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Dru history project
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Dru history project

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  • 1. Algeria By: Druanna Barzeski
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. Countries Description <ul><li>Size: second largest country in Africa. Eleventh largest in the world. 919,595 square miles. It is equal to western Europe and about one-quarter size of the U.S . </li></ul><ul><li>Official Name: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: hot, windy desert 120 degrees. Mediterranean climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: North America </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 34,586,184 (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Algiers </li></ul><ul><li>Official Language: Arabic </li></ul>
  • 6. Flag
  • 7. Description of Flag <ul><li>The flag of Algeria was adopted after their independence in 1962. On one half is a vertical band of green, and the other half is a vertical band of white. In the middle of the flag is a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent, which are the traditional symbols of Islam. </li></ul>
  • 8. Geographic Features <ul><li>Land Regions: dry and windy. Crops can grow on only about three percent of the land. Pastureland-13 percent, forest-2 percent, the rest is desert. Three mahor sections The Tell, High plateaus, and wind-swept, sun baked Sahara Desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Waters: no lakes or rivers of importance. Has 750 miles of coastline washed by the gray-green waters of the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul>
  • 9. Indigenous Flora and Fauna <ul><li>Date palm, ash and fragrant cedar trees, cork oaks, Aleppo pine trees, evergreen oak, jujube, gnarled olive trees. Atlantic pinsapo or spanish fir, athels, acacia, esparto grass, agave, prickly pear, murtle, dwarf palm. Narcissus, irises, roses and geraniums, yellow water lilies. </li></ul>
  • 10. Indigenous Flora and Fauna <ul><li>Sharks inhabit the Mediterranean, red deer, Egyptian mongoose, spotted hyenas, monkeys, wild boars, porcupines, hares, snarling hyenas, golden jackels, Cuvier’s gazelles, insects, scorpion, camels, sand cat, fennec fox, and houbara bustards. </li></ul>
  • 11. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>Martyr’s Monuments </li></ul><ul><li>Port Said Harbor </li></ul>
  • 12. Vacation Tour <ul><li>One would go to the major religious attractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Djemaa el Kebir </li></ul><ul><li>Victory Park is a park with several restaurants and outside patio’s </li></ul><ul><li>Arcades at Riadet-Fet’h </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre du Verdure is an open-air theater </li></ul>
  • 13. History <ul><li>Prehistoric people make rock art on cliff walls at Tassili N’Ajjer </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenicians build outposts in what is now Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage asserts its influence in Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>Massinisa, the leader of the Berber kingdom of Numidia </li></ul><ul><li>Vandals gain control of North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine rule begins in North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs sweep into Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>The Rustamid Dynasty, the first Muslim state in Algeria is founded </li></ul><ul><li>Spain establishes forts along the Algerian coast </li></ul><ul><li>Khayr al-Din (Barbarossa) helps the Ottoman Turks establish themselves in Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>France invades </li></ul><ul><li>Algeria becomes part of France </li></ul><ul><li>Allied troops invade </li></ul><ul><li>The Algerian revolution begins </li></ul><ul><li>Oil is discovered at Hassi Messaoud </li></ul>
  • 14. Continued… <ul><li>Algeria gains independence from France </li></ul><ul><li>Algeria join OPEC </li></ul><ul><li>an earthquake in El Asnam (now called Ech-Cheliff) kills 5,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>riots result in economic reforms and a new constitution </li></ul><ul><li>unrest in Algeria results in 150,000 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>drought ravages Algerian agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>an earthquake kills more than 2,000 people </li></ul>
  • 15. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: President and Prime Minister </li></ul>
  • 16. National Government of Algeria <ul><li>Executive Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>President </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Council of the Nation </li></ul><ul><li>National people’s Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Council </li></ul><ul><li>Court of Appeals </li></ul>
  • 17. Economy <ul><li>Imports: capital goods, foods and consumer goods </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: oil, gas, petroleum, iron, lead, zinc, copper, calamine, antimony, mercury, lignite coal. Olives, wine, citrus, crops </li></ul><ul><li>Economic status: great and powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Major trade partners: Halliburton and Anadarka companies from U.S. Brazil’s Petrobras, British petroleum, Total Fina Elf from France, Enagas and Repsol from Spain, Statoil from Norway and the Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration Company </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Association : Western Europe, Italy, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions: ABP Amoco/ Sonatrach joint venture in Algeria is going through its final sanctions approval for the development of its In Salah dry gas fields in the Sahara Desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry: Oil and gas are the mainstays of the economy </li></ul>
  • 18. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: 90% of the people live in Tell, the fertile flatland near the Mediterranean. In cities, men work in offices and factories, in the country, most are farmers and laborers. </li></ul><ul><li>literacy : 70% (They have a great love of learning.) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet usage: 4,700,000 people use the internet </li></ul>
  • 19. Continued… <ul><li>Clothing: long black dresses and veils, loose fitting traditional clothing. Women wear a long outer garment called a haik, a man usually wears a hooded cloak called a burnoose. Western style clothes are also worn, t-shirts, jeans and tennis shoes, and girls cover their heads with scarves. </li></ul>
  • 20. Cultural <ul><li>Traditions: </li></ul><ul><li>God has at least 99 other lyrical names. </li></ul><ul><li>Art, such as paintings, singing and enjoying traditional music and dance are important to Algeria’s culture. </li></ul>
  • 21. Cultural <ul><li>Customs: </li></ul><ul><li>fasting and prayer before meals. </li></ul><ul><li>After evening prayers, homework and supper, the children gather around the phone to chat with grandparents </li></ul>
  • 22. Cultural <ul><li>Religions: Islam. (an Arabic word which means submission to God.) </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: poached eggs mixed with peppers, fish soup, and samsa, an almond-honey baked triangular pastry. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and dance: traditional and folklore music. It can be dangerous if one sings out against religion or about political oppression. Wild vibrant street music and poetry with musical accompaniment have been popular, chanting singers, who play guellals, drums made from a piece of piping with a skin at one end, and gaspas, which are flutes made of bamboo. Rai- is the most popular music, it originated in 1930. Young algerians love music, enjoy hip-hop in algerian dialects. </li></ul>
  • 23. Unique Facts and Places <ul><li>Camel races </li></ul><ul><li>Martyrs Monument which honors Algeria’s struggle for independence </li></ul>
  • 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Oil and gas are the mainstays of the economy. The basic unit of money is the dinar. Soccer (or football) is the most popular sport. </li></ul><ul><li>Neat stuff to mention: Prehistoric rock carvings, the muslim temple. </li></ul>
  • 25. Conclusion <ul><li>Something I learned: </li></ul><ul><li>Weights and measures are in the metric system. </li></ul><ul><li>Modesty in clothing, especially for women, is extremely important to the Islamists. </li></ul>
  • 26. British Virgin Islands By: Druanna Barzeski
  • 27. &nbsp;
  • 28. &nbsp;
  • 29. &nbsp;
  • 30. &nbsp;
  • 31. Country Description <ul><li>Size: 59 square miles (153 square Km.) </li></ul><ul><li>Official Name: British Virgin Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: sub-tropical climate, trade winds blow most of the year. Temperature 70 degrees to 90 degrees F. It receives about 59 inches of rainfall annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: West Indies </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 24,491 (July 2009 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Road Town </li></ul><ul><li>Official language: English </li></ul>
  • 32. Continued… <ul><li>Flag: </li></ul>
  • 33. Description of Flag <ul><li>Blue, with the flag of the U.K. in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the virgin islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag. The coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps. Above, a scroll bearing the Latin word, Vigilate (be watchful) </li></ul>
  • 34. Description of Capital <ul><li>The capital of the British Virgin Islands surrounds the Harbour, like and amphitheater. Its buildings stretch to the hillsides. The beautiful harbour in Road Town is a busy center of the island life and marine activity. Businesses, government, restaurants, hotels, charter boats, cruise ships and shops can be found in Road Town as well. Road Town is an international city </li></ul>
  • 35. Geographic Features <ul><li>Land regions: lies near the western end of the Lesser Antilles island group. A channel called the Narrows separates them from the U.S. Virgin Islands. It has sixteen inhabited islands and more than forty uninhabited islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Waters: North Atlantic Ocean lies to the north of the islands and the Caribbean Sea lies to the south. </li></ul>
  • 36. Indigenous Flora and Fauna <ul><li>The yellow cedar is the national flower. Native Frangipani, allamanda, double hibiscus, ixora, heliconia. Trees such as mahoganies, hanging vines, enormous elephant ears, white cedar, and kapok. </li></ul><ul><li>Anegada ground iguana, hermit crab, mongoose, deer, bats, brown pelican, seagull (laughing gull), zenaida dove </li></ul>
  • 37. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>Tortola is a major charter yacht center, to go sailing. </li></ul><ul><li>The baths on Virgin Gorda, which is one of the most famous beaches! </li></ul><ul><li>Anegada is another beach for snorkeling and diving. </li></ul><ul><li>Jost Van Dyke’s beach is a beautiful white bay beach for sunning and fun. </li></ul>
  • 38. Vacation Tour <ul><li>Go on a sailboat to explore the islets and cays. </li></ul><ul><li>Snorkel right off the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>See colorful coral and sponges. </li></ul>
  • 39. History <ul><li>Early history: first inhabited by Arawak and later by Carib Indians, the British Virgin Islands were settled by the Dutch in 1648 and then annexed by the English in 1672. The islands were part of the British colony of the Leeward Islands from 1872 to 1960; they were granted autonomy in 1967. The economy is closely tied to the larger and more populous U.S. Virgin Islands to the west. </li></ul>
  • 40. History <ul><li>Impact on the world and the world on it: After Christopher Columbus, pirates and buccaneers followed, and then came the British, who farmed the islands until slavery was abolished in 1834. </li></ul><ul><li>Current event: 40 th anniversary of the spring regatta and sailing festival. </li></ul>
  • 41. Political <ul><li>Type of government: English Law. </li></ul><ul><li>Government leaders: chief of state-queen, governor, head of government is the premier. Executive branch, Legislative branch, Judicial branch, political parties and leaders. </li></ul>
  • 42. Economy <ul><li>Exports: oil, natural gas, electricity, rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals, gravel, sand, and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: natural gas, electricity, foodstuff, building materials, machinery and equipment, motor cars, and beverages. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic status: stable and prosperous </li></ul><ul><li>Major trade partners: U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade associations: Australia, San Diego (World Trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions: Counter Terrorism, Non Proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament </li></ul><ul><li>Currency: the U.S. dollar is the legal currency. </li></ul>
  • 43. Industry <ul><li>One of the most prosperous in the Caribbean. It is highly dependent on tourism, generating an estimated 45% of the national income. Light industry construction, rum, concrete block, off-shore financial centers. </li></ul>
  • 44. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of living: quiet and casual islets and cays. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: age 15 and older can read and write </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: on the beach, swimsuits and bikinis are acceptable, but otherwise, covering up is key, because wearing revealing clothes would meet with disapproving glances. Men usually do not wear ties or jackets, nobody bothers with rain coats, comfortable clothing is essential. Light-weight clothing is best due to the extreme hot weather, wear hats to protect the scalp and sunscreen to protect the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet usage: 4,000 (2002) </li></ul>
  • 45. Cultural <ul><li>Traditions: various dances of the history of migration. </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: Queen Elizabeth II picture hangs on many walls. Every June, residents celebrate the Queens birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Protestant 86%, Methodists 33%, Anglican 17%, Church of God 9%, Seventh-Day Adventists 6%, Baptists 4%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 2%, Other 15%, Roman Catholic 10%, Other 2%, none 2% </li></ul>
  • 46. Cultural <ul><li>Food: fish, swordfish, kingfish, wahoo, meals prepared with west Indian spices and made with ingredients such as tropical fruits, vegetables, fresh meats and seafood. Johnny cake (journey cake), it is a pastry made with fried dough. Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Music and dance: calypso, soca, reggae, and steel pan beats, bamboo, flutes, guitars and banjos. Dance such as jigs, quadrrile dances that originated from early European settlers </li></ul>
  • 47. Unique Facts and Places <ul><li>The Chikuzen sunk northwest of Brewer’s Bay in 1981. Is a 246 foot vessel in 75 feet of water. It’s a home to thousands of fish, colorful corals and big rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Skyworld- drive up here and climb the observation tower for a 360 degree view of islands and cays. </li></ul>
  • 48. Conclusion <ul><li>Summary: Most of sixty-some islands, islets, and cays make up the British Virgin Islands. The islands are remarkably hilly and volcanic in origin, having exploded from the depths of the sea 25 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>What I have learned: most of the island’s water supply comes from wells and rain water catchments. The Dutch settled on Tortola which is now the Virgin Islands. When driving their roads, there are steep hills and sharp curves. Citizens who are born in the country are called Belongers. </li></ul>
  • 49. Conclusion <ul><li>Neat Stuff Mention: </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. citizenship was granted to the islanders in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Virgin Islands is one of the world&apos;s largest petroleum refineries is at St. Croix. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Virgin Islands is an island of sailing, and hoping to other islands. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no Sales Tax in the British Virgin Islands. </li></ul>
  • 50. Cook Islands by: Druanna Barzeski
  • 51. &nbsp;
  • 52. &nbsp;
  • 53. &nbsp;
  • 54. Country Description <ul><li>Size: 236.7 square Km. </li></ul><ul><li>Official name: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: tropical oceanic moderate by trade winds. Dry season from April to November and a more humid season from to December to March. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Oceanic, group of islands in the south pacific ocean, about half-way between Hawaii and New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 11,870 (July 2009 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Avarua </li></ul><ul><li>Official language: Marshallese </li></ul>
  • 55. Flag
  • 56. Description of Flag <ul><li>Blue, the most expressive color of the Nation which represents the vast area in the Pacific Ocean. Blue also, expresses the peacefulness of the islanders. The flag has the flag of the U.K., or the Union Jack in the upper hoist-side quadrant that indicates the historical association with the British. The large circle of fifteen white, five-pointed stars represents one the 15 islands that make up the Cook Islands. </li></ul>
  • 57. Geographic Features <ul><li>Land regions: the northern Cook Islands are seven low-lying, sparsely populated coral atolls; the southern Cook Islands, where most of the population lives, consists of eight elevated, fertile, volcanic isles, including the largest, Rarotonga, at 67 square Km. </li></ul><ul><li>Waters: South Pacific Ocean </li></ul>
  • 58. Indigenous Flora and Fauna <ul><li>The national flower is the Tiaremaori or Tialemaoli . Au is a native yellow flower, hibiscus , pandanus , ascarina , rarotingan freycinetia , and fruit trees . </li></ul><ul><li>Ship rats , Polynesian rat , kuhl’s lorikeet , the only native mammals are bats and rats . The mynah bird , shorebirds and seabirds , humpback whales , pilot whales and sharks , kakerori and wild chickens . </li></ul>
  • 59. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>Museums, volcanoes, coral reefs, two uninhabited islands named Tkutea and Manue, Rarotonga, which is known as the emerald jewel of the Pacific, rain forests, the Great Road of Toi, which was built in 1000 A.D. from coral slabs. The Rarotonga Mountains and a conservation area </li></ul>
  • 60. Vacation Tour <ul><li>Lagoon cruise in Muri, see a performance called the Drums of Our Forefathers in Rarotonga, in Mauke you could visit Julian Dashwood’s House. He arrived at the Cook Islands in 1930. You could go sightseeing at the Zion Church which is a popular religious site. Or maybe one could go to the Dive Centre marine reserve of Aroa Beach, offering dives to see wrecks. </li></ul>
  • 61. Vacation Tour <ul><li>Kayaking or swimming in Titikaveka Beach, with its popular lagoon, who’s depth provides great snorkeling sounds like a great experience, afterward, shopping at Avarau could provide much needed rest. Later, one could take a three hour, four-wheel drive through the mountains and the rain forest, or take a twenty minute flight to see the beautiful aerial scenery. </li></ul>
  • 62. History <ul><li>Early History: named after Captain Cook, who sighted the islands in 1770, they became a British Protectorate in 1888. By 1900 administrative control was transferred to New Zealand, in 1965, residents chose self-government in free association with New Zealand. The immigration of skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits, are continuing problems. </li></ul>
  • 63. History <ul><li>Impact on the world and the world on it: </li></ul><ul><li>Civil wars and the major wars occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Current events: </li></ul><ul><li>Punanga Nui expansion in the pipeline. (Jan. 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister voices concern over HIV case. (Jan. 2011) </li></ul>
  • 64. Political <ul><li>Type of government: self-governing, parliamentary democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Government leaders: chief of state-queen, head of government is the prime minister, executive branch, legislative branch, judicial branch (high court), political parties and leaders, political pressure groups and leaders </li></ul>
  • 65. Economy <ul><li>Exports: electricity, oil, natural gas, copra papayas, fresh and canned citrus fruit, coffee, fish, pearls, pearl shells, black pearls, and clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: electricity, oil, natural gas, foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital goods </li></ul><ul><li>Economic status: not very good because it is hindered by the isolation of the country from farm markets, the limited size of domestic markets, lack of natural resources, periodic devastation from natural disasters and inadequate infrastructure </li></ul>
  • 66. Economy <ul><li>Major trade partners: New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Association: Free association with New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions: A La Nive </li></ul><ul><li>Industry: Fruit processing, tourism, fishing, clothing and handicrafts. </li></ul>
  • 67. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of living: is high and is aided by the fact that the Cook Islands are in free association with New Zealand. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: total population 95% </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Western style clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 3,600 (2002) </li></ul>
  • 68. Cultural <ul><li>Traditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected in songs, dances, and legends passed down through the generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Short fringe grass shirts, hand bands, and callers are worn mainly for celebrations and dances. </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women wear followers in their hair. </li></ul>
  • 69. Cultural <ul><li>Customs: the art of making patch-work bed covers, which is called Tivaevae, meaning “to stitch” or “to sew”. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Christian church 55.9%, Roman Catholic 16.8%, Seventh-day Adventists 7.9%, Church of Latterday Saints 3.8%, other Protestants 5.8%, other 4.2%, Unspecified 2.6%, none 3% (2001 Census) </li></ul>
  • 70. Cultural <ul><li>Foods: seafood is the staple, island-style dishes, a culinary delicacy is grilled mai-mai (dolphin fish), Polynesian cuisine, fresh tuna, a favorite food to take when going on a snorkeling excursion is frozen peas </li></ul><ul><li>Music and dance: the feast of “umu kai” is a festival with dancing and drumming. Cabarets are popular as well as discos. </li></ul>
  • 71. Unique facts <ul><li>Tipping is not expected and is contrary to Cook Islands Custom. Accordingly no service charge is added to restaurant or service bills. All taxes are included in prices. </li></ul><ul><li>International Food Festival, held in November. This is a popular event that features food from around the world, with prices that are very reasonable. </li></ul>
  • 72. Conclusion <ul><li>The islands are located in the South Pacific Ocean. The natural hazards are typhoons, which occur in the months of November to March. Because of isolation from foreign markets, the islands’ economic development is hindered. </li></ul>
  • 73. Conclusion <ul><li>Neat stuff to mention: </li></ul><ul><li>The Cook Islands are 10 hours behind GMT. </li></ul><ul><li>Daylight savings does not occur in the Cook Islands. Therefore, the clock remains the same throughout the year. </li></ul><ul><li>What I have learned: </li></ul><ul><li>The Cook Islands are named after John Cook. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cook Islands are a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the Cook Islands are made up of Polynesian. </li></ul>
  • 74. Scotland By: Druanna Barzeski
  • 75. &nbsp;
  • 76. &nbsp;
  • 77. &nbsp;
  • 78. &nbsp;
  • 79. Country description <ul><li>Size: small; similar sixe to South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Official name: Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: about 38.6 °F in January &amp; 58.3°F in July </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Northern third of the island of Great Britain. latitude and longitude of geographic center: 57 °00’N, 4°00’W </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 5,137,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Edinburgh </li></ul><ul><li>Official language: English </li></ul>
  • 80. Continued… <ul><li>Flag: </li></ul>
  • 81. Description of flag <ul><li>Scotland’s flag is based on St. Andrew’s Cross and is called saltire. One story connected with the flag is that it deals with St. Andrew, who is the patron saint of Scotland. The white X-shaped cross was the cross Andrew asked to be crucified on, so that it was not the same shape of his leader, Jesus Christ. The second story dates back to 832 A.D., when a Pict army saw a cross-shaped formation of clouds in the sky. The next day, the Picts won an important battle, because they were inspired by the cross they had seen in the sky. </li></ul>
  • 82. Description of the capital <ul><li>The Edinburgh Castle stands on Castle Rock, which is an ancient volcano that towers over the whole town. The oldest building there is the complex structure of Saint Margaret’s Chapel which was built around 1090. The castle holds Scotland’s crown jewels and the Stone of Destiny. Edinburgh has been the capital of Scotland since 1437. Edinburgh has about 448,850 residents and it is Scotland’s second largest city. Edinburgh is home to many fine museums and art galleries, including the National Gallery of Scotland and the Royal Scottish Museum. Outside of the castle is the famous Royal Mile, which holds a lot of shops and famous historic houses. One of the homes belonged to John Knox, the fiery preacher who led the Scottish Reformation. </li></ul>
  • 83. Geographic features <ul><li>Land Regions: Southern Uplands, Central Lowlands and Highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Land Border: England </li></ul><ul><li>Waters: North &amp; West: Atlantic Ocean &amp; East: North Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Famous Landmarks: Edinburgh Castle </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal Mile </li></ul><ul><li>The “Stone of Destiny” </li></ul><ul><li>Holyrood Palace </li></ul><ul><li>Glasgow Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Loch Ness </li></ul>
  • 84. Indigenous fauna and flora <ul><li>Today, only about 15% of Scotland is forested. Typical trees include Scots Pine , Norwegian Spruce , Douglas Fir , and Larch . Peat moss thrives in areas where rain water tends to gather rather than run off. The moss grows in layers with live plants resting in beds of dead plants. Islanders pick the moss, and let it dry, and then burn it as fuel in the winter months. Purple heather , a favorite plant of Scots, blankets mountain slopes. The plant produces heather bells . Heather bells are mentioned in Scottish folk songs. Azalea , dwarf willow , and saxifrages also grow on high mountains in Scotland. White flowers called avens bloom out of reach of deer and sheep, but they add to the beauty of Scotland. Meadows in the Spring time explode with wildflowers , some are: hyacinth , meadow buttercups , and various wild roses . </li></ul>
  • 85. Indigenous fauna and flora <ul><li>Coastal birds fly in noisy formations which include duck and geese. The Orkney Islands are the nesting place for millions of winged creatures. Bird colonies there are the thickest in all of Europe. Some common birds on the Orkney&apos;s are the hen harrier , the short-eared owl , and the red-throated diver . Saint Kilda Island is a rugged place with sea-washed cliffs which are the highest in all of Britain. In 1930, the last 36 residents of the Island asked the government to relocate them. Since then, no permanent colony of people ever returned to Saint Kilda. Now the Island is the home to huge flocks of birds including the Saint Kilda wren, a bird that is unique to the island. About 1,400 wild sheep roam the island’s grasslands. </li></ul>
  • 86. Indigenous fauna and flora <ul><li>The largest of Scotland’s birds is the gannet , a seabird whose wingspan can measure 6-feet from tip to tip. The ptarmigan bird is an interesting inland bird that changes its color with the seasons. In Scotland about 300 golden eagles nest in the Highlands or the Hebrides Islands. Scotland’s coast has thriving marine life as well. Sometimes, porpoises dart in and out of the coastal waters. Whales and seals also can be seen. Now and then, hikers will spot otters . Along Scotland’s countryside are huge flocks of sheep , most of them are Blackface. The Shetland pony is a cute little horse that measures only about 3-feet high. The Shetland ponies originated in the Shetland Islands. They are strong despite their small size. </li></ul>
  • 87. Indigenous fauna and flora <ul><li>The Shetland pony is a cute little horse that measures only about 3-feet high. The Shetland ponies originated in the Shetland Islands. They are strong despite their small size. The Scots also developed the Clydesdale . The Clydesdale are one of the largest horse breeds . Scots have also produced several forms of beef cattle . Aberdeen-Angus cattle are noted for their tasty meat. The Scottish terrier or Scottie, is the country’s best-known breed of dog. Scotland is home to about a quarter-million red deer . The rarest of Scotland’s wild animals are the wild cat , which lives in remote areas. </li></ul>
  • 88. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>◦ Edinburgh Castle was the scene of frightful battles and sieges. In the 1400s, James II of Scotland received an unusual wedding gift, a massive cannon. The cannon was called Mons Meg and it was the ultimate weapon at that time. It could shoot a 550-pond cannon ball to a distance of 2 miles. The cannon can be seen today in the Edinburgh Castle. The castle is connected to Holyrood Palace , the 16 th century royal Scottish residence. </li></ul>
  • 89. Special Points of Interest <ul><li> ◦ The Museum of Childhood contains a marvelous collection of old model trains, dolls, teddy bears, and toys. The museum was founded in 1955 by a local politician who claimed he hated children. Today, the museum’s primary guests are children. The museum is called “the noisiest museum in the world.” </li></ul>
  • 90. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>◦ Sir Walter Scott’s house serves as a shrine to the great writer. Inside the house is the sword once owned by the Highland warrior Rob Roy. Visitors can also see Scott’s rare collection of 9,000 books and the tiny study where he worked. </li></ul><ul><li>◦ Robert Stevenson designed magnificent lighthouses. The 23 lighthouses built along the coast of the U.K. are glorious unions of engineering and art, all built by Stevenson. The elder Stevenson’s Bell Rock Lighthouse has inspired paintings and poetry. Over the years, four generations of the family built 97 lighthouses that dot the Scottish coast today. </li></ul>
  • 91. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>◦ Almost all of Scotland’s castles are open to the public. Each is unique and tells a story. Some people have spent their entire vacation looking over these famous and ancient structures. Some castles that are worth a visit are: Balmoral Castle ; official Scottish residence of the British royal family, Brodie Castle ; has been owned by the Brodie family since 1160 and some of the Brodie family members still live in one wing, Dunnouttar Castle ; where William Wallace fought a battle in 1297, and where Marry, Queen of Scots visited in 1562, Stirling Castle ; was a military fortress even during the Iron Age, and the Cawdor Castle; was the setting for Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth. </li></ul>
  • 92. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>◦ Glasgow is Scotland’s largest city. It contains all the elements typical of Urban life. Fabulous luxury liners such as the Queen Elizabeth and the Queen Mary were built on the Glasgow’s river, the Clyde. It is home to the Scottish Opera and the Scottish National Symphony. The Glasgow Citizens Theater is perhaps Scotland’s best! The Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum holds a excellent collection of European masters. Glasgow’s Airport is Scotland’s biggest. Also it is the arrival and departure point for many visitors to the country. </li></ul>
  • 93. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>◦ Scotland’s most famous animal is the Loch Ness Monster. People who have claimed they saw it say it is green or yellow, has two humps on its back, a long neck, and an enormous tail. Loch Ness is the deepest lake in Scotland. Many say relatives of the dinosaurs might have survived here. Today, the Loch Ness Monster is one of Scotland’s greatest tourist attractions! </li></ul>
  • 94. Vacation tour <ul><li>The Wallace Monument, stands 220 feet high. Visitors are invited to climb a 246-step spiral staircase to the top of the tower. At the top visitors can view the Stirling Battle ground. Also, at the top has Wallace’s sword in glass. At that in time men 5 feet 5 inches was consider tall. Wallace was a giant at his time. His sword was 5 feet 6 inches from handle to tip. He led his troops with a sword that was taller than most of his opponents! </li></ul>
  • 95. Vacation tour <ul><li>One of Scotland’s most famous ghosts is the Green Lady. She haunts Crathes Castle near Aberdeen. The spirit is dressed in green and sometimes seen holding a baby in her arms. She was last sighted in the 1980s. Go check it out and see if you are the next person to spot the Green Gush! </li></ul>
  • 96. History <ul><li>° Hunter- gatherer groups came to Scotland from the European main land in 8000 B.C.- 300 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>° Metal workers came to Scotland, which began the Broze Age in 3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>° The Celts came to Scotland from Europe. They introduced horses, plows, new crops, and most importantly iron, in 500 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>° The Scots, a Celtic tribe left Ireland and settled on Scotland’s West coast. They grew in power and absorbed the Picts, and eventually they controlled much of the British Isles in 500. </li></ul><ul><li>° Saint Columba came to Scotland from Ireland and began converting pagans to Christianity in 563. </li></ul><ul><li>° Vikings from Norway landed on the northern islands in the 800s. </li></ul><ul><li>° Macbeth killed King Duncan and became the King of Scotland in 1040. </li></ul><ul><li>° Then in 1057, Duncan’s son, Malcolm III killed Macbeth and became King. </li></ul><ul><li>° England annexes Scotland in 1296. </li></ul><ul><li>° The Scots defeated the English at the Battle of Bannockburn, resulting in Scottish Independence in 1314. </li></ul><ul><li>° The Declaration of Arbroath urged the pope to recognize Scottish independence. The pope accepted the declaration in 1320. </li></ul>
  • 97. Continued… <ul><li>° At Flodden Field, the Scots suffered the worst defeat in their history in a battle with England in 1513. </li></ul><ul><li>° In 1560, the Presbyterian Church replaced the Catholic Church as the national church of Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>° England’s Queen Elizabeth died, naming Scotland’s King James Vi as heir and created the Personal Union in 1603. </li></ul><ul><li>° In 1642, the Civil War broke out on England. The Scottish sided with the English rebels. </li></ul><ul><li>° In 1707, the Act of Union was past, which united Scotland, England, and Wales to from Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>° Victoria ascends to the British Throne in 1837. </li></ul><ul><li>° Labor unions forced the signing of the Factory Act, restricting child labor in 1838. </li></ul><ul><li>° The Education Act was signed in 1872, requiring all children from the ages of 5 to 13 to attend school. </li></ul><ul><li>° The death of Queen Victoira was in 1901. </li></ul><ul><li>° In 1928, The Scottish National Party was formed, calling for separation from the United Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>° The Scotland Act was passed in the British Parliament, establishing a separate Scottish Parliament in 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>° A Scottish Parliament was reinstated after 292 years in 1999. </li></ul>
  • 98. History <ul><li>In the 1600s, thousands of Scot Protestants went to Ireland seeking religious freedom. They determined though, that Ireland was still too close to meddling government officials in the old country. They then decided to move to the Thirteen Colonies where they settled the western frontier. They were called the Scotch-Irish. Scotch-Irish were among General George Washington’s most trusted soldiers in the Revolutionary War in 1775-1783. </li></ul>
  • 99. Impact of world or world on it <ul><li>Before World War II, Scotland’s economy relied on ship building, iron, and steel production and manufacturing. Today, more than two-thirds of Scottish adults are employed as service workers. They perform services for customers instead of making a product. About one-fifth of Scottish workers are employed in manufacturing. For centuries, coal was Scotland’s most valued natural resource, until by the end of the twentieth century, offshore oil and gas had replaced coal as a source of energy. Oil was first discovered under the waters pg the North Sea in the 1960s. </li></ul>
  • 100. History <ul><li>Current Events: </li></ul><ul><li>° First Minister League Cup on March 22, 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>First Minister, Alex Salmond, visited the University of Strathclyde as it launched plans for a new Technology and Innovation Center on March 14, 2011. </li></ul>
  • 101. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of State: British Monarch </li></ul>
  • 102. National government of Scotland <ul><li>Scottish Government: </li></ul><ul><li>(Edinburgh) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>First Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>(129 members) </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>Court System </li></ul><ul><li>Local Government </li></ul><ul><li>British Government: </li></ul><ul><li>(London) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State for Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>(659 ministers; 72 from Scotland) </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch: </li></ul><ul><li>House of Lords </li></ul><ul><li>British Monarch </li></ul>
  • 103. Government <ul><li>Scotland’s Parliament has 129 members, whom represent a district in his/her home region. They are called M.S.P.s, or Members of the Scottish Parliament. The government is headed by the first minster. The first minister’s duties are similar to the prime minister’s duties in London. The Members of Parliament are elected to 4-year terms. However, at anytime the M.S.P.s are free to vote “no confidence” that will call for a new election. The local authorities have responsibility over the administration of police and fire departments and inspecting sanitation standards in restaurants and food markets. Many of the officers who serve on local authorities are unpaid. They donate their time for the betterment of the community. </li></ul>
  • 104. Economy <ul><li>Currency: Scottish pound sterling. It is directly tied to British pond sterling. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: office machinery, radio/TV/communication equipment, whiskey, chemicals, manufactured machinery/equipment and transport equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: polyester, cows, electronics, paper, and cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: United Kingdom, United States, and the European Union (EU) </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Associations: Singapore, China, and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions: Oslo mackerel talks breakdown leads to call for Iceland and Faroes. </li></ul>
  • 105. Industry <ul><li>Steel, heavy engineering and metal manufacturing, textiles, motor vehicles and aircraft, construction, electronics, chemicals, aerospace, construction, digital media and creative industries, energy, financial service, food&amp;drink, life sciences, miroelectronics, and optoelectronics, and tourism. </li></ul>
  • 106. Everyday Life <ul><li>Scots wake up around seven in the morning to start their day and head off to work. City people begin their day with breakfast that includes tea with milk and sugar and oatmeal or dry cereal. Most people take trains or buses to work because of frustrating traffic jams. At 9 a.m., children are off to school. Scots live in apartments, houses, row houses, and huge complexes called council houses. Lunches for working people come around noon time. The main meal for most dwellers comes at home in the evening. </li></ul>
  • 107. Daily Life <ul><li>Clothing: For everyday purposes, Scots dress the same as people in the United States. For special celebrations, though, Scots wear the knee-length skirt called a kilt. Women could wear kilts but normally the kilts wear the men’s attire. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: 99% </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of Living: Scotland’s has had drastic ups and downs with their economy over the last 50 years, but workers have been trying to pull through. </li></ul>
  • 108. Internet usage <ul><li>High-technology industries such as computers and Internet services are the fastest-growing and most exciting sector of the economy. More than 450 computer electrons forms operate in Scotland, and they employ 45,000 men and women. Scottish factories make more than one out of every three personal computers sold in Europe. Seven internationally known computer manufacturers have plants in Scotland. </li></ul>
  • 109. Cultural <ul><li>Traditions: </li></ul><ul><li>The Stone of Destiny was believed that the prophet Jacob used the stone as a pillow when he dreamed of angels ascending to Heaven. It is a gray block of sandstone rested in an honored place at the abbey in the town of Scone. Every Scot King traveled to sit on this revered rock for a ceremony that officially made him lord of the land. This was held for centuries, until 1296, when Edward I raided the abbey at Scone and moved the precious relic to Westminster Abbey in London, where it remained for the next 700 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Every August the Edinburgh holds a International Festival which last two weeks. It is a combination of art fair, film fair, and book fair. The highlight of the fair is the Military Tattoo, a marching bans of pipers and drummers. The Military Tattoo’s rallying song is “Scotland the Brave”, which is every Scot’s favorite. </li></ul>
  • 110. Cultural <ul><li>Traditions: </li></ul><ul><li>On New Year’s Eve it is a tradition in Scotland to go “first footing” to a neighbors house. This game was a fun thing to try an be the first person in the new year to step foot into your friend’s house. </li></ul><ul><li>On Halloween children dress up and instead of the common chant of “trick-or-treat”, children in Scotland have to sing a song or put on an act before receiving their candy. </li></ul>
  • 111. cultural <ul><li>Custom: </li></ul><ul><li>Highland clans wore their own distinguishing pattern of woolen kilts, scarves, and shirts. They were woven in plaid patterns. In Scotland, these patterns are called tartans. The tartans were so important to the fighting nature of the clans that in the 1700s the government prohibited men from wearing them in an attempt to pacify the Highlands. Today, foreign tourist visit special shops in the Highlands, looking to buy the tartan of their ancestors. </li></ul>
  • 112. cultural <ul><li>Custom: </li></ul><ul><li>King James VI of Scotland was very religious and he wanted to make the miracles of the Bible more accessible to the people. In 1604, James had a committee of 50 scholars translate the Bible into English. The Bible first appeared in 1611. the King James Version spoke directly to the people, which is most important. This version of the Bible is a custom the people had where every person would get a copy and bring it to service with them. The King James Version of the Bible became the best-selling book ever printed! </li></ul>
  • 113. cultural <ul><li>Religions: Official Religion-Presbyterian or (Church of Scotland): 746,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Catholic: 350,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Other churches: over 100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Food: Greasy fired food is all too often gobbled up by the Scots. As a result, Scotland has one of the highest heart-attack rates in the world! Scottish food is simply but with a little too much emphasis on meat. Roast lamb, roast beef, and steaks are the most famous eaten meats. All meals are served with potatoes and bread. </li></ul>
  • 114. cultural <ul><li>Music &amp; Dance: </li></ul><ul><li>Bagpipes are famous to Scotland. Bagpipes can provide somber music for funerals or bouncing tunes for folk dancing . The bagpipe is considered Scotland’s national instrument. Traditional Scottish folk music is played often as well as bands that play rock and pop music . Classical music lovers listen to The Royal Scottish National Orchestra, the Scottish Chamber Orchestra, and the Scottish Opera. Aberdeen hosts the International Youth Festival of Music and the Arts , which showcases jazz groups, chamber groups and choirs whose performers are under 25 years old. </li></ul>
  • 115. Unique facts, places, etc <ul><li>Tourists spend the equivalent of 3 billion U.S. dollars in a year in Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>The tourist industry employs 180,000 service people. </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland has forty National Scenic Areas, places where nature is protected by law. One of the most popular of these conservation sites is the Queen Elizabeth Forest Park. The park is named after Queen Elizabeth II, because she loved nature so much. Red deer and wild goats are some of the animals in the park. </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal Botanic Garden serves as a research center for botanists. Scottish gardens are world famous. </li></ul>
  • 116. Summary <ul><li>Scotland seems as if it is a very interesting place to live and/or travel. I would love to visit their lands and amazing old historical castles one day! The people in Scotland seem very friendly, hard working, and patriotic. Maybe, I will raise my children there, who knows? </li></ul>
  • 117. conclusion <ul><li>Neat Stuff to Mention: </li></ul><ul><li>Scots sing the British nation anthem, in honor their nation, called “God Save the Queen.” Scotland has its own unofficial national anthem as well called, “Flower of Scotland.” The “Flower of Scotland” is often sung at soccer games. </li></ul><ul><li>British trains charge the highest fares in all of Europe! </li></ul><ul><li>The poor-born Scottish man Andrew Carnegie was declared the richest man in the word in the 1900! </li></ul>
  • 118. conclusion <ul><li>Neat Stuff to Mention: </li></ul><ul><li>New Year’s Eve, called Hogmanay is a more important holiday than Christmas. </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas was not an official holiday in Scotland until 1967! </li></ul><ul><li>The country is famous for its Scotch Whiskey. </li></ul>
  • 119. conclusion <ul><li>Something I Learned: </li></ul><ul><li>Scots do not have to pay for a doctor or a hospital visit. All citizens of the U.K. are part of the National Health Service, a tax-supported institution that provides doctor and hospital care. </li></ul><ul><li>Today 45% of Scotland’s electricity is produced by nuclear-powered generators. </li></ul><ul><li>Edinburgh University is one of the world’s top ten computer research centers! </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland and all of the U.K. is an expensive place to visit or live. </li></ul>
  • 120. conclusion <ul><li>Something I Learned: </li></ul><ul><li>The play Peter Pan , by James Barrie is one of the most enduring tales to come out of Scotland. The long lasting adventures of Peter Pan and the fairy Tinkerbell is very famous. Peter Pan is considered, “The Boy Who Wouldn’t Grow Up.” </li></ul><ul><li>King James is often confused by students learning about him in history classes. In Scotland he was King James VI, and in England he was King James I. He is the same person, same king, but different numbers. </li></ul>
  • 121. conclusion <ul><li>Something I Learned: </li></ul><ul><li>After the Battle of Culloden in 1746, the government banned the playing of bagpipes in an attempt to bring peace to the Highlands. In the past, Highlanders marched to battle behind a piper. The ban did not work, as Highlanders played the pipes in secret. </li></ul><ul><li>On Saint Andrew’s Day (November 30, 1996), a group of dignitaries marched to Westminster Abbey in London. The group brought back the revered Stone of Destiny or Stone of Scone, to Scotland that had been away for 700 years! Now the stone rest in the honored spot in Edinburgh Castle. </li></ul>
  • 122. Guadeloupe By: Druanna Barzeski
  • 123. &nbsp;
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  • 125. &nbsp;
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  • 127. Country Description <ul><li>Size: 687 square miles </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: Hot, humid from June to December. Steady winds, tend to moderate the heat. The weather is cooler and drier from January to May. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Eastern Caribbean Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 444,100 </li></ul>
  • 128. Flag
  • 129. Description of Flag <ul><li>Guadeloupe&apos;s unofficial, local flag is based upon the arms of the city of Pointe-a-Pitre. The field is divided horizontally with a narrow, blue stripe along the top edge with three gold fleurs-de-lis. The lower, wider edge of the flag is black with green sugar cane leaves, which represents one of Guadeloupe&apos;s main crops surmounted by a gold radiant sun, which represents the tropical climate. </li></ul><ul><li>The official flag of Guadeloupe is the national flag of France. </li></ul>
  • 130. Geographic Features <ul><li>Land regions: two main islands. The small island group is called Lles Des Saintes, and an addition three small islands. Guadelopue is larger than the main island. The other island is the Grande-Terre. The small islands are Marie-Galante, La Desirade, and Petite-Terre. </li></ul><ul><li>Waters: Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea </li></ul>
  • 131. Indigenous Fauna and Flora <ul><li>Mangrove, cocoanut trees, other tropical tress. Poisonous Manchioneel tree, Kapok trees, Huge rubber trees, hardwood, ferns of all sizes, creepers, Philodendra and over 100 different orchids. Wild pineapples, crippled trees, moss, and lechen are part of the savana. </li></ul>
  • 132. Indigenous Fauna and Flora <ul><li>Animal life in Guadeloupe is limited. Guadeloupe has no poisonous and dangerous animals. Mosquitoes and scolopendra are the most aggressive ones. Colibris, sugar birds with yellow bellies, cow herons, black birds, the black woodpecker, moor hens, wild ducks, frigat birds, brown gannets, and seagulls. The raccoon legions of colorful butterflies, crabs, lizards, iguanas, millions of frogs and toads. A ballet of fish of all different colors. </li></ul>
  • 133. Special Points of Interest
  • 134. Vacation Tour <ul><li>Tour cycliste De Guadeloupe is the Caribbean answer to the Tour De France in August. </li></ul><ul><li>Quite beaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Water sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind surfing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sailing. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing. </li></ul>
  • 135. History <ul><li>The first inhabitants of Guadeloupe, several hundred years before Christ, were the Arawaks. </li></ul><ul><li>They became extinct around the 9th century by Caraïbes (Karibs). </li></ul><ul><li>On November 3, 1493 Columbus stopped in Guadeloupe while on his second voyage to the New World. He named the island Guadeloupe. </li></ul><ul><li>The Caraïbes Indians occupied Guadeloupe when the first French settlers arrived in 1635. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 18th century, the peak of the buccaneering and the Caribbean islands mostly lived of attacks and looting of foreign cargo vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>1802 Napoléon Bonaparte reinstated slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>On April 27th, 1848 the French parliament voted for the Abolition Decreet, which then brought in Viktor Schoelcher, the founder of the Société Abolitionniste. </li></ul><ul><li>On March 19, 1946 Guadeloupe became a French Overseas Department. </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Martin and Saint Barth voted for their independence from Guadeloupe&apos;s administration and got French oversea communities of their own on December 7, 2003. </li></ul>
  • 136. Impact on World or World on it <ul><li>After World War I, in 1923 Guadeloupe exported its first bananas. </li></ul>
  • 137. Current Events <ul><li>Creole Blues Festival. (May 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Guadeloupe Summer Festival. (July) </li></ul><ul><li>International Bicycle Race. (August) </li></ul>
  • 138. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: French Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leaders: General Council, and Regional Council, Deputies, and Senetors. </li></ul>
  • 139. Economy <ul><li>Industry: most people work in service industries. Agricola is the chief source of income for the islanders. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: pharmaceuticals and medicines, explosive elements, radioactive elements industrial and toxic wastes, drugs, electronic equipment, and food. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: tobacco, alcohol, perfume, toilet water, coffee, and tea. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Status: Hurricanes periodically devastate the economy. The economy of Guadeloupe depends on tourism, agriculture, light industry, and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Trade Partners: France </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Associations: Pointe-a-Pitre and Les Saintes, Saint-Francois, Trois-Rivieres, and Marie-Galante and La Desirade. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions: Tricare and UEFA </li></ul>
  • 140. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of Living: high standard of living. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: 99% </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: Bight, madras type plaid of orange and yellow, with a matching headdress. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 103,000 (June 2010) </li></ul>
  • 141. Cultural <ul><li>Traditions: Caribbean Carnival is an old tradition that goes back to the time of colonization. </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: tips are included in their billing </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Roman Catholic, Seventh Day, Adventist, Hindu, Jehovah witness, Methodist, Evangelical and Jewish. </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: fish, a mix of French meats (hot and spicy), lobster, turtle, red snapper, conch, and sea urchin. </li></ul><ul><li>Music: Zouk, Zouk-love, and Toumbele. </li></ul><ul><li>Dance: La Biguine and Gwo Ka La Base. </li></ul>
  • 142. Unique Facts and Places <ul><li>Water-sports at the Club Mediteranée in Sainte-Anne, Guadeloupe </li></ul><ul><li>Parc National’s spectacular rain forest </li></ul><ul><li>Climbing La Soufrière volcano </li></ul>
  • 143. Conclusion <ul><li>They are deeply religious and traditional, especially the older generations. The official language is French but most of the islanders speak Creole. Tourism is important to the island’s future. </li></ul>
  • 144. Conclusion <ul><li>Neat Stuff to Mention: </li></ul><ul><li>10 times the size of Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS are N/A in both the living and deceased people of Guadeloupe. </li></ul>
  • 145. Conclusion <ul><li>Something I learned: </li></ul><ul><li>Guadeloupe Day is a special day that commemorates the day that the Virgin Mary is believed to have appeared to Juan Diego, a Mexican Indian. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally Guadeloupe was called Karuker, meaning “Island of beautiful waters” but Christopher Columbus renamed it in 1493 for Santa Maria de Guadalupe de Estremadura. </li></ul>
  • 146. Wales By: Druanna Barzeski
  • 147. &nbsp;
  • 148. &nbsp;
  • 149. &nbsp;
  • 150. Country description Size: small but beautiful country, total land area of 8,019 square miles (20,768 square Km), about the size of the state of New Jersey. Official Name: Principality of Wales Climate: maritime, rainfall is frequent. Annual average of rain is 55 inches(1,397 mm). Annual mean temperature 50 degrees F. (10 degrees C.) Summers are cool, winters are mild with lot of rain. Location: It is part of Great Britain, comprised by England and Scotland, and surrounded by water on 3 sides. Population: About 2.9 million people, a mere 5% of the population of the United Kingdom. Capital: Cardiff Official Language: Welsh, but everyone does speak English as well.
  • 151. &nbsp;
  • 152. Description of Flag <ul><li>White and green horizontal stripes with a red dragon in the center </li></ul>
  • 153. Geographic Features <ul><li>Land Regions: surrounded by water on three sides: the Irish Sea to the north, St. George’s Channel and Cardigan Fay on the west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. The only land border is England to the east. </li></ul><ul><li>Waters: Major rivers: Dee , Severn , and Wye . Major lakes: Bala Llangorse , Cardigan Bay , Liverpool Bay , St. George’s Channel and Bristol Channel . </li></ul>
  • 154. Indigenous Fauna and Flora <ul><li>One of the most common plants is the sea campion . It is found along the Welsh coastline, due to its resistance to sea spray. Wales has many beautiful wild plants and flowers , vivid violet sea lavender , white water lilies , marram grass , sea holly , evening primroses , purple saxifrages , shite snowdon lily. </li></ul>
  • 155. Indigenous Flora and Fauna <ul><li>White birds called gannet . Wales has some of the best sea bird breeds, such as the red kite . Wales is home to many mammals . The pine marten resembles a cat and lives in the wooded mountains and hills, polecats , wild goats , vale sheep , and seals . Welsh pony is a familiar sight in Wales. </li></ul>
  • 156. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>Areas of outstanding natural beauty is the Gower Peninsula, Lleyn Peninsula, Isle of Anglesey, Clywdian Range and Wye Valley. </li></ul>
  • 157. Vacation Tour <ul><li>Large resort on the beach with the view of Victorian houses. South camp grand site. Donkey rides and other amusements at Portcawl, Brecon Beacons National Park is beautiful with wide open spaces and grassy summits. It is a mixture of varied terrain and mountains. Lolly Castles are beautiful to visit, after stopping off to check out the arts and crafts that are being made and sold. </li></ul>
  • 158. History <ul><li>Early History: </li></ul><ul><li>The Welsh struggled against invaders. Romans, Saxons, Vikings, and Normans. Lost their independence when they united with England under the Acts of Union (1596-1543). </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest inhabitants were hunters and gatherers. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on the world and the world on it: World War I had a profound effect on Wales. After the war, the economy went into a slump and people became less optimistic. They lost their faith, and religious observance declined. At the end of the 20 th century, the coal and steel industries collapsed, causing widespread unemployment and forced the county to redefine its future . </li></ul>
  • 159. History <ul><li>Current events: </li></ul><ul><li>Sheikh Said Hassan Ismail, the Cardiff Muslim leadeer dies at age 81. He founded the south Wales Islamic Centre in Butetown and was the imam at the mosque. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of dead starfish wash up on Talybont beach. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel giant Tata warns that a new carbon tax announced in the budget is “a potentially severe blow”, making UK steelmakers less competitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff at colleges and universities across Wales join a day of action over pay and pension changes. </li></ul>
  • 160. History <ul><li>The Welsh are descendents of the Celts, a fair-haired Aryan race who started migrating to Wales from mainland Europe from around 400 B.C. They never established an empire, but by 300 B.C., the culture prevailed throughout the British Isles. Many elements of Welsh culture evolveed from the culture of the Celts. </li></ul>
  • 161. Political <ul><li>Type of government: constitutional monarch and parliamentary democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Government leaders: Parliament who consists of the Queen as the head, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. </li></ul>
  • 162. Economy <ul><li>Exports: Laura Ashley Company produces towels and dresses. The manufacturing of metal products, automotive components, and optical fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: fairly standard stuff like oil, gas, manufactured goods, machinery, foodstuffs. </li></ul>
  • 163. Economy <ul><li>Economic Status: is growing with a more modern economy, dominated by high technology manufacturing and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Major trade partners : Europe and UK </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Associations: Motor Traders Association of NSW </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions: The Environment Civil Sanction Orders July 15, 2010 </li></ul>
  • 164. Industry <ul><li>Engineering, manufacturing, and car assembly. Tourism is one of the fastest growing types of industry. Electronics is one of the main areas of growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The growth in manufacturing has been facilitated by foreign investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming is important with about four-fifths of the land in Wales devoted to agriculture. </li></ul>
  • 165. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of living: rich cultural heritage, strong community and family ties. Proud of their national identity, they are very patriotic people. Today Welsh families are increasingly fragmented. Economic pressure has made it harder for families to all live in the same area. It is acceptable for women to be career oriented or to be a wife and mother. Houses are built in a variety of styles with most homes having some sort of garden. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: quality of education at all levels is important. English, math and science are core subjects. There are Welsh speaking schools and English speaking schools. </li></ul>
  • 166. Daily Life <ul><li>Clothing: colorful prints of country costumes with tall black hats and red cloaks are worn for special occasions. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 91% of people ages 10 to 15 access the internet. 22% of people 60 and up access the internet. </li></ul>
  • 167. Cultural <ul><li>Traditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep shearing championship </li></ul><ul><li>singing hymns and quality education are important. </li></ul><ul><li>The First Monday of May is a holiday to celebrate springs arrival. </li></ul><ul><li>Toffee-making parties are standard and hot cross-buns are usually eaten on Good Friday. </li></ul>
  • 168. Cultural <ul><li>Customs: </li></ul><ul><li>National costume wearing on St. David’s Day. This is a celebration which takes place on March 1, honoring the patron saint of Wales. Many people wear leeks on this day in their caps. The folklore tells of St. David encourage the Welsh soldiers to wear leeks on their helmets so they could distinguish themselves from the enemy in battle. </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal National Eisteddfod is a great event in Wales . It is in the Welsh language and world renowned. Eisteddfod is a public meeting where contests in music and literature are held. Poetry contest are popular as well, where winning means you are awarded a chair rather than a trophy. </li></ul>
  • 169. Continued… <ul><li>The International Musical Festival is held every July in the small town of Llanfollen in North Wales </li></ul><ul><li>An Art Festival is held yearly </li></ul><ul><li>Apple bobbing is a popular game during Halloween. </li></ul>
  • 170. Cultural <ul><li>Religions: Majority of Welsh are Christians. Many denominations which include the Church in Wales (Anglican). Presbyterian, Congregationalists, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Methodists, the salvation army and the Society of Friends. Non-Christians are in the minoirity and are concentrated in the cities of Cardiff, Newport, and Swansea. These include Buddists, Hindus, Jews, Sikhs, and Muslims. </li></ul>
  • 171. Cultural <ul><li>Foods: simple and wholesome. Milk, butter, cheese and oats. Lamb and fish, savory pies, hearty stews, cakes. Lunch is the main meal eaten at one p.m. They drink lots of tea, coffee, soft drinks, with beer being the national drink. Current bread is a spicy-fruit bread. </li></ul><ul><li>Music and dance: Lyrical Land Men’s Choirs, sweet-sounding singers, harpists and poets. Welsh rock bands and pop music are popular. The welsh have a gift for singing. The largest arts festival in Wales is the Swansea Festival of music and arts, held in September, which includes theater, opera, dance, jazz and literature. </li></ul>
  • 172. Unique Facts and Places <ul><li>People have distinctive accents. They are passionate, down-to-earth, and warm hearted. </li></ul><ul><li>Folly Castles, Royal National Eisteddfod, and the International Musical Festival-overseas visitors stay at the home of local people free of charge. </li></ul>
  • 173. Conclusion <ul><li>This is a proud nation that has overcome hardships and continues to welcome people to enjoy their arts, see the beautiful sights, and hear the sounds of music coming from the warm spirit of the Welsh. </li></ul>
  • 174. Conclusion <ul><li>Neat stuff to mention: Rock concerts, beaches, donkey rides, watching sheep shearing contest, visiting castles are all neat stuff featured in Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, you Can stay at homes of local people, free of charge, when attending the International Musical Festival. </li></ul><ul><li>Wales National Anthem is “Land of Our Fathers”. </li></ul>
  • 175. Conclusion <ul><li>What I have learned: </li></ul><ul><li>Wales is a land of myths and legends. </li></ul><ul><li>They love song and poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Road signs are usually in both English and Welsh. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Catholic is the minority religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The alphabet is similar to the English one. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants arrived here at a faster rate that any other country with the exception of the U.S. </li></ul>
  • 176. Marshall Islands By: Druanna Barzeski
  • 177. &nbsp;
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  • 179. &nbsp;
  • 180. Country Description <ul><li>Size: 181.3 square Km. </li></ul><ul><li>Official Name: The Republic of the Marshall Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: tropical, hot and humid. Wet season is from May to November. The islands border the typhoon belt. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Oceania, two archipelagic island chains of 29 atolls, each made up of many small islets, and five single islands in the North Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 65,859 (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Majuro </li></ul><ul><li>Official Language: 98% Marshallese, English is widely spoken as a second language </li></ul>
  • 181. Flag
  • 182. Description of Flag <ul><li>Blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner. The top stripe is orange, the bottom strip is white. There is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes. </li></ul>
  • 183. Geographic Features <ul><li>Land regions: about half way between Hawaii and Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Waters: North Pacific Ocean </li></ul>
  • 184. Indigenous Flora and Fauna <ul><li>Breadfruit trees, arrowroot plant, Pandanus and swamp tail, coconut and citrus trees. The Republic of Marshall Islands does not have a very fertile land in its face. sands, cobbles, gravel, boulders, debris of limestone, beachrock and many things are spread all over the land. </li></ul>
  • 185. Indigenous Flora and Fauna <ul><li>Polynesian rat, 70 species of birds, 31 species of seabirds, 27 species of marine mammals, like whales, dolphins and porpoises, and 7 species of reptiles and lizards. A various species of birds named Mallard, Gargarey, Gadwall, Black noddy, Tufted Duck, Canvasback, Sanderling and many more can be found in the Marshall Islands. </li></ul>
  • 186. Special Points of Interest <ul><li>World War II wreck can be seen by sightseers in Majuro </li></ul><ul><li>An unnamed land that is situated on Likiep claims the highest altitude of the Republic. It rises almost 10 meter above the sea level. </li></ul>
  • 187. Vacation Tour <ul><li>Majuro is a great place to see the Majuro Bridge and other bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Travel to the island of Arno Atoll to dive sites. Bokolap Island for scuba diving, 1,000 fish and a WWII U.S. torpedo plane in 115 feet of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Majuro Atoll, Alele Museum &amp; Public Library. </li></ul>
  • 188. History <ul><li>Early history: </li></ul><ul><li>First settled in about 1000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Visited by Spanish navigators interested in the Spice Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>The Marshal Islands received its name from John William Marshall, who sailed through the Atolls in 1788, while in route from Australia to China. </li></ul><ul><li>1860s - Adolph Capelle builds first large-scale trading company in the Marshalls. Several German trading firms begin operations in the Marshalls soon after. </li></ul><ul><li>1914 - The Marshalls are captured from Germany by Japan </li></ul><ul><li>1979 the government of the Marshall Islands was officially established, they become self-governing </li></ul>
  • 189. History <ul><li>Impact on the world or the world on it: Independence in 1979 became the Republic Of The Marshall Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>International dispute claims U.S. territory of Wake Island </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. nuclear testing took place between 1946 and 1958 on the islands of Bikini and Eniwetok. The people of Bikini were removed to another island, and a total of 23 U.S. atomic and hydrogen bomb tests were conducted. Despite cleanup attempts, the islands remain uninhabited today because of nuclear contamination. </li></ul>
  • 190. History <ul><li>Current Events: </li></ul><ul><li>Gastech Industry News, Marshall Islands may be one of the first non-arctic victims of global warming. (2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Islands Registry Focus Session 12/14/10 </li></ul><ul><li>The Marshall lslands Maritime Administrator issued certificates of commendation to captains, officers, and crews of two Marshall Islands-flagged vessels for their exemplary service to the maritime community on July 17, 2009. </li></ul>
  • 191. Political <ul><li>Type of Government: </li></ul><ul><li>Unique blend of the American and British systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The judicial branch of the RMI consists of a supreme court, high court, traditional rights court, and district and community Courts. </li></ul>
  • 192. Political <ul><li>Government Leaders: </li></ul><ul><li>the chiefs continue to wield a great deal of authority over land ownership and usage. </li></ul><ul><li>President: </li></ul><ul><li>Kessai H. Note (2000) </li></ul>
  • 193. Economy <ul><li>Industry: A small garment manufacturing, handicrafts, and tuna processing and copra </li></ul><ul><li>Currency: is the U.S. dollar </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: copra cake, coconut oil, handicrafts, fish </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages, and tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Economic status: U.S. government assistance is the mainstay of this tiny island economy </li></ul>
  • 194. Economy <ul><li>Major Trade Partners: U.S., Japan, Australia, China, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Singapore, Fiji, Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Associations: United States </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctions: The Fisheries Law, Violations of the Marine Resources Act 1997 </li></ul>
  • 195. Daily Life <ul><li>Standard of living: people are soft-spoken and good natured </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: 93.7% (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: informal dress, bark cloth and woven coconut-frond clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Usage: 2,200 (2006) </li></ul>
  • 196. Cultural <ul><li>Traditions: Chants, songs, legends. Making handicrafts, ship building skills like canoes </li></ul><ul><li>Customs: 19 th century tattooing of the body. Land is passed down from generation to generation through the mother </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Protestant Assembly of God, Roman Catholic, Bukot nan Jesus, Mormon, and Christian. </li></ul><ul><li>Foods: meals usually have fish or meat, coffee and cola have replaced coconut milk, being the primary drink. </li></ul>
  • 197. Continued… <ul><li>Music and dance: roro traditional chant, modern bands with modern music. Major part of music is one-sided hourglass-shaped drums. A traditional dance is called the beet, influenced by spanish folk dances. Stick dances are for very special occasions and hula dances is a popular form of dance. </li></ul>
  • 198. Unique Facts and Places <ul><li>Division of labor ranges in gender and age </li></ul><ul><li>Special positions held by chiefs, land heads, extended family heads, and local pastors </li></ul><ul><li>Magic continues to be an important factor in the organization of daily life and in many ways characteristics of former deities have been infused in the current Christian deities. Elaborate churches, often the highest and most centrally-located buildings in a village, have replaced the sacred shrines of old, often sacred stones or particular coconut or pandanus trees. Nevertheless, attitudes toward sacred places remain largely unaltered. </li></ul>
  • 199. Conclusion <ul><li>Marshall Islands are tiny and are located in the North Pacific Ocean. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. </li></ul><ul><li>Government officials hold out hopes for </li></ul><ul><li>future tourism. </li></ul>
  • 200. Conclusion <ul><li>Neat stuff to mention: </li></ul><ul><li>Diving at Bikini Atoll is like diving in an underwater theme park. </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl farm in the Pacific. Robert Teimers Enterprises is the founder of the Pearl Farm. </li></ul>
  • 201. Conclusion <ul><li>What I have learned: </li></ul><ul><li>The islands of Bikini and Enewetak are former U.S. nuclear testing sites; Kwajalein Atoll is famous as a World War II battleground which surrounds the world’s largest lagoon and is used as a U.S. missile test range. </li></ul>

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