean Sea and North Pacific Ocean, Rio San Pablo, Santa Maria, Rio Balsas, Rio Chucunaque, Rio Indio, and Changuinola rivers and Lago Bayano </li></ul>
  86. 86. Indigenous Animals and Plants <ul><li>Heliconias Sloth Marmosets </li></ul><ul><li>Capybara Killifish Black Marlin </li></ul>
  87. 87. Points of Interest <ul><li>Isla Grande </li></ul><ul><li>San Blas Islands </li></ul>
  88. 88. Portobelo
  89. 89. History <ul><li>1501- Roderigo de Bastidas first European to explore the Isthmus of Panama </li></ul><ul><li>1502- Explored by Columbus and 1513 by Balboa </li></ul><ul><li>1821- Central America revolted against Spain, Panama joined Columbia, who was already independent </li></ul><ul><li>1903- Panama proclaimed independence w/ U.S. backing them </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. paid $10 million for Canal Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 7, 1977- Gen. Omar Torrijios Herrera and President Jimmy Carter signed treaties giving Panama gradual control of the canal </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 31, 1999- U.S. formally handed over control of the Panama Canal </li></ul>
  90. 90. History (con’t) <ul><li>2006- Panamanians approved a plan to expand the Panama Canal, it will likely double the canal’s capacity and is expected to be completed by 2015 </li></ul>
  91. 91. Political <ul><li>Constitutional Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of State: President Ricardo Martinelli Berrocal </li></ul><ul><li>Vice President: Juan Carlos Varela </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Government: President Ricardo Martinelli Berrocal </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties: Panamenista Party (formerly the Arnulfista Party (PA); Democratic Change (CD); National Liberal Republican Movement (MOLIRENA); Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD); Patriotic Union (UP). </li></ul>
  92. 92. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture: bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>Industries: construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Export Partners: Greece 21.03%, US 17.63%, Japan 9.87%, Germany 4.28%, Italy 4.27% </li></ul><ul><li>Import Partners: Japan 36.21%, Singapore 16.86%, US 12.3%, China 7.84% </li></ul><ul><li>GDP: $44.82 billion </li></ul>
  93. 93. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: Is good because the people have everything they need w/ nice weather and stable government. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total population: 91.9%, Male: 92.5%. Female: 91.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Traditional Pollera: long, full skirt. Men: shirt w/flat collar, cuffs. Embroidery along bottom of trousers less true to pants lengthened and include belt loops. Women: One shoulder dress (like pollera), more modern and revealing ruffled top. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Users: 959,800 </li></ul>
  94. 94. Culture <ul><li>Tradition/Culture: Upper class families serve fresh seafood at weddings, baptisms, other celebrations. Cooking style continental. Pollera (dress). Men greet each other w/handshake. Women greeting each other kiss once on each cheek. Men greeting women slight kiss on the cheek. Direct eye contact is normal. Showing the middle finger is an obscene gesture. Kuna textile molas. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Breakfast: Hojaldras: (Panamanian doughnuts, dough is deep fried and covered w/sugar). Tortillas: (deep fried, w/eggs, cheese, beans). Main Meals: Corvina: (fish). Sancocho: (chicken soup). Temales: (covered in banana leafand boiled) </li></ul>
  95. 95. Culture (con’t) <ul><li>Music/Dance: Salsa: mixture of Latin American popular music, rhythm and blues, jazz, rock. Ruben Blades is the best known performer. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Bibliography (con’t) <ul><li> </li></ul>
  97. 97. Conclusion <ul><li>I have learned that Panama had some struggle to gain it’s independence. Panama has a rich culture of delicious sounding foods and pretty clothes. Panama has nice weather and interesting, beautiful animals found throughout the nation. </li></ul>
  98. 98. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>,%20Costa%20Arriba%20Tourism.html </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  99. 99. Macedonia Jake Meizinger
  100. 100. Maps of Macedonia
  101. 101. Country Description <ul><li>Southeastern Europe, north of Greece, bordered by Greece, Kosovo, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E </li></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 25,713 sq km or 9,927 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Land Area: 25,433 sq km or 9,819 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Water Area: 280 sq km or 108 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: warm, dry summers and autumns, relatively colds winters with heavy snowfall </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 2,077,328 </li></ul>
  102. 102. Macedonia’s Flag
  103. 103. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River </li></ul><ul><li>Water: Vardar River, Lake Doiran, Lake Prespa, Lake Ohrid </li></ul>
  104. 104. Indigenous Animals <ul><li>Ermine Giant Noctule </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Fox Beech Marten </li></ul>
  105. 105. Indigenous Plants <ul><li>Five-needle pine Molika Macedonian Oaks </li></ul><ul><li>Weeping Willows Poplars </li></ul>
  106. 106. Points of Interest <ul><li>Lake Ohrid Pelister National Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Monument of Meckin Kamen Treskaves Monastery </li></ul>
  107. 107. History <ul><li>148 B.C.- Roman province </li></ul><ul><li>395 A.D.- Roman Empire divided, Byzantine Empire took power </li></ul><ul><li>1371-Turkey took power until 1913 </li></ul><ul><li>1878- Treaty of San Stefano, ended Russo-Turkish War, gave largest part of Macedonia to Bulgaria. </li></ul><ul><li>WWI-incorporated into Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes </li></ul><ul><li>WWII-Bulgaria and Italy occupied here. After the war it became one of the constituent republics of the new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia under Marshall Tito </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 8, 1991- Wins independence </li></ul>
  108. 108. Political <ul><li>Parliamentary Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of State: President Gjorge Ivanov </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Government: Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski </li></ul><ul><li>Political Parties: Democratic Alliance or DS (Pavle Trajanov), Democratic Party of Serbs in Macedonia (Ivan Stoiljkovic), Democratic Party of the Albanians or PDSh/DPA (Menduh Thaci), Democratic Party of Turks in Macedonia (Kenan Hasipi), Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI (Ali Ahmeti). </li></ul>
  109. 109. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture: grapes, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products </li></ul><ul><li>Export Partners: Germany 20.31%, Greece 13.09%, Italy 11.08%, Bulgaria 10.61%, Croatia 7.74% </li></ul><ul><li>Import Partners: Germany 15.11%, Greece 14.88%, Bulgaria 9.08%, Italy 7.68%, Turkey 7.59%, Slovenia 6.26%, Hungary 4.31% </li></ul>
  110. 110. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: Good because the people have readily supplies of clothes and food and any other necessities they need, along with a moderate weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total Population: 96.1%, male: 98.2%, female: 94.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Wear Western-style, old-fashioned in style of dress. Traditional: embroidered folk costumes include garments made of coarse, tightly woven wool yarn. Men wear vests, white linen shirts, pants (like English riding breeches) and pojas (cloth belt). Women: ankle-length dresses, wide apron, white linen shirt, poja, and head scarf. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Users: 1.057 million </li></ul>
  111. 111. Culture <ul><li>Traditions/Customs: Birth of boy most momentous fam. Event. Babies baptized before 1 st birthday. New mother expected to have no visitors for at least 6 weeks. Dead person’s kids and siblings are expected to wear dark clothes for 1 year after death. Mother and spouse traditionally continue for rest of their lives. Funerals services held 9 th day, 14 th day, 6 months, 1 year, 3 years after the death. Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, Christian 0.37% , unspecified 1.63% </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Principal food: stew: wother and unspecified 1.63% / mixture of meat and vegetables and bread. Other main- feta cheese, roasted banana peppers, zelnik (flat pastry w/cheese). Supper most important meal. City-drewllers, villagers made red wine and distill brandy </li></ul>
  112. 112. Culture (con’t) <ul><li>Music/Dance: Traditional music: played by band composed of a clarinet or a gajda (bagpipe of lambskin), bass drum, accordion, violin. Dances: teškoto, or &quot;heavy&quot; dance, sitnoto, or &quot;tiny-stepped dance.&quot; </li></ul>
  113. 113. Conclusion <ul><li>Macedonia has a rice culture along with some interesting foods, music, dances. The land of Macedonia has lots of historical places like the Monument of Meckin Kamen and Treskaves Monastery. Macedonia has some intriguing animals such as the Cross Fox, which looks like a cross between a wolf and a fox, and the Ermine. </li></ul>
  114. 114. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  115. 115. Belgium Jake Meizinger
  116. 116. Maps of Belgium
  117. 117. Country Description <ul><li>Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France, the Netherlands, Germany, and Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E </li></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 30,528 sq km or 11,786 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Land Area: 30,278 sq km or 11,690 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Water Area: 250 sq km or 96 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: temperate, mild winters, cool summers, rainy, humid, cloudy </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 10,431,477 </li></ul>
  118. 118. Belgium’s Flag
  119. 119. Geographic Features <ul><li>Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast </li></ul><ul><li>Water: Meuse and Scheide Rivers and North Sea </li></ul>
  120. 120. Indigenous Animals <ul><li>Parasitic Wasp Sheetweb Spider </li></ul><ul><li>Socially Parasitic Ant Pond Bat </li></ul>
  121. 121. Indigenous Plants <ul><li>Hyacinth Periwinkle </li></ul><ul><li>Wild Strawberries Lily of the Valley </li></ul>
  122. 122. Points of Interest <ul><li>Statue of Brabo Bastogne </li></ul><ul><li>Tournai </li></ul>
  123. 123. Castle of the Count of Flanders
  124. 124. History <ul><li>57-50 B.C.- Julius Caesar conquered </li></ul><ul><li>It gets its name from the Belgae, Celtic tribe </li></ul><ul><li>1795- Invaded and annexed by Napoleonic France </li></ul><ul><li>1815- Congress of Vienna made it part of Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>WWI (1914)- Invaded by Germany </li></ul><ul><li>WWII- Invaded by Nazi Germany and Leopold III held prisoner </li></ul>
  125. 125. Political <ul><li>Federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of State: King Albert II, Heir Apparent Prince Philippe </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Government: Prime Minister Yves Leterme </li></ul>
  126. 126. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture- sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain, tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk </li></ul><ul><li>Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: machinery and equipment, chemicals, finished diamonds, metals and metal products, foodstuffs </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: raw materials, machinery and equipment, chemicals, raw diamonds, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, transportation equipment, oil products </li></ul>
  127. 127. Economy (con’t) <ul><li>Export Partners: Germany 19.58%, France 17.71%, Netherlands 11.84%, UK 7.21%, US 5.37%, Italy 4.77% </li></ul><ul><li>Import Partners: Netherlands 17.93%, Germany 17.14%, France 11.69%, Ireland 6.26%, US 5.74%, UK 5.07%, China 4.09% </li></ul>
  128. 128. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: Good </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: Total population: 99%, male 99%, female 99% </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Modern Western-style. Men: Wear suit jackets to work. Women: Wear slacks to work. Ethic costumes hardly worn. Some farm women still wear traditional dark colored clothing and white aprons, men wear old fashioned caps </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Users: 8.113 million </li></ul>
  129. 129. Culture <ul><li>Traditions: Rites of passage: baptism, first communion, marriage, funerals. Festivals based on myths. Cat Festival of Ypres. Legend says medieval Ypres was overrun by rats and cats were brought in to kill them. The cats multiplied too fast and people threw them off the tops of buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, other (includes Protestant) 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: Carbonades of beer (stewd in beer) and chicken or fish chowder, waterzooi. Eels, cockles, mussels are delicacies. Specialties: waffles, over 300 types of beer, and chocolate </li></ul>
  130. 130. Culture (con’t) <ul><li>Painters: Pieter Breugel the Elder, Jan van Eyck, Peter Paul Rubens. </li></ul><ul><li>Writers: Maurine Maeterlinck, Georges Simenon </li></ul><ul><li>Musicians Orlando di Lasso, César Franck </li></ul>
  131. 131. Conclusion <ul><li>Belgium seems like a diverse culture with its varied foods and combinations of beer, art, music, and literature. Tournai looks like an amazing place to visit because of its enormous size. The plants in Belgium are beautiful whether they are indigenous or not. Belgium had an unlucky history of being conquered as well. </li></ul>
  132. 132. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>