Dane 7 Countries


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Dane 7 Countries

  1. 1. Dane Osborne <ul><li>7 Countries </li></ul>
  2. 2. Brazil and its country map
  3. 3. Country Description <ul><li>With its expansive territory, Brazil occupies most of the eastern part of the South American continent and its geographic heartland, as well as various islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The only countries in the world that are larger are Russia, Canada, China, and the United States (including Alaska). The national territory extends 4,395 kilometers from north to south (5°16'20&quot; N to 33°44'32&quot; S latitude) and 4,319 kilometers from east to west (34°47'30&quot; E to 73°59'32&quot; W longitude). It spans four time zones, the westernmost of which, in Acre State, is the same as Eastern Standard Time in the United States. The time zone of the capital (Brasília) and of the most populated part of Brazil along the east coast is two hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time, except when it is on its own daylight savings time, from October to February. The Atlantic islands are in the easternmost time zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil is located on the east-central coast of the South American continent. </li></ul><ul><li>The population of Brazil is currently at 169,872,855. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil is characterized by five climatic regions of Brazil: equatorial, tropical, semi-arid, highland tropical and subtropical. Brazil varies considerably from mostly tropical North (the equator intersects the Amazon) to temperate zones lying below the Tropic of Capricorn. The seasons of Brazil are almost the reverse of the seasons in Europe and the United States. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Geographical Features <ul><li>Brazil is dominated by two chief geographic features - the vast Amazon Basin, which spans the width of northern Brazil, and an extensive highland plateau, known as the Brazilian Highlands, which covers most of the South and Southeast. The important rivers of Brazil is made up of the Amazon and its tributaries, which is ranked the largest in the world. The Amazon is also the world's second longest river. Brazil has been bestowed upon with immense natural beauty, right from the distinctive dome shape of Sugar Loaf Mountain in the city of Rio de Janeiro, to the magnificent Igua Falls in the far south, to the strange limestone formations in the state of Minas Gerais in the Southeast region . </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil's Amazon rain forest is the largest tropical rain forest in the world and has extensive vegetation, with tall trees and several types of other vegetation, which include woody vines and unusual varieties of plants that do not root in the soil, but grow by attaching themselves to other plants. The wildlife of Brazil consists of around 750 species of mammals in South America, out of which 417 are found in Brazil. Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes. Deer are plentiful in the south, and monkeys of many species dot the rain forests. </li></ul><ul><li>One can visit the ancient colonial towns of Preto, Ouro and Olinda. In fact the capital of the city Brasilia flaunts beautiful architectural edifices. Brazil travel guide also provides you beaches, islands and tourist places informaiton. The charming beaches of Brazil like Mariscal, Garopaba, Estaleiro, Copacabana and Ipanema attracts a large number of tourists every year.Brazil travel guide offers useful tips about Praia do Pinho in South Brazil, a nature lover's paradise and is the official nude beach of Brazil. Brazil travel guide also gives other wildness spots and natural places of interest include the stunning Iguacu Falls, the Amazon Rainforests with striking biodiversity, the Wetlands of the Pantanal, the Mata Atlântica and the Caves and Canyons of the Chapada Diamentina . </li></ul>
  5. 5. History <ul><li>Before the colonization of Brazil by the Portuguese in 1500, semi-nomadic people inhabited the place for about 10000 years. Brazil remained a sovereign state since 1822 and in1889 the republican system was implemented. From 1985 onwards, Brazil has been considered as presidential democracy and at present is a Federal Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1910, the Brazilian president Venceslau Bras declared war against the Central Powers. Brazil in WW1 (1914–1918) had a position supported by the Hague Convention, keeping initially neutral, trying not to restrict the market to their export products, mainly coffee, latex and industrial manufactured items. Brazil was the only Latin American country that participated effectively in the First World War. </li></ul><ul><li>On April 11, 1917 Brazil broke diplomatic relations with Germany, and on May 20, the ship Tijuca was torpedoed near the French coast by a German submarine. In the following months, the Brazilian government seized 42 German ships that were in Brazilian ports. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 27, 1917, the steamer Lapa Brazil was hit by three torpedoes from a German submarine. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 23, 1917 the Brazilian freighter Macau, one of the vessels seized in the course of the war, was torpedoed by the German submarine U-93 near the coast of Spain, and the captain taken prisoner. </li></ul><ul><li>With popular pressure against Germany on October 26, 1917, the country declared war on the Central Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>On November 4, 1917, the Acari Guaíba and another ship were torpedoed by the same German submarine, U-151. </li></ul><ul><li>As I researched, Brazil is actually fine when it comes to economics and government wise their seeking democracy. Currently their facing some barriers as well. For instance, corruption, and quality of education is poor. Last, inequality is still a issue in the country. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Political <ul><li>Politics of Brazil takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Brazil is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Brazil is divided into 26 states, one Federal District and over 5,500 municipalities. </li></ul><ul><li>The main office holders are the president (Dilma Rouseff), vice president (Michel Temer) </li></ul><ul><li>Party is Worker’s Party and Democratic Movement Party. Executive Branch </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Branch </li></ul><ul><li>1.The Federal Senate ( Senado Federal ), which has 81 seats — three members from each state and the Federal District, elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms. One-third are elected after a four year period, and two-thirds are elected after the next four-year period. </li></ul><ul><li>2.The Chamber of Deputies ( Câmara dos Deputados ), which has 513 seats. Federal deputies are elected by proportional reputation to serve four-year terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch </li></ul><ul><li>The states are divided into judicial districts named comarcas , which are composed of one or more cities. Each comarca has at least one court of first instance. There are specialized courts of first instance for family litigation or bankruptcy in some cities and states. Judgments from these district courts can be the subject of judicial review. </li></ul><ul><li>Judgments of courts of first instance are usually made by only one judge. The Brazilian judiciary system uses jury trials only for judging crimes against life. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Politics <ul><li>Constitution of 1824 – the first Brazilian constitution, enacted by Dom Pedro 1. It was monarchic, hereditary and highly centralized, permitting the vote only to property-holders. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1891 – the republic was proclaimed in 1889, but a new constitution was not promulgated until 1891. This federalist, democratic constitution was heavily influenced by the U.S. model. However, women and illiterates were not permitted to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1934 – when Getúlio Vargas came to power in 1930, he canceled the 1891 constitution and did not permit a new one until 1934. The Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932 forced Vargas to enact a new democratic constitution that permitted women's suffrage. Getúlio Vargas was indirectly elected president by the Constitutional Assembly to a four-year term, beginning in 1933. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1937 – Getúlio Vargas suppressed a Communist uprising in 1935 and two years later (November 10, 1937) used it as a pretext to establish autocratic rule. He instituted a corporatist constitution nicknamed the Polish, (because it was said to have been inspired by a Polish constitution), written by . </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1946 – in October, 1945, with the II World War over, a civil-military coup ousted dictatorial Getúlio Vargas, an Assembly wrote a democratic constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1967 – after the 1964 coup d'État against João Goulart, the military dictatorship passed the Institutional Acts , a supraconstitutional law. This strongly undemocratic constitution simply incorporated these Acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1988 – the progressive redemocratization culminated in the current constitution. Very democratic, it is more expansive than a normal constitution – many statutory acts in other countries are written into this constitution, like Social Security and taxes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Economy <ul><li>Natural resources: Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, gemstones, oil, wood, and aluminum. Brazil has 14% of the world's renewable fresh water. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture (6% of GDP): Products --soybeans, coffee, sugarcane, cocoa, rice, livestock, corn, oranges, cotton, wheat, and tobacco. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry (28% of GDP): Types --steel, commercial aircraft, chemicals, petrochemicals, footwear, machinery, motors, vehicles, auto parts, consumer durables, cement, and lumber. </li></ul><ul><li>Services (66% of GDP): Types --mail, telecommunications, banking, energy, commerce, and computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade: Trade balance (2011)--$20 billion surplus. Exports --$202 billion. Major markets --China 15%, United States 10%, Argentina 9%. Imports --$182 billion. Major suppliers --United States 15%, China 14%, and Argentina 8%. </li></ul><ul><li>The Brazilian economy’s solid performance during the financial crisis and its strong and early recovery, including 2010 growth of 7.5%, have contributed to the country’s transition from a regional to a global power. Expected to continue to grow in the 4% to 5% range, the economy is the world’s eighth-largest and is expected to rise to fifth within the next several years. During the administration of former President Lula, surging exports, economic growth and social programs helped lift tens of millions of Brazilians out of poverty. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Daily Life <ul><li>Brazil's standard of living is the highest of Latin America with large and developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool. The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is regarded as one of the group of four emerging economies called BRIC. Major export products include aircraft, coffee, automobiles, soybean, iron ore, orange juice, steel, ethanol, textiles, footwear, corned beef and electrical equipment. Brazil has a diversified middle income economy with wide variations in development levels. Most large industry is agglomerated in the Southern and South East states. The Northeast is the poorest region of Brazil, but it has attracted new investments in infrastructure for the tourism sector and intensive agricultural schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Half a million Brazilian children and adults that received benefits through “Bolsa Familia,” the federal government’s cash transfer program, or registered in the country´s social programs database became literate in 2006 and 2007. During the same period, the number of people included in the registry attending public literacy programs increased 12 percentage points, demonstrating Bolsa Familia’s positive impact on education and literacy levels in Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazilian clothes are comfortable, vivid, beautifully crafted and decorated with attractive laces. Brazilian clothing is not very distinctive and there is no particular costume in Brazil. Traditional Brazilian clothing is influenced by a combination of different races and immigrants from all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Eighty Five Percent of Brazilian Internet Users Visited a Social Networking Site in September 2010. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Culture <ul><li>Capoeira is a Brazilian martial art practised widely, but whose origins lie with the African sections of the populace. Black slaves learnt the art as a means of self-defence and self-discipline to help tolerate the tough lives they led under the plantation owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Soccer is a sport which, although invented in Britain, has found popularity worldwide and in particular in Brazil. Arguably, some of the best teams and players the sport has ever seen have come from Brazil. Heroes such as Pele have inspired generations of poor yet passionate Brazilians to take up the sport and dream of achieving success. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil is predominantly a Catholic country, but the diversity of its people often manifests itself in a unique mix of religious practises, such as Candomble for example. This is a fusion of African and Catholic religious doctrine and is only found in Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil is famous for its carnivals and celebrations, again representing the fusion of African, Portuguese and native Indian cultures. Lemanja is a celebration observed by followers of the Candomble religion. Thousands of worshippers line the beach at Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro to give thanks to the goddess of the seas. They wear white and offer flowers and gifts by placing them in the sea. Salvador is the location for Boa Morte, a three day religious celebration combining music, dance and religion. The name literally translates as “Beautiful Death”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Samba is a distinctively Brazilian style of music and has its historical roots in the traditions of the Bantu people who came to Brazil from Angola in Africa. Samba music is characterised by a strong beat accompanied by a guitar and has influenced other forms of Brazilian music such as Bossa Nova. It remains a very popular form of traditional music for many Brazilians. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most common foods in the southern region of Brazil are the churrasco, the barreado, and some other dishes based on meat. This region has a strong influence from the gauchos . </li></ul><ul><li>Brazilian desserts are: quindim, bejinho, cocada, pudim de pao, rice pudding, brigadeiro, bolo de maracuja, and pao de mel, among many others. Tropical fruits are also often eaten as desserts </li></ul>
  11. 11. Spain and its country map
  12. 12. Country Description <ul><li>Spain is located in southwestern Europe. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay in the northwest and by the Mediterranean Sea in the east and the south. It has a 1,214 kilometer (754 mile) land border with Portugal in the west and a 623 kilometer (387 mile) border with France and a 63.7 kilometer (39.5 mile) border with the tiny city-state of Andorra in the northeast, characterized by the Pyrenean Mountains. In the south it has a 1.2 kilometer (.75 mile) border with Gibraltar (which legally belongs to the United Kingdom) and a 96 kilometer (59.6 mile) border with Morocco (Ceuta, Melilla). All together Spain's 504,782 square kilometer (194,896 square mile) territory, including the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic, Ceuta, and Melilla, has 1,917.8 kilometers (1,191.7 miles) of land boundaries and 4,964 kilometers (3,084.6 miles) of coastline. Spain is slightly bigger than twice the size of Oregon. Its capital, Madrid (with 2,866,850 inhabitants), is situated on the Central Plateau, and Barcelona (with 1,508,805 inhabitants), another major city, is in the northeast by the Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean). Madrid and Barcelona are the only Spanish cities with a population over 1 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain population is 45,651,004. </li></ul><ul><li>June- September are Spain’s hottest months. January is the coldest time of the year in Spain, and December to February or March are the coldest months, perfect for skiing in the mountains. Spanish winters are generally cold and dry, but milder than in neighboring European countries . Spain in the spring and fall is generally temperate and ranges from warm to cool, though at times summer and winter can encroach upon the other seasons, turning four seasons into what may sometimes feel like two. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Geographical Features <ul><li>One of the chief geographical features in Spain is the Pyrenees which are located to the north of the country. The Pyrenees partitions the country from Europe-proper and, as a result affiliates it more to the continent of Africa. The other major landscape feature is the plateau that dominates the central region of the country. The Plateau is surrounded by mountains. There are the Cantabrian Mountains to the northwest of the country – near the coast; the Sierra de Gredos Range and Sierra de Guadarrama Range to the west; and the Sierra Morena Range and the Sierra Nevada Range to the south. The optimum elevation in the country is called the Pico de Teide. The country of Spain is also well watered. Other that being encased by the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and the bay of Biscay, there are myriads of rivers also that snake their course across the country. Some of the chief ones are Douro, Guadalquivir, Guadiana, Ebro and Tagus. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain's diverse types of landscapes result in the availability of different types of plants. So you can see vegetation of the deciduous type, evergreen type and also of the steppe type. Some of the common varieties of plants to be found in the country are oak, elm, beech, chestnut, poplar, pine, ilex and cork oak and juniper; while the flowering variety of plants includes orchids, gentians, lavender and rosemary. Fauna in Spain is comparatively limited due to the spread in human habitat and destruction of natural forests. However, among those few that still remain are ibex, bears, tortoises, bats, deer, snakes, vipers, wolves and lynxes. The avian populace in the country includes such species as the cannery, kite, vulture, eagle, stork, bustard and flamingoes . </li></ul><ul><li>Catalonia, the northeastern-most of Spain's seventeen autonomous communities, has a different feel than the rest of the country and the province of Barcelona is unique in Catalonia.  Perhaps it is the uplifting contribution of Gaudi's architecture or the sensibilities of the Catalonian people; whatever it is, Barcelona is one of the best places to visit in Spain. Madrid is a remarkable  captial city with numerous interesting attractions and an important history.  The &quot;must sees&quot; of the city include Old Madrid, the Museo del Prado, and the Palacio Real (Royal Palace).  Andalusia is a scenic and attractive area of Spain. </li></ul>
  14. 14. History <ul><li>Officially referred to as the Kingdom of Spain , this European country is one of the largest countries in Southern Europe . The Kingdom includes two small enclaves in North Africa, bordering Morocco . The mainland is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea on its south and east, covering the Balearic islands, on the north lies the Bay of Biscay and to the west lies the Atlantic Ocean which also include the Canary Islands off the African Coast . The country shares its borders with Portugal , France , Andorra ,Gibraltar and Morocco . It is the largest country in the Iberian Peninsula . The origins of the Spanish people is traced back to the Cro-Magnons who settled on the Iberian Peninsula some 35000 years ago. The earliest urban civilization took place with the Greeks who set up trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. With time these territories went under Roman control who took possession of the Iberian Peninsula for the successive 500 years. The Roman empire brought economic expansion and Christianity in the area and modern culture, religion and laws of Spain. greatly owe their origins to this period. The decay in Roman rule ushered in the age of Islam in the Peninsula . After about 800 years Islam prevalence in the area finally ended in 1492 when the unified kingdoms of Aragon and Castile overthrew any Islam remnant in the Peninsula . The year also marked the beginning of the New World with Queen Isabella funding Christopher Columbus's expeditions. The new economic and political policies laid the foundations of a modern Spanish empire and the vast Jewish community were expelled from Spain following the Spanish Inquisition. The Renaissance ushered in Spain 's Golden era when it emerged as Europe 's leading power in the 16 th and 17 th centuries. The Kingdom of Spain then encompassed South and Central America , Mexico and Southern parts of United States , Philippines in eastern Asia, the Portuguese Empire, Southern Italy and Sicily , Germany , Belgium , Luxembourg and the Netherlands . The Golden era could not last long as religion-political conflicts soon bereft Spain of much of its wealth. Spain 's diminishing stature in world economy demanded a rather heavy price when it was forced to give away most of its territories including Portugal . Spain 's economy faced acute crisis after the Spanish War of Independence and the economy continued in its handicapped state for over a century. The situation was further aggravated when Spain lost the last of its overseas territories in Latin America following the Spanish-American War. The 20 th century could only usher in little peace in the country with the tragic Spanish Civil War starting in 1936 and continuing till 1939. The end of the war saw the Nationalist Party rise to power under Franco's rule . But Spain witnessed little progress in its economy and failed to be a part of the UN until 1955. Spain 's fortune turned with the 1960's when the economy experienced stupendous boom mostly owing to the tourism sector . The phase is also termed as the 'Spanish Miracle' . Franco's death made Prince Juan Carlos head of state. He established a constitutional monarchy for Spain in 1978. This ushered an era of democracy and political autonomy in the country. In 1982 Spain witnessed the return of a Leftist government under the PSOE and the nation finally joined the EU. The Spanish economy is currently the 8th largest in the world and the 5 th largest in Europe . The national currency was changed to Euro from Peseta in the year 2002,this created rapid economic modernization. The official language in Spain is Spanish and Roman Catholicism is the main religion of the country. In 2004 Spain recorded being second highest in the absolute net migration rate right after the US ,which proves its popularity among majority people in the world as a favorable destination for both economic and cultural reasons. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Political <ul><li>Spain Government or we can say government in Spain earlier was following a strict and dictatorial policy but with the passage of time it started following a liberal democratic policy. Previously the Spain government operated centrally. The separate states was not given power to take any independent decisions. All these major changes took place in the twentieth century. </li></ul><ul><li>The new organizations which were set up under the new democratic rule followed the principles of innovation and devolution. The Constitution of 1978 declared Spain as a democratic state which was to be ruled by the law. Spain government is similar to parliamentary monarchy. All the political powers are vested with the Parliament. The most outstanding feature of the government of Spain was the restoration of powers to the regions. The disputes between the regions were the prime reason for the political instability in the country. Still there were some vague features in the Constitution and as a result some distance still remained between the Centre and the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of State – Juan Carlos de Bourbon </li></ul><ul><li>Pres of Govt-Jose Rodriguez </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Vice Pres. – Alfredo Perez Rubalcalba </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Vice Pres – Elena Mendez </li></ul><ul><li>Third Vice Pres – Manual Gonzalez </li></ul>
  16. 16. Economy <ul><li>Spain's mixed capitalist economy is the 12th largest in the world, and its per capita income roughly matches that of Germany and France . However, after almost 15 years of above average GDP growth, the Spanish economy began to slow in late 2007 and entered into a recession in the second quarter of 2008. GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and by another 0.4% in 2010, making Spain the last major economy to emerge from the global recession. The reversal in Spain's economic growth reflects a significant decline in the construction sector, an oversupply of housing, falling consumer spending, and slumping exports. Government efforts to boost the economy through stimulus spending, extended unemployment benefits, and loan guarantees did not prevent a sharp rise in the unemployment rate, which rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to 20% in 2010. The government budget deficit worsened from 3.8% of GDP in 2008 to about 9.7% of GDP in 2010, more than three times the euro-zone limit. Spain's large budget deficit and poor economic growth prospects have made it vulnerable to financial contagion from other highly-indebted euro zone members despite the government's efforts to cut spending, privatize industries, and boost competitiveness through labor market reforms. Spanish banks' high exposure to the collapsed domestic construction and real estate market also poses a continued risk for the sector. The government intervened in one regional savings bank in 2009, and investors remain concerned that Madrid may need to bail out more troubled banks. The Bank of Spain, however, is seeking to boost confidence in the financial sector by pressuring banks to come clean about their losses and consolidate into stronger groups. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Economy <ul><li>textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment. types of industry). </li></ul><ul><li>machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods . Exports </li></ul><ul><li>France 19.27%, Germany 11.11%, Portugal 9.21%, Italy 8.24%, UK 6.18% export partners </li></ul><ul><li>machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments. Imports </li></ul><ul><li>Germany 15.02%, France 12.82%, Italy 7.17%, China 5.8%, Netherlands 5.22%, UK 4.7% import partners </li></ul>
  18. 18. Daily Life <ul><li>For many people, living in Spain is a dream and a privilege. For those who have traveled a lot it is easy to see why Spain is one of the most popular countries to live or visit. After France, Spain is the second most popular holiday destination in Europe. The standard of living in Spain is very high, the weather in Spain is the best in Europe and the cost of living is cheaper. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many jobs in Spain for foreigners, nevertheless, throughout the coastal areas most jobs are seasonal. Working in Spain depends to a large extent on what you can and are be able to do. Most of the qualifications obtained in the United Kingdom and Europe are recognized in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing the cost of living in Spain to other European countries is a difficult questions to answer. Prices can vary substantially depending on the area, generally the cost of living is higher in urban centers such as Madrid or Barcelona than in rural villages and towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain literacy rate is great and over 95% of men and women can read and write. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, Spanish traditional clothes are indeed very colorful. Most Spanish citizens dress in their traditional wears for festivals & bullfights. The matadors costume has remained the same over the years.  The bullfighter’s cloak, the cape de passé, worn for his ceremonial entry into the ring, is well decorated and still worn. Traditional Spanish Clothing comes in different forms. The most widely used ones are mantilla, Peineta, and Gilet . </li></ul><ul><li>29,093,984 Internet users as of June/2010, 62.6% of the population of Spain. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Culture <ul><li>Bull Fighting: An aristocratic sport, it was first defined by Gonzalo Argote de Molinain his book or 'Libro de la Monteria'. Practiced in two different ways, either the rider or his mount were to face the bull directly or they practically sideswiped the animal trying to spear it during the fight. This is one of the most dangerous and unique sport of Spain and an integral part of the traditions in Spain . Christmas: Christmas is celebrated all around the world but there are certain rituals that are unique and are a distinct feature of traditions in Spain . Firstly, the 'Hogueras' or bonfire, this tradition predates the beginning of the celebration of Christmas. This was actually a celebration of the Winter Solstice, that is, the shortest day of the year. This tradition in Spain witnesses the jumping of men over men which is a symbolic representation of a victory over illness. The Christmas dinner is only eaten after mid night and everybody stays awake with the logic that &quot;it is a good night so it is not to be wasted by sleeping&quot;. The family gets together for dinner after which they celebrate by singing carols. Palm Sunday: This special Sunday is a part of the traditions in Spain . On this day people go to the church for the mass and the children carry Palm leaves to be blessed by the priest. </li></ul><ul><li>Ash Wednesday: It is the first day of the penitential season of Lent when ashes are put on the forehead to indicate patience. This is mainly meant to remind the formula that �we have all risen from ashes and it is there that we will all vanish&quot; Lent: This tradition in Spain is marked by fasting during the observation of which the observant eats sparingly. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Culture <ul><li>Besides the general festivities there are certain traditions in Spain which are unique to the Spanish land . Each region of Spain, all towns, cities, neighborhood, and even professions have their own saints whose feast is a very important event. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain's culinary traditions rely on an abundance of locally grown vegetables and fruits as well as meats and poultry. Jamón serrano , a cured ham, and chorizo , a seasoned sausage, are popular. Seafood and fish are popular in coastal areas. Other popular foods are cheeses, eggs, beans, rice, nuts (especially almonds), and bread (a crusty white bread, baked fresh daily, is common). Olive oil and garlic are common ingredients. Spain is also known for its wines, including the rioja , made in the northern province; sherry, a fortified wine that may be dry or sweet; and sangria, wine mixed with fruit and soda water. </li></ul><ul><li>The best-known Spanish dish, a stew called paella (pie-AY-ah), originated in Valencia, an eastern province on the Mediterranean Sea. Rice, a main ingredient, is grown in Valencia's tidal flatlands. Though there are numerous variations, paella is usually made of a variety of shellfish (such as shrimp, clams, crab, and lobster), chorizo (sausage), vegetables (tomatoes, peas, and asparagus), chicken and/or rabbit, and long-grained rice. Broth, onion, garlic, wine, pimiento (sweet red pepper), and saffron add flavor to the stew. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Thailand and its country map
  22. 22. Country Description <ul><li>Located in Southeast Asia, Thailand is adjoined to Laos and Burma (Myanmar) to the north, Cambodia and the Gulf of Thailand to the east, Burma and the Andaman Sea to the west, and Malaysia to the south. Its total area, which is about twice the size of Wyoming, measures 514,000 square kilometers (198,455 square miles). The length of its coastline measures 3,219 kilometers (2,000 miles). Its capital city, Bangkok, is the most populated city in Thailand. Located in the central region, Bangkok is the center of Thailand's economic and political activities. Major cities in the north are Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai, Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Udon Thani, Phitsanulok, Nakhon Sawan, and Ubon Ratchathani. Meanwhile, major cities in the south are Nakhon Si Thammarat, Songkhla, Surat Thani, and Hat Yai. </li></ul><ul><li>The country’s population is at 61.2 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand has a warm, tropical climate affected by an annual monsoon, with a rainy season from June to October and a dry season the rest of the year. Temperatures average 75 to 92 degrees Fahrenheit, with the highest temperatures from March to May and the lowest in December and January. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical, rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon from mid-May to September. Dry, cool northeast monsoon from November to mid-March, southern isthmus always hot and humid. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three seasons: the cool season (November to February), the hot season (April to May), and the rainy season (June to October), though downpours rarely last more than a couple of hours. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Geographical Features <ul><li>Thailand's 514,000 square kilometers lie in the middle of mainland Southeast Asia. The most conspicuous features of Thailand's terrain are high mountains, a central plain, and an upland plateau. Mountains cover much of northern Thailand and extend along the Burmese border down through the Malay Peninsula. The central plain is a lowland area drained by the Chao Phraya and its tributaries, the country's principal river system, which feeds into the delta at the head of the Bight of Bangkok. The Chao Phraya system drains about one-third of the nation's territory. In the northeastern part of the country the Khorat Plateau, a region of gently rolling low hills and shallow lakes, drains into the Mekong River through the Mae Nam Mun. The Mekong system empties into the South China Sea and includes a series of canals and dams. </li></ul><ul><li>Together, the Chao Phraya and Mekong systems sustain Thailand's agricultural economy by supporting wet-rice cultivation and providing waterways for the transport of goods and people. In contrast, the distinguishing natural features of peninsular Thailand are long coastlines, offshore islands, and diminishing mangrove swamps. </li></ul><ul><li>Landforms and drainage divide the country more or less into four natural regions--the North, the Northeast, the Center, and the South. Although Bangkok geographically is part of the central plain, as the capital and largest city this metropolitan area may be considered in other respects a separate region. Each of the four geographical regions differs from the others in population, basic resources, natural features, and level of social and economic development. The diversity of the regions is in fact the most pronounced attribute of Thailand's physical setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Many distinctive forms of plant and animal life are found. Forestlands support hardwoods (notably teak), pine, bamboos, and betel and coconut palms; in the coastal lowlands, mangroves and rattan abound. Among the larger mammals are the bear, otter, and civet cat. Climbing animals include the gibbon and many species of monkeys. There are also sheep, goats, oxen, single-horned rhinoceroses, deer, tapirs, wild cattle, wild hogs, and snakes. There are over 600 breeding bird species. Crocodiles, lizards, and turtles are numerous. Fish abound in the rivers and coastal waters. </li></ul><ul><li>You can visit the capital Bangkok and enjoy the foods and market like fish, etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. History <ul><li>The Thais first began settling their present homeland in the 6th century, and by the end of the 13th century ruled most of the western portion. During the next 400 years, they fought sporadically with the Cambodians to the east and the Burmese to the west. Formerly called Siam, Thailand has never experienced foreign colonization. The British gained a colonial foothold in the region in 1824, but by 1896 an Anglo-French accord guaranteed the independence of Thailand. A coup in 1932 demoted the monarchy to titular status and established representative government with universal suffrage. </li></ul><ul><li>At the outbreak of World War II, Japanese forces attacked Thailand. After five hours of token resistance Thailand yielded to Japan on Dec. 8, 1941, subsequently becoming a staging area for the Japanese campaign against Malaya. Following the demise of a pro-Japanese puppet government in July 1944, Thailand repudiated the declaration of war it had been forced to make in 1942 against Britain and the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>By the late 1960s the nation's problems largely stemmed from conflicts brewing in neighboring Cambodia and Vietnam. Although Thailand had received $2 billion in U.S. economic and military aid since 1950 and had sent troops (paid by the U.S.) to Vietnam while permitting U.S. bomber bases on its territory, the collapse of South Vietnam and Cambodia in spring 1975 brought rapid changes in the country's diplomatic posture. At the Thai government's insistence, the U.S. agreed to withdraw all 23,000 U.S. military personnel remaining in Thailand by March 1976. </li></ul><ul><li>Thai government manufacturers have called for the government to work towards creating worker productivity to increases minimum wage saying that the populist policy has destroyed incentives for laborers to develop skills. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Political <ul><li>Type: Constitutional monarchy. Constitution: Thailand adopted its current constitution following an August 19, 2007 referendum. Independence: Never colonized; traditional founding date 1238. Branches: Executive --King (chief of state), Prime Minister (head of government). Legislative --bicameral, with a fully-elected House of Representatives and a partially-elected Senate. Judicial --composed of the Constitutional Tribunal, the Courts of Justice, and the Administrative Courts. Administrative subdivisions: 77 provinces, including Bangkok municipality, subdivided into 877 districts, 7,255 tambon administration, and 74,944 villages. Political parties: Multi-party system; Communist Party is prohibited. Suffrage: Universal and compulsory at 18 years of age . </li></ul><ul><li>Government leader is the King, who currently is PHUMIPHON Adunyadet. Next is the Prime Minister ABHISIT Wechachiwa Followed by : </li></ul><ul><li>Dep. Prime Min. SANAN KachornprasatDep . Prime Min.SUTHEP ThueaksubanDep. Prime Min.TRAIRONG SuwannakhiriMin. to the Prime Min.'s OfficeONG-AT KlampaibunMin. to the Prime Min.'s OfficeWIRACHAI WiramenthikunMin. of Agriculture & CooperativesTHIRA WongsamutMin. of CommercePHONTIWA NakhasaiMin. of CultureNIPIT IntharasombatMin. of DefensePRAWIT WongsuwanMin. of EducationCHINNAWON Boonyakiat Min. of EnergyWANNARAT CharnnukunMin. of FinanceKON ChatikawanitMin. of Foreign AffairsKASIT PhiromMin. of IndustryCHAIWUT BannawatMin. of Information & Communications TechnologyCHUTI KrairikMin. of InteriorCHAWARAT ChanwirakunMin. of JusticePHRAPHAN SaliratwiphakMin. of LaborCHALERMCHAI Sri-onMin. of Natural Resources & EnvironmentSUWIT KhunkittiMin. of Public HealthCHURIN LaksanawisitMin. of Science & TechnologyWIRACHAI WiramethikunMin. of Social Development & Human SecurityISSARA SomchaiMin. of Tourism & SportsCHUMPHON Sinlapa-achaMin. of TransportSOPHON SaramGovernor, Bank of ThailandPRASAN TrairatworakunAmbassador to the USKITTIPHONG Na RanongPermanent Representative to the UN, New YorkNORACHIT Sinhaseni </li></ul>
  26. 26. Economy <ul><li>In the first quarter of 2010, the Thai economy surged by 12.0% year-on-year, the highest quarterly growth since 1995. The uptick was mostly due to strong exports (up 32%) from continued global recovery; despite the March-May political protests in Bangkok, growth continued through the second and third quarter of the year. The Thai economy expanded by 9.3% (year-on-year) during the first three quarters of 2010, the second-strongest performance in Southeast Asia, second only to Singapore. The government estimated nearly 8% growth (year-on-year) for full-year 2010 and expects growth to continue into 2011, but at a lower rate (3%-5%). Growth in 2011 is expected to be driven by exports and also domestic demand. Political risk related to the anticipated 2011 general elections, continued appreciation of the baht, and the uncertainties of Thailand’s major trading partners’ economic recovery also could affect the economy. Inflation is expected to gradually climb from the 2010 level (3.3%) to between 3% and 5%, due in large part to higher world commodity prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand's increasingly diversified manufacturing sector is the largest contributor to growth. Industries registering rapid increases in production have included computers and electronics, furniture, wood products, canned food, toys, plastic products, gems, and jewelry. High-technology products such as integrated circuits and parts, hard disc drives, electrical appliances, vehicles, and vehicle parts are now leading Thailand's growth in exports. With stronger exports and a rise in inflationary pressure, the Bank of Thailand started to tighten its monetary policy in mid-July 2010 after having followed a low interest rate policy since April 2009. Large surpluses in both the current and capital accounts contributed to the Thai baht's appreciation relative to the dollar throughout 2009 and 2010. Machinery and parts, vehicles, electronic integrated circuits, chemicals, crude oil and fuels, and iron and steel are among Thailand's principal imports . </li></ul><ul><li>Through 2010, the United States was Thailand's third-largest single-country export market after China and Japan, and the third-largest supplier after Japan and China. Thailand's traditional major markets have been the United States, Japan, Europe, and ASEAN member countries (Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam). Growing export markets include China, Hong Kong, Australia, the Middle East, South Africa, and India. Due to the global economic recovery, Thai exports in 2010 surged by 25.1% from 2009. Thailand is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Cairns Group of agricultural exporters . </li></ul>
  27. 27. Economy <ul><li>Natural resources: Tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry: Types --tourism, textiles, garments, agricultural processing, cement, integrated circuits, jewelry, electronics, petrochemical, and auto assembly . </li></ul>
  28. 28. Daily Life <ul><li>Thailand has developed greatly over the past years with growing facilities and job opportunities for people. Living in Thailand is not a problem if one is hard working and has a strong urge to work. There are various types of people residing in the exotic country of Thailand. There are war veterans, students, westerners as well as common people with normal jobs in Thailand. There are permanent as well as long-time residents in Thailand apart from the innumerable tourists who frequent the country at a rapid rate. Many tourists get so enchanted with the scenic beauty of the place that they make Thailand their permanent address. </li></ul><ul><li>The standard of living in Thailand is almost at-par to the other south-eastern Asian countries. A plan to settle in Thailand should be decided in advance and a job should be grabbed before landing into the country. There are ample jobs available in the country, which range from language instructors to programmers, from bar work to working in the diving industry. Living in Thailand is no problem as there is nothing as rigid class distinction in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various classes in the Thai society and there is peace and harmony between all the classes in the society. There are various types of accommodation facilities in the exotic country of Thailand. The privileged classes usually reside in large mansions and villas, while the middle class prefer to stay in small houses and rented apartments. </li></ul><ul><li>92.6 % of the people in Thailand can read and write. 95 % males and 91 % of women can. </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing includes fishermen pants, batik sarongs, vest and trousers. Also they adopted the western style clothing in their tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Very few people use the internet and it’s at roughly 23.9 %. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Culture <ul><li>The most important thing that you must know while visiting Thailand is Wai or the Thai mode of greeting. The Thais join the palms of their hands and bow their heads in order to show a respectful greeting. However such greetings are not to be used for a child! There are yet many other things about Thailand's customs and traditions , the knowledge of which would prove beneficial to the tourists. Here are a few of them: Apart from greeting each other with the Wai gesture, the people of Thailand address to the elders by adding a Pi before their names. On the other hand, nong is added before the name of a child to show endearment. </li></ul><ul><li>Head is considered to be the highest and purest part of human body by the Thai people. Therefore, pointing at someone or touching someone with feet is considered to be highly disrespectful. It is for the same reason that stepping on the Thai coin that contains the king's head or sitting in a temple with feet pointed to the religious icon is considered sacrilegious. </li></ul><ul><li>It is mandatory to open one's footwear before entering a temple or a house. Finding heaps of shoes in front of a shop or a restaurant in Thailand is a usual phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>The custom of eating food is also singular. Tradition demands that there should be several dishes on the table and the guest is expected to taste a little bit of everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Public display of affection by couples is forbidden by the Thai custom. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are supposed to make way for Buddhist monks so as to prevent an accidental physical contact. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been the tradition of Buddhist families in Thailand to send the boy to endure a 3 months monk hood when they were 20 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Buddhist marriages demand that the couple must at first bow before the idol of Buddha. Also, the presence of a monk during a marriage ceremony was considered to be ominous. </li></ul><ul><li>Thai funerals usually last for a week and the grieved are requested not to cry so that the soul of the departed is not troubled. The monks chant hymns and the after the cremation of the body, the ashes were put in an urn and kept in a Chedi in the local temple. </li></ul><ul><li>The Thai folks celebrate various festivals throughout the year such as the New Year, maka and songkran. These festivals are part of the Thai tradition. Lat for centuries they practiced Muay Thai kickboxing. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Culture <ul><li>Eating ranks high on the Thai scale of pleasures, and meals are informal affairs. The staple is rice, either ordinary or glutinous, accompanied by a variety of dishes that can be eaten in almost any order, and seasoned to individual taste with several condiments such as fish sauce and chilli peppers. Most often there will be a soup of some kind, a curry, a steamed or fried dish, a salad, and one or more basic sauces. Desserts may consist of fresh fruit or one of the many traditional Thai sweets. </li></ul><ul><li>Central region: Rice, fish, and vegetables, flavoured with garlic, black pepper, and nam pla (fish sauce), along with an abundance of fresh fruit, comprised the basic diet of Sukhothai. With the rise of Ayutthaya, other elements were added. That now essential ingredient the fiery chilli pepper - was introduced at this time, along with the equally popular coriander, lime and tomato. These may have been brought from their native South America by the Portuguese, who also left a lasting imprint in the form of popular Thai sweets based on egg yolk and sugar. Other influences came from India. </li></ul><ul><li>They do folk dance and custom drama like Khon and Lakhon. They play classical music. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Switzerland and its country map
  32. 32. Country Description <ul><li>Located in west central Europe, bordered on the north by France and Germany, on the east by Austria and Liechtenstein, on the south by Italy, and on the west and south-west by France, this landlocked alpine country has an area of 41,290 square kilometers (15,942 square mi), making it slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey. The capital, Bern, is situated on the Aare River in the north-western part of the country; the largest city is Zürich in the north; other major cities include Geneva and Lausanne in the south-west, Basel in the north, and Lugano in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>The population of Switzerland was estimated at 7,262,372 in July 2000; the population growth rate in that year was 0.3 percent, and the i mmigration rate was 1.38 per 1,000 population. Population density was among the highest in Europe, at about 176 persons per square kilometer (455 per square mile). The population is aging, and it has a high life expectancy—79.6 years for the total population (76.73 for men, and 82.63 for women). Consequently, the median age increased to 42.6 years in 1999 from 37.2 five years earlier. Some 15.4 percent of the population are 14 years old and younger, and 16.7 percent are 65 and older. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of the population, about 62 percent, lives in urban areas, and with the exception of Zürich, Geneva, Basel, and Lausanne, mostly in small towns. Most of Switzerland is mountainous and the population is unevenly distributed, concentrated in the valleys and the plains. </li></ul><ul><li>From July to August the daytime temperature range is 18 to 28 °C (65° - 82° F) and from January to February the range is -2 to 7 °C (28° - 45° F). In spring and autumn, the daytime temperature range is 8 to 15 °C (46° - 59° F). Depending on the altitude the temperature range may vary. It is highly recommended to visitors to pack a sweater, good walking shoes, sunscreen, sunglasses, a compact umbrella and/or a light rain coat. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Geographical Features <ul><li>The geography of Switzerland is notable for its great diversity. Switzerland’s three main geographical regions are the Jura, Plateau and the Alps. </li></ul><ul><li>The geography of Switzerland means that the climate varies greatly from one region to another. Depending on the area and the time of year, Switzerland experiences conditions reminiscent both of Siberia and of the Mediterranean. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the major towns of their own distinctive character. </li></ul><ul><li>Building land is in short supply, but planning regulations aim to preserve the appearance of towns and villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland has 6 % of Europe's stock water. The Rhine, Rhone, and Inn all take their source there. </li></ul><ul><li>Surprisingly most people live in Zurich, which is not the capital. You can visit towns like Bern, Basel, Geneva, St Gallen, and Lucerene. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation in climate and altitude produces a varied flora and fauna. In the lowest zone (below 550 m/1,800 ft), chestnut, walnut, cypress, and palm trees grow, as well as figs, oranges, and almonds; up to 1,200 m (3,940 ft), forests of beech, maple, and oak; around 1,680 m (5,500 ft), fir and pine; around 2,130 m (7,000 ft), rhododendron, larches, dwarf and cembra pine, and whortleberries; and above the snow line, more than 100 species of flowering plants, including the edelweiss. Wild animals include the chamois, boar, deer, otter and fox. They are large birds of prey too with snipe, heath cock and cuckoo. </li></ul>
  34. 34. History <ul><li>No European country remained truly neutral during WWII. Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland all worked to some extent with the Axis. In Switzerland, the people who lived through the war wanted to believe that it was their army and fortifications that kept the Nazis out. Historical research and documents clearly show that if the Nazis wanted to invade Switzerland, it would have been quick and relatively easy. The reason Germany spared its tiny neighbor to the south was because Switzerland proved much more useful as an independent state than as a satellite. The Swiss made many useful weapon components (aluminium for the Luftwaffe, spark plugs for jeeps taken from the Russians, timing devices for bombs, among other things), and thus their factories were not bombed every night. The Swiss National bank bought gold from the Reichsbank, the Reichsbank was given Swiss francs in exchange, and used them to buy cobalt, nickel and tungsten from the other “neutral” countries. The Turks, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish, who were all under heavy pressure from the Allies not to accept direct gold payment from the Reichsbank, then exchanged the Swiss francs for gold. The problem was that the German gold came from the Belgian National bank reserves (not from concentration camps as some sensationalists would have it) and the neutrals knew it. Finally, the Swiss allowed trains to carry food and non-weapon supplies from Germany to Italy, with dozens of trains every day on their way to Africa. But did Switzerland have any other choice? Probably not. Totally surrounded by the Axis, most of its coal supply came from Germany every week, and all of its exports had to go through Axis controlled territory. For a landlocked country with no natural resources, this meant the Swiss had to work out some form of accomodation with their neighbors. The problem is that the postwar generations have been raised to believe that it was the Swiss army, and not the country’s usefulness to the Germans, that protected it from the wrath of war. The Swiss are now coming to terms with this part of their history, as for example the people of France and Japan have. As a foreigner, it is best to avoid passing judgment on them and giving lessons, at the risk of offending your hosts. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently right now in Switzerland they work to cut bills and fix government. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Political <ul><li>Switzerland is a confederation governed under the constitution of 1874 as revised in 1998. The president, who is both head of state and head of government, is elected annually by the legislature. The cabinet, or Federal Council, is the main executive body; it is composed of seven members elected for four years by the legislature. The bicameral legislature, or Federal Assembly, consists of the 46-seat Council of States, with two members from each canton and one from each half canton, and the 200-seat National Council, whose members are popularly elected. All legislators serve four-year terms. Switzerland frequently employs the referendum as well as the popular initiative to achieve political change. Switzerland's 20 cantons and 6 half cantons remain sovereign in many respects; cantonal constitutions differ widely. In Unterwalden, Glarus, and Appenzell the entire electorate legislates directly in yearly outdoor meetings called Landsgemeinden; elsewhere a unicameral legislative council and an elected executive council are common. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pres. Of Swiss Confederation is Doris Leuthard. No vice Pres. Chief federal dept. of defense, sports, and civil protection is Ueli Maurer. Chief Fed Dept. of Econ. Affairs is Johannn Ammann. Chief Federal Dept. of finance is Eveline Schlumpf. Chief, Federal Dept. of Foreign Affairs Micheline Calmy- Rey, and Chmn., Swiss National BankJean-Pierre Roth. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Economy <ul><li>Switzerland is a peaceful, prosperous, and modern market economy with low unemployment, a highly skilled labor force, and a per capita GDP among the highest in the world. Switzerland's economy benefits from a highly developed service sector, led by financial services, and a manufacturing industry that specializes in high-technology, knowledge-based production. The Swiss have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with the EU's, in order to enhance their international competitiveness, but some trade protectionism remains, particularly for its small agricultural sector. The global financial crisis and resulting economic downturn put Switzerland in a recession in 2009 as global export demand stalled. The Swiss National Bank during this period effectively implemented a zero-interest rate policy in a bid to boost the economy and prevent appreciation of the franc. Switzerland's economy grew 2.8% in 2010, when Bern implemented a third fiscal stimulus program, but its prized banking sector has recently faced significant challenges. The country's largest banks suffered sizable losses in 2008-09, leading its largest bank to accept a government rescue deal in late 2008. Switzerland has also come under increasing pressure from individual neighboring countries, the EU, the US, and international institutions to reform its banking secrecy laws. Consequently, the government agreed to conform to OECD regulations on administrative assistance in tax matters, including tax evasion. The government has renegotiated its double taxation agreements with numerous countries, including the US, to incorporate the OECD standard, and it is working with Germany and the UK to resolve outstanding issues, particularly the possibility of imposing taxes on bank deposits held by foreigners. Parliament passed the first five double-taxation agreements, including that with the US, in March 2010, but the agreements are subject to public referendum. In 2009, Swiss financial regulators ordered the country's largest bank to reveal at Washington's behest the names of US account-holders suspected of using the bank to commit tax fraud. These steps will have a lasting impact on Switzerland's long history of bank secrecy. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of industries are machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, tourism, banking, and insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of exports are machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, and agricultural products. </li></ul><ul><li>Export partners are Germany 20.98%, US 9.09%, France 8.62%, Italy 8.08%, Austria 5.38% (2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Types of exports are machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, and textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Import partners are Germany 27.19%, Italy 10.42%, US 9.61%, France 7.69%, Netherlands 4.35% (2010). </li></ul>
  37. 37. Daily Life <ul><li>Switzerland is one of the most expensive countries in Europe, after Norway, Denmark and Finland. The main items of expenditure in one’s budget are insurance, such as health insurance, invalidity insurance, unemployment insurance and private insurance policies (23% of a typical household budget in 2005), accommodation and energy (17%), tax (13%) and food and clothing (11%).Other recurring monthly expenditure includes transport and fuel (12%), restaurant meals (6%), healthcare (5%) and communications (2%). In 2005, disposable income – the amount remaining after compulsory deductions (social security contributions, taxes, basic health insurance, etc.) – amounted to 72.6% of gross household income, averaging CHF 8 967 . </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland literacy as of 2010 is near 100 % so basically mostly everybody can read and write. </li></ul><ul><li>Most traditional Swiss clothing is adorned with embroidery. Usually embroidery is stitched on hats, scarves and shirt cuffs. Embroidery also decorates fabric. While embroidery used to be a home industry in the eastern and northeastern portions of Switzerland, it's now limited to tourism because the people no longer dress in traditional clothing. Smocks are another traditional Swiss fashion worn by both Swiss-Italians as well as Swiss-French boys. Generally, smocks were reserved for school. In fact, according to the Historical Clothing website, it was compulsory for 9- to 10-year-old boys to wear smocks from the 1930s to the 1960s. Although the Swiss normally wear western-style clothing, they still don traditional costumes at their parades and festivals. Besides the many displays of fine Swiss embroidery, the cattle herders of Gruyere wear a short blue canvas jacket. The women wear long-sleeved jackets, silk aprons and straw with ribbons dangling from the brim. Gold lace caps are also a traditional female costume. In Unterwalden, the women wear silver ornamented dresses. In the Alpine areas, the men wear traditional leather shorts (lederhosen) with leather boots. </li></ul><ul><li>Just as in other western countries, Swiss teens wear casual clothes, although the same outfit is typically worn for several days. They wear heavy jackets, scarves and gloves in winter. During warmer months, they wear light clothing such as T-shirts. Because Swiss teenagers participate in many sports, they wear typical sporting clothes as worn by U.S. teens while bicycling or engaging in after-school sports such as soccer. Popular brands include Adidas, Nike and Puma. </li></ul><ul><li>They were 5,739,300 internet users in 2010 accounting for 75.3 % of the population. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Culture <ul><li>August always starts with a bang in Switzerland, quite literally, August is the Swiss National day and traditionally involves letting off millions of francs' worth of fireworks. It is the day that about 700 years ago the original three cantons Uri,Schwyz and Unterwalden (like counties in the UK or states in America) got together to swear that they would only be ruled over by a fellow countryman and not by strangers, to be there for one another and to help each other. </li></ul><ul><li>In different cantons such as Basel there are parades instead. The children disguise themselves as animals, stars, monsters or else what. During the parade adults and children play different musical instruments such as: the drums, the clarinet, the flute and the trumpet. They throw sweet at the onlookers. Sometimes there are clowns who go to the people and put them in a bathtub with the confetti. </li></ul><ul><li>One of those old Zurich holiday literally means „six o'clock ringing&quot;.The local guilds have a large parade through Zurich.They all dress up in historical costumes, accompanied by marching bands.The procession ends at a large bonfire with a model of a snowman on top. Its head is filled with explosives. When the flames reach his head, the snowman is blown to pieces.The time between lighting the fire and the snowman losing his head is supposed to indicate how good the summer will be.The whole festival is to celebrate the end of winter.(one week after Easter). </li></ul><ul><li>A well known, but not very common Swiss traditional instrument is the Alphorn An alphorn is about 2.5 m long. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional and local culinary specialties generally are based on a traditional type of cooking, rich in calories and fat, that is more suited to outdoor activity than to a sedentary way of life. Dairy products such as butter, cream, and cheese are important parts of the diet, along with pork. More recent eating habits show a growing concern for healthy food and a growing taste for exotic food. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ghana and its country map
  40. 40. Country Description <ul><li>The Republic of Ghana, formerly the Gold Coast, is a West African country lying on the Gulf of Guinea. It has a total border of 2,093 kilometers (1,300 miles), including 548 kilometers (341 miles) with Burkina Faso to the north, 688 kilometers (428 miles) with Côte d'Ivoire to the west, and 877 kilometers (545 miles) with Togo to the east. It has a coastline on the Gulf of Guinea, part of the Atlantic Ocean, measuring 539 kilometers (335 miles). It has an area of 239,540 square kilometers (92,486 square miles), making it about the size of the state of Oregon. Water occupies 8,520 square kilometers (3,290 square miles) of the country, primarily Lake Volta. The capital of Accra is located along the southeastern coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana has a tropical climate, warm and comparatively dry along the southeast coast, hot and humid in the southwest, and hot and dry in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>The population of Ghana was estimated at 17,533,560 in July 2010, an estimate that takes into account the impact of AIDS. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Geographical Features <ul><li>Ghana is one of the five African nations along the northern coastline of the Gulf of Guinea. It is bordered on the west by Cote d'Ivoire, on the north by Burkina Faso, and on the east by Togo. The country consists mostly of low-lying savannah regions, with a central belt of forest. </li></ul><ul><li>Ghana's distinguishing geographic feature is the Volta River, on which was built the Akosombo dam in 1964. The damming of the Volta created the enormous Lake Volta, which occupies a sizeable portion of Ghana's southeastern territory. Lake Volta is also the site of Kujani National Park, though Ghana's best-known park is Mole located in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>Mole National Park is renowned as the largest national park wherein animals like Duiker, antelopes, kob and hartebeest; leopard, lion, elephant and buffaloes reside peacefully. The coastline of southern Ghana is festooned with mangroves marshland, and palm fringed gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>The native birds of this region are Bareheaded Rock Fowl, Fire-bellied Woodpecker, Fraser's Eagle Owl, Narina's Trogon, Woodland Kingfisher; Orange- cheeked Waybill, Palm-nut Vulture, Barbary Shrike and much more. </li></ul><ul><li>The native animals are Mona Monkey, Diana Monkey, Colobus Monkey, Roan Antelope, Olive Baboon, Hartebeest, Waterbuck and much more. </li></ul><ul><li>Places to visit are Accra, Atlantic Coast, Aburi Botanic Gardens, Kakum National Park, and Mole National Park. </li></ul>
  42. 42. History <ul><li>G hana's rich history centers on the once-great Ashanti empire, which rose to power during the late 17th century and continued to prosper as a center of the 18th century slave trade. The Ashanti capital, Kumasi, was during this period one of the finest and most advanced cities in Africa, and the Ashanti state even employed significant numbers of Europeans as advisors and administrators. The European presence in Ghana is also marked by the multitude of colonial forts that dot its coastline--strongholds that anchored the European trade in gold, ivory, and slaves. Although Ghana, then known as the Gold Coast, was largely considered a British territory by the latter half of the 19th century, it wasn't until 1900 that the British succeeded in defeating the Ashanti and the area's other strong kingdoms. </li></ul><ul><li>If  Ghana was late in coming under European control, it was also the first African nation to win back its independence, in 1957. However, corruption and internal military strife proved to be apparently intractable problems, and Ghana went through an extended period of instability in the 1960s and 1970s marked by military rule. The country has been since then been moving steadily toward political stability and economic prosperity, and seems today to possess one of the most promising futures of any of the West African nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people today are still dying from Aids in this country and most are still living in poverty. There are violent groups as well. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Political <ul><li>Ghana government currently is a constitutional democracy . </li></ul><ul><li>The current cabinet members are : </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. John Evans Atta MILLS </li></ul><ul><li>Vice Pres.John Dramani MAHAMA </li></ul><ul><li>Min. of Chieftancy & Culture Alexander ASUM-AHENSAH </li></ul><ul><li>Min. of Communications Haruna IDDRISSU </li></ul><ul><li>Min. of Defense Joseph SMITH </li></ul><ul><li>Min. of EducationBetty MOULD-IDDRISU </li></ul><ul><li>In my opinion top 6 important positions. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Economy <ul><li>Ghana is well endowed with natural resources and agriculture accounts for roughly one-third of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for 50% of GDP. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange. Oil production at Ghana's offshore Jubilee field began in mid-December and is expected to boost economic growth. Ghana signed a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural sector. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, and is also benefiting from the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative that took effect in 2006. In 2009 Ghana signed a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF to improve macroeconomic stability, private sector competitiveness, human resource development, and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macro-economic management along with high prices for gold and cocoa helped sustain GDP growth in 2008-10. In early 2010 President John Atta MILLS targeted recovery from high inflation and current account and budget deficits as his priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of industries are mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, and small commercial ship building. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of exports are gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, and horticulture. </li></ul><ul><li>Export partners are Netherlands 13.45%, UK 7.87%, France 5.85%, Ukraine 5.84%, Malaysia 3.97% (2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Types of import are capital equipment, petroleum, and foodstuffs. </li></ul><ul><li>Import partners are China 16.8%, Nigeria 11.88%, US 6.63%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.99%, India 5.57%, France 5.09%, UK 4.23% (2010). </li></ul>
  45. 45. Daily Life <ul><li>Nearly 45 % of the people in Ghana live in poverty. Few are rich and living there would be hard. Killings occur, and diseases like HIV/AIDS spread rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2010 literacy rate studies show that in 2010 only 62 % of the people can read and write. The majorite being men for most literate. </li></ul><ul><li>People in Ghana continue to dress in the traditional styles of their ancestors despite an abundance of Western influence. Most of their clothes are hand-dyed, hand-woven and hand-sewn by professional seamstresses. As a result, many people wear clothing that is custom-made to fit their unique shape. Ghanaian clothing is usually made of sturdy fabrics that are rich in color and detail. Many outfits include expert embroidery and beading. Women in Ghana are more prone to dressing in the more traditional styles of dress, whereas men can be seen wearing khaki slacks, jeans and suits more akin to Western fashion in Europe and the Americas. However, pride in traditional Ghanaian dressing strongly prevails among most citizens, young and old. Even tourists are expected to embrace Ghanaian fashions when visiting the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Men are known to most often wear tunics, short or long-sleeved, with loose drawstring pants. In northern Ghana, men wear striped smocks that are hand-woven with symbolic designs, and sometimes in the colors of the Ghanaian flag: red, yellow and green. Men often dress in more Western styles of clothing such as jeans and t-shirts. Businessmen tend to wear suits to work, and formal occasions often call for a tuxedo. Ghanaian males embrace Western fashion more so than the females. A mix of Western and Ghanaian fashions is also seen among the men as they are seen pairing jeans with the traditional smock and tunic. Footwear alternates between sandals, dress shoes and sneakers. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 6 % of the people in Ghana use the Internet. Some who does pull scams and identity theft. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Culture <ul><li>As a relatively new nation, Ghana has not developed an extensive tradition of collective symbols. Its most distinctive emblems originated in the nationalist movement. The most prominent is the black star, which evokes black pride and power and a commitment to pan-African unity, which were central themes for mobilizing resistance against British rule. It is featured on the flag and the national coat of arms, and in the national anthem. It is also the name of Ghana's soccer team and is proudly displayed in Black Star Square, a central meeting point in the capital. Other important symbols derive from Akan traditions that have become incorporated into the national culture. These include the ceremonial sword, the linguist's staff, the chief's stool, and the talking drum. Ghanaian national dress, kente cloth, is another source of common identity and pride. It is handwoven into intricate patterns from brilliantly colored silk. Men drape it around their bodies and women wear it as a two-pieced outfit. The main exports—gold and cocoa—also stand as identifying symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly everybody in Ghana religion is Christianity. Estimated at 17million people in Ghana. </li></ul><ul><li>Most households raise chickens and dwarf goats, which are reserved for special occasions, such as christenings, weddings, traditional festivals, and Christmas. Among the Akan, the main indigenous celebration is odwira, a harvest rite, in which new yams are presented to the chief and eaten in public and domestic feasts. The Ga celebrate homowo, another harvest festival, which is marked by eating kpekpele, made from mashed corn and palm oil. Popular drinks include palm wine, made from the fermented sap of the oil palm, and home-brewed millet beer. Bottled European-style beer is widely consumed. Imported schnapps and whiskey have important ceremonial uses as libations for royal and family ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>In Ghana dance is very important to them as well as singing and dance. They dance to show respect and reconciliation to their god or gods. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Ukraine and its country map
  48. 48. Country Description <ul><li>Ukraine is situated in Eastern Europe. It shares borders with Hungary, Slovakia, and Poland to the west; Belarus to the north; Russia to the north and east; and Romania and Moldova to the south. It also has a coastline of 2,782 kilometers (1,729 miles) on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The total border length of Ukraine is 4,558 kilometers (2,832 miles) in length. The country's total area is 603,700 square kilometers (233,000 square miles), making Ukraine about the size of Texas. The capital of Ukraine is Kiev, which is located in the north-central region of the country and is also the largest city in Ukraine with a population of 2.6 million. </li></ul><ul><li>The total population of Ukraine was estimated at 48,760,474 in July 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine is situated in two climatic zones — moderate (the plains and both the mountain ranges) and Mediterranean subtropics (the southern shore of Crimea. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Geographical Features <ul><li>The total geographic area of Ukraine is 603,700 square kilometers (233,100 sq mi). The land border of Ukraine totals 4,558 kilometers (2,832 mi). The border lengths with each country are: Belarus 891 kilometers (554 mi), Hungary 103 kilometers (64 mi), Moldova 939 kilometers (583 mi), Poland428 kilometers (266 mi), Romania169 kilometers (105 mi) on the south and 362 kilometers (225 mi) on the west, Russia 1,576 kilometers (979 mi), and Slovakia 90 kilometers (56 mi). Ukraine is also bordered by 3,783 kilometers (2,351 mi) of coastline. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (or steppes) and plateaus. In terms of land use, 58% of Ukraine is considered arable land; 2% is used for permanent crops, 13% for permanent pastures, 18% is forests and woodland, and 9% is other. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains are limited to the west, the southern tip of Ukraine on the Crimean Peninsula, and near the Sea of Azov. The western region has the Carpathian Mountains, the Crimean Peninsula has the Crimean Mountains, and some eroded mountains from the are in the east near the Sea of Azov. The highest elevation in Ukraine is located at the peak of Mount Hoverla which is 2,061 meters (6,762 ft) above sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Ukraine consists of regular plains with the average height above sea level being 175 metres (574 ft). It is surrounded by mountains to its west and extreme south. Wide spaces of the country's plains are located in the south-western part of the East European Plain. The plains have numerous highlands and lowlands caused by the uneven crystallized base of the East European craton. The highlands are characterized by Precambrian basement rocks from the Ukrainian Shield. </li></ul><ul><li>The territory of Ukraine is bordered by the waters of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. 90% of the rivers are part of those two seas' drainage basins. A few rivers are part of the Baltic Sea basin. There are seven major rivers in Ukraine: Desna, Dnipro, Dnister, Danube, Prypiat, Siverian Donets, and Southern Buh . </li></ul>
  50. 50. Flora and fauna <ul><li>The forests of Ukraine are rich in berries, mushrooms, fruits of wild growing plants and medicinal plants, which 250 species are used in Ukraine for medical purposes including 150 in medical science. Regions most abundant with medicinal plants are Polissia (marshy woodlands), forest-steppe zone, and Carpathians. </li></ul><ul><li>Elk, roe deer, wild boar, red deer, squirrel are inhabitants of forest zone; foxes and wolves are numerous, one may meet brown bears and lynx there. Of the avifauna, there is a large number of black cock, hazel grouse, wood grouse, starling, blue titmouse, cranes.  The steppe zone is inhabited with ground squirrel, hamster, jerboa, field mouse, and marmot; of birds, there are skylark, quail, pink starling, steppe eagle, and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Places to visit, while your in Ukraine are Crimean Resorts Carpathian Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Kiev (capital) </li></ul><ul><li>Lviv </li></ul><ul><li>Odesa </li></ul>
  51. 51. History <ul><li>Ukraine was known as “Kievan Rus” (from which Russia is a derivative) up until the 16th century. In the 9th century, Kiev was the major political and cultural center in eastern Europe. Kievan Rus reached the height of its power in the 10th century and adopted Byzantine Christianity. The Mongol conquest in 1240 ended Kievan power. From the 13th to the 16th century, Kiev was under the influence of Poland and western Europe. The negotiation of the Union of Brest-Litovsk in 1596 divided the Ukrainians into Orthodox and Ukrainian Catholic faithful. In 1654, Ukraine asked the czar of Moscovy for protection against Poland, and the Treaty of Pereyasav signed that year recognized the suzerainty of Moscow. The agreement was interpreted by Moscow as an invitation to take over Kiev, and the Ukrainian state was eventually absorbed into the Russian Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Russian Revolution, Ukraine declared its independence from Russia on Jan. 28, 1918, and several years of warfare ensued with several groups. The Red Army finally was victorious over Kiev, and in 1920 Ukraine became a Soviet republic. In 1922, Ukraine became one of the founders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the 1930s, the Soviet government's enforcement of collectivization met with peasant resistance, which in turn prompted the confiscation of grain from Ukrainian farmers by Soviet authorities; the resulting famine took an estimated 5 million lives. Ukraine was one of the most devastated Soviet republics after World War II. (For details on World War II, see Headline History, World War II.) On April 26, 1986, the nation's nuclear power plant at Chernobyl was the site of the world's worst nuclear accident. On Oct. 29, 1991, the Ukrainian parliament voted to shut down the reactor within two years' time and asked for international assistance in dismantling it. </li></ul><ul><li>Right now, there are corruption scandals happening in Ukraine. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Political <ul><li>Ukraine has a constitutional republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine’s president right now is Volodymyr Klitchko. He’s working on fixing government, friendship with other nations, and the economy. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Economy <ul><li>After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied the unique equipment (for example, large diameter pipes) and raw materials to industrial and mining sites (vertical drilling apparatus) in other regions of the former USSR. Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Ukraine's dependence on Russia for energy supplies and the lack of significant structural reform have made the Ukrainian economy vulnerable to external shocks. Ukraine depends on imports to meet about three-fourths of its annual oil and natural gas requirements and 100% of its nuclear fuel needs. After a two-week dispute that saw gas supplies cutoff to Europe, Ukraine agreed to ten-year gas supply and transit contracts with Russia in January 2009 that brought gas prices to &quot;world&quot; levels. The strict terms of the contracts have further hobbled Ukraine's cash-strapped state gas company, Naftohaz. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF - have encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy, but more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the legislative framework. Ukraine's economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president until mid-2008. Real GDP growth exceeded 7% in 2006-07, fueled by high global prices for steel - Ukraine's top export - and by strong domestic consumption, spurred by rising pensions and wages. Ukraine reached an agreement with the IMF for a $16.4 billion Stand-By Arrangement in November 2008 to deal with the economic crisis, but the Ukrainian Government's lack of progress in implementing reforms has twice delayed the release of IMF assistance funds. The drop in steel prices and Ukraine's exposure to the global financial crisis due to aggressive foreign borrowing lowered growth in 2008 and the economy contracted more than 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world; growth resumed in 2010, buoyed by exports. External conditions are likely to hamper efforts for economic recovery in 2011. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Economy <ul><li>Types of industries are coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, and food processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of exports are ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, and food products. </li></ul><ul><li>Export partners are Russia 21.1%, Turkey 5.3%, China 3.8% (2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Imports are energy, machinery and equipment, and chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Import Partners are Russia 28%, Germany 8.6%, China 6.1%, Kazakhstan 4.9%, Poland 4.9% (2010). </li></ul>
  55. 55. Daily Life <ul><li>Average income for one working family member is 936 Ukrainian Hryvnia(UAH) United States Dollars(USD) 185 per month. The official poverty level is recognized as 592 UAH / USD 117. </li></ul><ul><li>25% of the population, of which 20% are in the cities and 37% in the rural villages had incomes below the official poverty level. </li></ul><ul><li>Average expenses for one family member are 922 UAH per month. 88% of this sum are spent for consuming goods (50% for food, 35% for utilities and nonfood products, 1.5% for alcohol and 0.8% for tobacco). </li></ul><ul><li>12% of income is spent on real estate, stocks, construction and repair of homes, and making bank deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>An average person spent 15.3 UAH / USD 3.02 per day for buying food. </li></ul><ul><li>The average monthly house payment together with utilities was 9% of income or 209 UAH / USD 41 per month. </li></ul><ul><li>Living in Ukraine. </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine’s literacy rate is at 100 % </li></ul><ul><li>Ukrainian national suit is not only an article of clothing. It is a symbol of the nation. It is a kind of art and a national relic. It is a relic from our ancestors revived by the hands of craftsmen. It is Ukrainian people's pride. </li></ul><ul><li>It is craftsmanship that has survived through years. The national garments present the Orthodox Ukraine. Also, they are a symbol of the nation, like its language, denominations and customs. The main feature of Ukraine's national clothes is the baroque style, which manifests itself in the exaggeration of general forms. Let us recall, let us say, the embroidered sleeves of a woman's shirt, the ornament of embroidery, laces, etc. Special decorative fabrics and different ribbons and threads of beads add festivity to garments. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common women's piece of clothes - a long shirt belted at waist - has come to us from the ancient Slavic people. It is decorated by magic ornaments . </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine ranks near the bottom worldwide in terms of Internet-based opportunities. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Culture <ul><li>Unlike people of most western countries, Ukrainians tend to express their emotions freely. Whether they are positive or negative, Ukrainians are honest with their emotions, so don't be confused when you see it happening. </li></ul><ul><li>People in the streets don't typically smile too much, however you will soon realize that an ability to form warm informal relationships is the soul of the Ukrainian national character. </li></ul><ul><li>Let me introduce some Ukraine customs and traditions to you from a standpoint of someone who belongs to the Ukrainian culture by birth and has had these life experiences firsthand. I hope it will help you to recognize some real gems in the culture, which at first glance looks drastically different than the culture of your native country. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions are like the heart of a nation's culture. They determine the way people live; the languages they speak, the religions they follow, the values they hold, the relationships they keep, the foods they eat, the clothes they wear, the building they have made and much more. </li></ul><ul><li>In Ukraine people tend to eat fatty foods such as whole milk, sour cream, butter, etc. Sometimes people even go to villages just to get whole milk because it is considered to be beneficial for children and worth the extra effort. Ukrainian people like to cook and their appetite for freshly made food means that they practically don't eat any junk food. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of the people in Ukraine practice Christianity. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Sri Lanka and its country map
  58. 58. Country Description <ul><li>Sri Lanka is an island nation-state in the Indian Ocean. It is located 880 kilometers (547 miles) north of the equator, off the southern tip of India, and has a maximum length of 432 kilometers (268 miles) and a maximum width of 224 kilometers (139 miles). The island has an area of 65,610 square kilometers (25,332 square miles) and a total coastline of 1,700 kilometers (1,056 miles). Sri Lanka is slightly larger than West Virginia. Its capital, Colombo, lies on the country's western coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka's population was estimated at 19 million in 2010. Sri Lanka has the slowest-growing population in southern Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Average mean temperature along the coast is 26.7 C (80 F) and 19.7 C (66.50 F) in the hill country. In Colombo, the commercial capital, situated on the west coast, the temperature varies from 26.4 C (79.5 F) to 27.8 C (82.12 F). Relative Humidity varies from 70% during the day to 90% at night. In the lowlands the climate is typically tropical with an average temperature of 27ºC in Colombo. In the higher elevations it can be quite cool with temperatures going down to 16ºC at an altitude of nearly 2,000 meters. Bright, sunny warm days are the rule and are common even during the height of the monsoon - climatically Sri Lanka has no off season. The south west monsoon brings rain mainly from May to July to the western, southern and central regions of the island, while the north-east monsoon rains occur in the northern and eastern regions in December and January. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Geographical features <ul><li>Located in South Asia, Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean positioned about 18 miles off the southeast coast of India with a total area of 25,000 square miles. Most of its area is low, flat and rolling except for the south- central region which has a mountainous area. Sri Lanka has a tropical climate and a coastline of 1,340 km. </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka's highest point is the Pidurutalagala Mountain which is approximately 8,200 feet above sea level. This mountain is a popular pilgrimage destination and also the only mountain site where people belonging to four different religions assemble for worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Another mountain believed to be one of the world's most revered mountains is Sri Pada also known as Adam's Peak . Also many rivers run through Sri Lanka. </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka is the paradise of flora and fauna. The country has over 90 species of mammal (including elephant, leopard, bear and monkeys), hundreds of butterflies, over 80 snake species (including deadly cobras and vipers), and about 435 species of birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rainforest covers much of the southwestern part of the island, where teak and ebony grow. The plant life ranges from that of the equatorial rain forest to that of the dry zone and the more temperate climate of the highlands. Tree ferns, bamboo, palm, satinwood, ebony, and jak trees abound. Orchids abound in the lush forest. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most important and extensive of Sri Lanka’s ancient cities, Anuradhapura is still scattered with remnants of the ancient Sinhalese architecture and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Located at a distance of 115 km from Colombo, Kandy is the second largest city of Sri Lanka. The town center of Kandy is best defined by its numerous old shops, antique specialists, gem specialists and its bustling crowd. With countryside full of greenery, it is an ideal place for ecotourism.  </li></ul><ul><li>A cone shaped mountain with an altitude of 7353 feet, stands in Sri Lanka by the name of Adam’s Peak. Considered sacred by both Buddhists and Christians, this peak offers a fabulous view of sun sets and sunrise. </li></ul>
  60. 60. History <ul><li>Indo-Aryan emigration from India in the 5th century B.C. came to form the largest ethnic group on Sri Lanka today, the Sinhalese. Tamils, the second-largest ethnic group on the island, were originally from the Tamil region of India and emigrated between the 3rd century B.C. and A.D. 1200. Until colonial powers controlled Ceylon (the country's name until 1972), Sinhalese and Tamil rulers fought for dominance over the island. The Tamils, primarily Hindus, claimed the northern section of the island and the Sinhalese, who are predominantly Buddhist, controlled the south. In 1505 the Portuguese took possession of Ceylon until the Dutch India Company usurped control (1658–1796). The British took over in 1796, and Ceylon became an English Crown colony in 1802. The British developed coffee, tea, and rubber plantations. On Feb. 4, 1948, after pressure from Ceylonese nationalist leaders (which briefly unified the Tamil and Sinhalese), Ceylon became a self-governing dominion of the Commonwealth of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike became prime minister in 1956 and championed Sinhalese nationalism, making Sinhala the country's only official language and including state support of Buddhism, further marginalizing the Tamil minority. He was assassinated in 1959 by a Buddhist monk. His widow, Sirimavo Bandaranaike, became the world's first female prime minister in 1960. The name Ceylon was changed to Sri Lanka (“resplendent island”) on May 22, 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tamil minority's mounting resentment toward the Sinhalese majority's monopoly on political and economic power, exacerbated by cultural and religious differences, erupted in bloody violence in 1983. Tamil rebel groups, the strongest of which were the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, or Tamil Tigers, began a civil war to fight for separate nation. </li></ul><ul><li>President Ranasinghe Premadasa was assassinated at a May Day political rally in 1993, when a Tamil rebel detonated explosives strapped to himself. Tamil extremists have frequently resorted to terrorist attacks against civilians. The next president, Chandrika Kumaratunga, vowed to restore peace to the country. In Dec. 1999, she was herself wounded in a terrorist attack. By early 2000, 18 years of war had claimed the lives of more than 64,000, mostly civilians. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Political <ul><li>Sri Lanka government is currently a republic. Their president is Mahinda Percy RAJAPAKSA. </li></ul><ul><li>Other government officials are prime minister, min. of agriculture, min of religious affairs, women affairs, and construction positions to name a few. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissanayake Mudiyanselage JAYARATNE </li></ul><ul><li>Mahinda Yapa ABEYWARDENA </li></ul><ul><li>Tissa KARALIYADDE </li></ul><ul><li>Wimal WEERAWANSA </li></ul>
  62. 62. Economy <ul><li>Sri Lanka is engaging in large-scale reconstruction and development projects following the end of the 26-year conflict with the LTTE, including increasing electricity access and rebuilding its road and rail network. Additionally, Sri Lanka seeks to reduce poverty by using a combination of state directed policies and private investment promotion to spur growth in disadvantaged areas, develop small and medium enterprises, and promote increased agriculture, High levels of government funding may be difficult, as the government already is faced with high debt interest payments, a bloated civil service, and historically high budget deficits. The 2008-09 global financial crisis and recession exposed Sri Lanka's economic vulnerabilities and nearly caused a balance of payments crisis, which was alleviated by a $2.6 billion IMF standby agreement in July 2009. The end of the civil war and the IMF loan, however, have largely restored investors' confidence, reflected in part by the Sri Lankan stock market's recognition as one of the best performing markets in the world. Sri Lankan growth rates averaged nearly 5% in during the war, but increased government spending on development and fighting the LTTE in the final years spurred GDP growth to around 6-7% per year in 2006-08. After experiencing 3.5% growth in 2009, Sri Lanka's economy is poised to achieve high growth rates in the postwar period. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of industries are processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, tobacco and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, banking; tourism, shipping; clothing, textiles; cement, petroleum refining, information technology services, and construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of exports are textiles and apparel, tea and spices; rubber manufactures; precious stones; coconut products, and fish. </li></ul><ul><li>Export partners are US 20.59%, UK 12.87%, Italy 5.51%, Germany 5.29%, India 4.54%, Belgium 4.43% (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Types of imports are petroleum, textiles, machinery and transportation equipment, building materials, mineral products, and foodstuffs. </li></ul><ul><li>Import partners are India 20.73%, China 13.45%, Singapore 7.26%, Iran 6.7%, South Korea 5.23% (2010) </li></ul>
  63. 63. Daily Life <ul><li>Living in Sri Lanka is poverty mostly everywhere except Colombo. People develop infectious diseases. In Colombo, a job is required. You can live either alone or with a group of people like the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The literacy rate of Sri Lanka is currently between 95-96 % of all people. </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional clothing of Sri Lanka is very interesting. Women (near the age of marrying or already married) normally wear a sari, also known as Kandyan Sari as traditional clothing. Sinhalese girls wear half saree, a cloth and jacket with a frill around shoulders. Tamil little girls wear pavadai sattai, which is pretty much a skirt with a design and a blouse. The aged Tamil girls (who have reached puberty) normally wear half sarre's which is like a saree but not fully, there would be a long scarf or cloth to put on your left shoulder and gets tucked in your skirt and it is like a pavadai sattai too! Sinhalese men wear Sarong and shirt called Baniyama. And Tamil men wear patta vetty which is a shirt and a long cloth which they wrap around their waist. </li></ul><ul><li>Men wear sarongs,, which is a long piece of cloth, wrapped around the waist like a towel. It's long enough to reach the feet. Men dont usually wear tops because of the hot weather. Women wear saris when they go to special occasions, but you will never see a man wearing a sarong at a special occasion, only at home and outside, probably shopping or working. When going to special occasions, men would wear trousers and a t-shirt. </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka5.8 % of the population is only internet which is very low. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Culture <ul><li>The origin of Sri Lankan dances goes back to immemorial times of aboriginal tribes and &quot;yakkas&quot; (devils). According to a Sinhalese legend, Kandyan dances originate, 2500 years ago, from a magic ritual that broke the spell on a bewitched king.)  </li></ul><ul><li>Our historical record, the ‘Mahavamsa’, tells us that the Aryan Prince Vijaya heard music on the day he landed on the shores of Lanka.According to Pali scriptures the ‘Yakkas’ (one of the tribes inhabiting the Island at the time) were fond of songs and dances.It may be that some of the devil dances that have remained with us to the present day owe their origin to the ‘Yakka’ dances. </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka has been having many types of drums in use from ancient times, and reference to these are found in some of the classical literature e.g. Pujawaliya, Thupawansaya, Dalada Siritha etc. Although there had been about 33 types of drums, today we find only about ten and the rest are confined only to names. </li></ul><ul><li>  The yakun natima, or devil dance ritual of Sri Lanka, is nothing if not full of drama. Not just a charade or interval designed to entertain, the yakun natima is a carefully crafted ritual with a history reaching far back into Sri Lanka's pre-Buddhist past. </li></ul><ul><li>were numerous forms of folk drama some of which were confined to certain areas in the country. For example, Kolam, which is a very popular form of folk drama in the coastal areas is unknown in the hill country. Sokari, on the other hand is a type of folk drama, which is limited to the up country. The Nadagama is a form of folk opera, which has been popular in the villages along the western coast from Chilaw right down to Tangalle in the deep south. These have been generally performed throughout the night. </li></ul><ul><li>The people in Sri Lanka practice Buddhism. </li></ul><ul><li>Food of Sri Lanka is hot and spicy. Base food of the inhabitants of the island is rice which they consume with curry both veg and fish based. All the dishes are cooked on the base of coconut milk and flavored by liberal use of spices. Like all the people of coastal regions, the Sri Lankans are also expert in preparing fish dishes. Mallung, Sambol, Lamprais, Buriyani and Polos Pehi are some popular dishes of Sri Lanka. Sri Lankans also like several juicy sweetmeats like Kavum, Halape, Thalaguli and Wattalapam. Sri Lankans also like to drink tea. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Conclusion <ul><li>In my opinion, Brazil is a very popu