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    Country project jonas Country project jonas Presentation Transcript

    • Country Project By Jonas Howard
    • China Jonas Howard
    • Maps of China
    • Country Description
      • Total Area: 9,596,961 sq km
      • Land Area: 9,569,901 sq km
      • Water Area: 27,060 sq km
      • The climate varies depending on the region. It has a very humid temperature in the South and a frigid, nearly sub arctic temperature in the North.
      • Found between the Northern and Eastern hemispheres
      • Located in East Asia
      • Geographical Coordinates: 35 00N; 105 00E
      • Population: 1,336,718,015
      • Water pollution, deforestation, erosion, air pollution, and acid rain
    • Chinese Flag
    • Geography
      • Major Rivers include Yangtze and the Huang He. Both of these rivers are used for transporting goods to certain regions
      • mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west. Plains, deltas, and hills are located in the east
      • Giant Pandas are an endangered species that mostly feeds on bamboo found in mountainous regions of China.
      • Bordered by the East and South China Seas and also by the Yellow Sea
      • Eastern Asia
      • Some of the countries it borders include Afghanistan, India, North Korea, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, and Vietnam
    • Points of Interest
      • Mt. Everest
      • Mount Everest is the largest peak in the world at 29,028 feet. In lies on the border between China and Nepal.
      • The Great Wall
      • This popular tourist attraction is about 31,070 miles long and is the only man-made structure visible from space.
    • History
      • China has always been a powerful nation. However, during the 1700s the Chinese people were being destroyed by opium supplied by the British. In order to stop the opium from reaching China, the Chinese waged war on Britain in 1839. China was eventually crushed and forced to open more ports to foreign trade. In 1850 the Taiping Rebellion broke out. Chinese peasants were enraged that they were the only ones to pay taxes and angered by the corruption in the government. Even though they did not win the battle, the peasants were able to get the government to share power with the people. The Chinese empire began to decline afterward and was in need of great reform. After their defeat to Japan in the Sino-Japan War the Chinese government replaced by Japan as the leading power in Asia. In the early 1900s China abandoned its empire and named a man named Sun Yixian as its president, and formed a Republic. After World War 2 the Communists came into power and established an autocratic socialist government that imposed strict rules on everyday life. After 1978 Chinese leaders began to focus on building the economy.
    • Political
      • The People’s Republic of China is a communist state.
      • The major political party is the Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao
      • There are eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
      • The Chief of State is President HU Jintao
      • The Head of Government is the Premier Wen Jiabao
    • Economy
      • Deng Xiaoping and other leaders focused on developing China’s economic market and managed to quadruple China’s output of products.
      • Major Trade Partners include the U.S. , Hong Kong ,Japan, South Korea, Germany
      • Imports: machinery, oil and other fuels, optical and medical equipment, metal ores, plastics, organic chemicals
      • Exports: machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, textiles, iron and steel, optical and medical equipment.
      • China is the second largest exporter of goods in the world.
      • China has the third largest economy in the world.
      • China is the third largest importer of goods in the world
      • Industry: is 13.5% of China’s GDP (gross domestic product). mining and processing of metals and coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum;, telecommunications equipment.
      • Sanctions: China may soon be facing sanctions from the U.S. that will pressure China them about manipulating their currency to gain an advantage in trade.
    • Daily Life
      • Overall literacy rate: 91.6%
      • Male literacy rate: 95.7%
      • Female literacy rate: 87.6%
      • Clothing: Chinese fashion designers try to incorporate traditional Chinese symbols and embroidery to modern trends.
      • Internet Usage: In 2000 there were about 22,500,000 Internet users; however, in this number rose to 420,000,000
      • the standard of living for most of the Chinese citizens has improved dramatically since China has been able to quadruple its economic development and also its product output.
    • Cultural
      • Traditions: During the Chinese New Year celebration people clean their houses and children are given money in red envelopes.
      • Customs: Chinese Feng shui, is an ancient Chinese art used to promote health, happiness and prosperity through the auspicious spatial arrangement of objects
      • Foods: meals are eaten with chopsticks. Most meal are eaten with rice. Potions are small compared to American standards
      • Religion: 59% of China does not recognize any religion is Atheist, 1% are Christian, 2% are Muslim, 20% practice Taoism and Crunfucianism, 6% are Buddhist, 12% are atheist
    • Event
      • China has recently been investing in money in Ghana in hopes strengthening trade between the two countries. The Chinese have begun building roads, schools, hospitals, and rail roads in this country. Even the Chinese minister was willing to show his support of the cooperation between these countries by making a two- day visit to Ghana.
    • Conclusion
      • Early in its history China had a very dominant empire. However, because of a series of bad defeats and revolutions, the Chinese empire eventually fell. China’s inability to modernize lead to its decline as a major war power. In 1978, under the rule of leaders such as Deng Xiaoping, China was able to quadruple its economy. Through many reforms China has been able to reestablished itself as a leading power.
    • Costa Rica Jonas Howard
    • Maps of Costa Rica
    • Country Description
      • Total Area: 51,100 sq km
      • Land Area: 51,060 sq km
      • Water Area: 40 sq km
      • The climate is tropical and subtropical. It has a dry season that lasts from December to April. The rainy season lasts from May to November.
      • Geographical coordinates:10 00 N, 84 00 W
      • Air pollution, deforestation, soil erosion, coastal marine pollution
      • Population: 4,576,562
    • Flag of Costa Rica
    • Geography
      • It borders Nicaragua and Panama
      • Bordered by the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
      • Spider monkeys and gavilán blanco tree are both becoming endangered because of deforestation.
      • Land regions: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes
    • History
      • In 1502, Christopher Columbus was the first European to step foot on what is now called Costa Rica. Spain’s initial attempts to colonize Costa Rica failed due to disease, humid temperatures, and resistance from the natives. However, a permanent settlement was established in the much cooler, central highlands known as Cartago. After many years of Spanish rule Costa Rica received its independence in 1838.
      • The Monroe Doctrine in 1823 stated that Costa Rica and the other countries in Central America were not to be colonized by European powers. In 1904 the Roosevelt Corollary was issued and from there America would handle any trouble that arose in Central America. America did this to protect the factories that had been built which supplied jobs for many people.
      • In 1917 Costa Rica severed its ties to Germany and declared war on it one year later
      • Costa Rica's presidential election of 1948 was won by Otilio Ulate, but the results were declared invalid and annulled by the congress on March 1, 1948. Immediately civil war broke out between Ulate's followers, and the supporters of the defeated presidential candidate
      • On January 9 th , Costa Rica held its 12 th International Arts Festival in San Jose
    • Political
      • Costa Rica is a Democratic Republic
      • The Chief of State is President Laura Chinchilla Miranda
      • The head of government includes President Laura CHINCHILLA Miranda, First Vice President Alfio Piva Mesen, and Second Vice President Luis Liberman Ginsburg
    • Economy
      • Imports: consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum, and construction materials
      • Exports: bananas, pineapples, coffee, melons, ornamental plants, sugar; beef; seafood; electronic components, and medical equipment.
      • Major Trade partners include the U.S., Mexico, Venezuela, China, Japan, and the Netherlands
      • Industry makes up 22.9% of the country’s GPD (gross domestic product). This includes microprocessors, food processing, medical equipment, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, and plastic products
    • Daily Life
      • Has the highest standard of living in Central America due to its thriving economy
      • Internet Usage: In 2000 only a mere 250,000 people used the Internet. However, now there is an estimated 1,579,000 users.
      • Overall literacy rate: 94.9%
      • Male literacy rate: 94.7%
      • Female literacy rate: 95.1%
      • Clothing: Modern, western style clothing is worn. Many people simply wear jeans and a t-shirt as their everyday clothing.
    • Cultural
      • Religion: 90% of the population is Roman Catholic
      • Customs: young girls celebrate their 15 th birthday with a huge party known as a quinceanera.
      • Traditions: In a traditional Costa Rican wedding the bride wears a black, silk wedding dress rather than a white one.
      • Dance: The punto guanacasteco is Costa Rica’s national dance. Couples wear traditional costumes and follow a melody played with a marimba   (a type of wooden xylophone) and several guitars. This dance, like other popular dances, portrays the courting traditions of the past.
      • Every year an enormous art festival is held in San Jose for about 2 weeks
      • Food: rice, beans, tortillas or bread, fried plantains, and black coffee
    • Event
      • The city of Limon is plagued by gang violence. The Security Ministry has issued 320 police officers to be stationed there, in order, to fight drug trafficking and organized crime. This new group of officers will accompany the 200 officers already stationed in that region.
    • Conclusion
      • The Costa Rican culture and way of life has been greatly influenced by Spain and the U.S. Except for the civil war in 1948,Costa Rica has been a relatively peaceful nation. Since then it has adopted a democratic way of handling the country’s problems and has a strong, thriving economy.
    • Fiji By Jonas Howard
    • Map of Fiji
    • Country Description
      • Total area: 18,274 sq km
      • Land area: 18,274 sq km
      • Water area: 0 sq km
      • Geographical coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E
      • Population: 883,125
      • It is located in a small group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean known as Oceania
      • Climate: tropical marine. Its temperature may undergo slight changes depending on the seasons.
    • Flag of Fiji
    • Geography
      • The Fijian Tree Frog and a species of plants called Agathis vitiensis. This frog and conifer can only be found in Fiji.
      • Found in the South Pacific Ocean
      • The Garden of the Sleeping Giant in Sarbeto is the largest orchid garden in Fiji.
      • Rainbow Reef is a famous scuba diving site known around the world. A great spot to explore.
    • History
      • Many of the Indo-Fijians who currently reside in Fiji are descendants of the first Indian ,indentured laborers who arrived there in 1879. This indentured labor ended in 1916. Fiji remained a British colony until 1971 when it got its independence.
      • In 2006 a military coup was carried out
      • During World War 1, a small group of soldiers from Fiji was deployed to fight along British forces. Most of the men deployed became a part of the King’s Royal Rifles, an artillery regiment.
    • Political
      • Fiji is a republic
      • The Chief of State is President Retu Epeli Nailatikau
      • The head of the government is the Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase
    • Economy
      • Imports: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, and chemicals
      • Exports: sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, and coconut oil
      • Industry makes up 13.5% of Fiji’s GDP (gross domestic product). This includes tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, and a small cottage industries.
      • Major trades partners include the U.S., Australia, UK, Samoa, Tonga, Japan Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, China, India, and Thailand
      • Sanctions: New Zealand placed travel bans on Fiji to punish the people who carried out the coup in 2006.
      • GDP is ranked 169 th in the world
    • Daily Life
      • Standard of Living decreased since the military coup in 2006
      • Overall literacy: 93.7
      • Male literacy: 95.5
      • Women Literacy: 91.9
      • Clothing: Fijian dress consists of very light and cool clothing. Women’s outfits are very versatile and can be worn in many different ways.
      • Internet Usage: In 2000 there were only 7,500 people who used the internet. In 2009 this numbered soared to 91,400
    • Cultural
      • Traditions: in traditional Fijian wedding the bride is selected by the groom’s father
      • Customs: The offering of ceremonial food often is preceded by the presentation of a "lead gift" such as whale's teeth, bark cloth, or kava.
      • Religions: Fiji religions include Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity
      • Foods: Roti ,  a staple bread served with every meal, and rice and curry, a hot spice, are the basis of Indo-Fijian food.
      • Holi, an Indian holiday, is celebrated by the Indo-Fijians. It is a celebration of singing and play.
      • Due to the strong Indian influence in Fiji, the native enjoy traditional Indian music and dance which incorporate instruments unique to their such as a suitar.
    • Event
      • The bodies of a man and a woman were found by highway patrol officers on March fourteenth. The two bodies were found covered in banana leaves and corrugated iron near the main road in a nearby farm house. It is said that Kasavu highway patrol officers were stopped by the two women who were the sisters of the slain women. The police's only suspect surrendered himself in Korovou, Tailevu and is now being questioned in Nausori Police Station. The area where the bodies were found has been cordoned off for further investigation.
    • Conclusion
      • Fiji’s people have been greatly influenced by the Indian laborers who entered the country in the late 1800s. These people were brought by Britain as laborers but every aspect of their culture has been embraced by most
    • Afghanistan By Jonas Howard
    • Map of Afghanistan
    • Country Description
      • Total area: 652,230 sq km
      • Land area: 652,230 sq km
      • Water area: 0 sq km
      • Climate: has very arid temperature. Has frigid winters and hot summers
      • Geographical Coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E
      • Population: 29,835,392
      • It is located in Southern Asia. North and west of Pakistan, and east of Iran
      • limited natural fresh water resources, soil degradation, overgrazing, deforestation, desertification, air and water pollution
    • Flag of Afghanistan
    • Geography
      • Camel spiders found in Afghanistan can run 10 mph. A type of plant found there is the Coloneaster which grows pink berries.
      • Land regions: consists mostly of rugged mountains with plains to the north and southwest
      • The four major river systems are the Amu Darya, the Oxus of antiquity, the Hilmand, the Harirud, and the Kabul. Out of the four rivers only the Kabul River, joining the Indus system in Pakistan, leads to the sea.
      • Bordered by China, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
      • If someone wished to vacation in Afghanistan they should Kabul so that they could watch the national sport, Buzkashi.
    • History
      • Afghabistan was founded in 1747, after a group of Pashtun tribes unified. The country served as a buffer state between the British and Russian empires until it won its independence in 1919. Once Afghanistan obtained its freedom, it was plagued by a series of civil wars that drastically changed the way the government was run. The country eventually underwent extreme governmental reconstruction. As a result, a man named Hamid Karzai became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan in December 2004. The National Assembly was inaugurated the following December.
    • Political
      • The chief of state is the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Hamid Karzal
      • Afghanistan is an Islamic Republic
      • The head of the government is the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Hamid Karzal, First Vice President Mohammad Fahim, and the Second Vice President Abdul Karim Khalili.
    • Economy
      • Exports: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
      • Imports: machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
      • Major trade partners includes the U.S., India, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, India, Germany, and Russia
      • Industry: makes up 26% of its GDP. A small amount of textile production, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food-products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; hand woven carpets; natural gas, coal, and copper
      • The country has a very poor economy due to the government corruption and weak public infrastructure.
      • GDP ranked 110th in the world
    • Daily Life
      • The standard of living is among the lowest in the world and is very dependent on other nations for goods.
      • Overall literacy: 28.1%
      • Male literacy: 43.1%
      • Female literacy: 12.6%
      • Clothing: The pokool, hat worn by Afghan men is a symbol of the Afghan freedom fighters .  It is a naturally colored wool hat with the characteristic versatile rolled edge. A distinctive dress worn by Afghani women is the woman's full body covering known as the chaadaree. The chaadaree, constructed of nine to ten yards of fabric with an embroidered face piece, conceals the entire women's body
      • Internet usage: in 2006 the number of users was only 300,000;however, in 2010 the number of users jumped to 1,000,000
    • Cultural
      • Traditions: males are circumcised at the age of seven
      • Customs: During marriage the groom’s family pays for a three day long wedding celebration
      • Religions: Mainly Islamic. There are two types of Islams, the Shiites and the Sunnis
      • Foods: tea is the main beverage that is consumed. Islams can only consume food that has been prepared according to Islamic Law.
      • Buzkashi is the national sport of Afghanistan. This sport involves a group of men riding on horseback while trying to drop a dead calf into a circle to score points.
      • Pashtu is the national dance. During this dance a large circle of male dancers dance to a music that gradually builds in speed. As the music gets faster so does the movements of the dancers
    • Event
      • The Taliban have been mindlessly suicide bombing groups of people in hopes that they can cause chaos in stable provinces. Official say that they mostly rely on teenage boys between the ages of 15 to 17. Many young men to not conduct these attacks voluntarily and must be threatened into doing so. On Saturday a group of people enjoying a game of buzkashi were bombed in Kabul. It is said that thirty of them were wounded and 3 were killed.
    • Conclusion
      • Afghanistan has suffered from many civil wars throughout its history. These wars have nearly destroyed this nations economy. Even though the country ‘s standard of living has improved greatly over the years, its people still continue to suffer from the country’s weak economy.
    • Saint Vincent and Grenadines By Jonas Howard
    • Maps of Saint Vincent and Grenadines
    • Country Description
      • Total area: 389 sq km
      • Land area: 389 sq km
      • Water area: 0 sq km
      • It is located in the Caribbean. It is a group of islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean
      • Geographical Coordinates: 13 15 N, 61 12 W
      • Population: 103,869
      • Climate: tropical. The different remains basically the same even when the seasons change. The rainy season lasts from May to November.
      • pollution of coastal waters and shorelines caused by garbage from yachts and other effluents. In some areas, pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive
    • Flag of Saint Vincent and Grenadines
    • Geography
      • Land regions: is volcanic and mountainous
      • Antillean Crested Hummingbird and an herb known as arrowroot can be found here
      • Montreal Garden is a wonderful place for tourists to experiece the indigenous plant life. Trinity Falls is a 40 foot tall waterfall with two swimming pools. Is said to be very beautyiful.
    • History
      • In 1763, the Treaty of Paris granted Saint Vincent to the British who quickly set up plantations with large numbers of slaves. The Caribbean lands in the northern part of the island had been excluded from expropriation by the British, but the promise of profitable sugar cultivation led to encroachment by planters and eventually to two Carib wars. After the Second Carib War (1793–1795), the Black Caribs were removed to Central America. The "Red" Caribs, whose descendants still live in Saint Vincent, were allowed to stay. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the British colony had settled into a sugar plantation economy maintained by the importation of slaves. The importation of Africans by Europeans established the basic Afro-European foundation of Vincentian society. The labor shortage created by emancipation caused the immigration of East Indians, Portuguese, and Barbadian whites. Many of the freed slaves were turned into agricultural wage earners, but most became peasants. In the latter half of the twentieth century, Vincentians gradually came to have more control over their own political life. Universal suffrage granted by the British Crown in 1951 gave common people a power that was used to be possessed by the planters. Independence was granted in 1979. Due to the reliance on an export economy of bananas, Saint Vincent remains dependent on the trade policies of the United States, Great Britain, and the European Union.
    • Political
      • Saint Vincent and Grenadines is a Parliamentary Democracy and Commonwealth Realm
      • The chief of state is Queen Elizabeth, but she is represented by Governor General Sir Fredrick Nathaniel Ballantyne.
      • The head of the government is the Prime Minister Ralph E. Gonsalves
    • Economy
      • Exports: bananas, eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch; tennis racquets
      • Imports: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and fuels
      • Industry: 26% of its GDP (gross domestic product). It consists of food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, and starch
      • Major trade partners include Greece, Poland, France, China, Singapore, and Trinidad and Tobago
      • GDP ranked 199 th in the world
    • Daily Life
      • The standard of living is around is slowly becoming worse as the country tries to endure this economic slow down it is experiences
      • Overall literacy: 96%
      • Male literacy: 96%
      • Female literacy: 96%
      • Clothing: it is illegal to wear or import camouflaged
      • Internet of Usage: In 2000 only a mere 900 people used the internet. In 2010 the numbered changed to 107,818
    • Event
      • The National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) has participated in “EXERCISE CARIBE WAVE II – A Caribbean Tsunami Warning Exercise” which occurred on 23rd March 2011. This exercise is being conducted to assist preparedness efforts throughout the Caribbean region for tsunami hazard.
    • Conclusion
      • When the British established a colony in this region, they also brought slaves to work on sugar cane plantations. The British presence in this land eventually lead to two civil wars. During these wars the people were divided between the “Black” Caribs and the “Red” Caribs. During the second civil war the “Black” Caribs were forced to live in Central America. Since many people left Saint Vincent and Grenadines, this encouraged Indians, Portuguese, and white Barbadians. In 1979 this country was given its independence. Despite this fact they still relied on trade policies set up with foreign nations in exporting bananas.
    • South Africa By Jonas Howard
    • South Africa Maps
    • Country Description
      • Total area: 1,219,090 sq km
      • Land area: 1,214,470 sq km
      • Water area: 4,620 sq km
      • Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
      • Population: 49,004,031
      • Located at the Southern tip of the African continent
    • Flag of South Africa
    • Geography
      • Land regions: great interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
      • South Africa’s largest river is the Orange River. Water is being used faster than it can be produced. Rivers are being polluted from agricultural run off
      • One species of orchid is Satyrium bicorne. Lions can also be found in South Africa
    • History
      • Early in its history Africa fell victim to the European powers who only sought to use the land and people for personal gain. They conquered thousands of people and killed or enslaved millions more.
      • Conflict among Bantu-speaking chiefdoms was as common and severe as that between Bantus and whites. In resisting colonial expansion, black African rulers founded sizable and powerful kingdoms and nations by incorporating neighboring chieftaincies. The result was the emergence of the Zulu, Xhosa, Pedi, Venda, Swazi, Sotho, Tswana, and Tsonga nations, along with the white Afrikaners.
      • New colonies arose, after the European power crushed these powerful kingdoms
      • Modern South Africa emerged from these conflicts.
      • Color caste system formed in the 1960s was up until 1994. It kept people of color poor and not very well educated
      • South African artist William Kentridge was awarded the 2010 Kyoto Prize for Arts and Philosophy. This made him the first African recipient of Japan's highest private award for global achievement.
    • Political
      • President Jacob Zuma is both the head of the government and the Chief of State
      • President Jacob Zuma and Deputy President Kgalema Molanthe
    • Economy
      • Industry: makes up 31.2% of the GDP (gross domestic product). Industry includes
      • Imports: machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, and food items
      • Exports: gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
      • Major trade partners includes China, the U.S., and Germany
      • Its GDP is ranked 26 th in the world
    • Daily Life
      • Standard of living is very low the people struggle to obtain simply items such as food and shelter
      • Overall literacy: 86.4
      • Male literacy: 87
      • Female literacy: 85.7
      • Clothing: western style attire
      • Internet usage: the number of Internet users is currently estimated at 110,931,700
    • Cultural
      • Traditions: Afrikaners and other African people gather on weekends and special occasions at multifamily barbecues called braais. These barbecues strengthen community bonds.
      • Customs: livestock is slaughtered and then brewed to appease the ancestors in this rite of passage.
      • Religion:
      • Foods: consists of simply items that can be farmed.
      • African music has a distinct sound that utilize unique instruments such as talking drums or ramkie. The first instrument utilizes pressure on its many strings to produce different pitches. The second instrument is a guitar that only has three or four strings.
    • Event
      • A company known as Goldwind is now looking invest their funds in wind energy in South Africa.Director Daniel Kuruyolo believes that the area could potentially produce electricity and a very efficiently and quickly. The cost would also be very affordable compared to other areas around the world. The Goldwind company feels that they must "catch up" in the the race to produce wind energy and feel that Africa can help achieve this goal. Two months before, Goldwind signed a deal with HydroChina International Engineering Company to export 34 1.5MW turbines to the Adama wind farm in central Ethiopia.
    • Conclusion
      • South Africa is a country built upon destroyed African kingdoms. Europeans such as the British and Afrikainers fought to seize control of this but in the end the British won. Today South Africa’s poor economy can barely supply its people with the simply necessities to carry on everyday life.
    • Paraguay By Jonas Howard
    • Maps of Paraguay
    • Country Description
      • Total area: 406,752 sq km
      • Land area:   9,450 sq km
      • Water area: 397,302 sq km
      • Located in Central South America. Northeast of Argentina and Southwest of Brazil
      • Climate: subtropical to temperate. Considerable amount rainfall in the eastern regions, but it becomes semiarid in the far west
      • Population: 6,459,058
      • Geographical Coordinates: 23 00 S, 58 00 W
    • Geography
      • Land Regions: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay is mostly low. There are marshy plains near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub everywhere else
      • The Rio Paraguay, the Rio Parana, and the Rio Pilcomayo are the three majors rivers which are used for transportation and define Paraguay’s borders
      • Gymnocalycium mihanovichii is a cacti only found in Paraguay. A marked gecko known as Homonota rupicola can also only be found here.
      • Ascuncion is not only Paraguay’s capital but also its largest city. Tourists could explore the Godoi Museum. This museum features art from the 19 th century.
    • History
      • Paraguay got its independence from Spain in 1811.
      • Paraguay waged war against Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay from 1865-1870. In this disastrous war, Paraguay was forced to relinquish much of its land and 2/3 of its male population perished. This war crippled the economy.
      • When Paraguay defeated Bolivia in 1935, it gained a considerable amount of the Chaco lowland region
      • After World War 2, the government became very unstable under the rule of Alfredo Stroessner.
      • In April 22,2008 Fernando Lugo was elected president, and ended the Colorado Party’s 61 years in power.
    • Political
      • Paraguay is a constitutional republic
      • The Chief of State is President Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez
      • The head of the government includes President Fernando Armindo Lugo Mendez and Vice President Federico Franco
    • Economy
      • Industry: makes up 18.2% of the nations GDP. This includes sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, metallurgic, and electric power
      • Exports: soybeans, feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, electricity, wood, and leather
      • Imports: road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery, tractors, chemicals, vehicle parts
      • Major trade partners includes China, Brazil, Argentina, U.S., Uruguay, Chile, Argentina, and Russia
      • GDP is ranked 105 th in the world
    • Daily Life
      • Traditions: All Saints' Day is celebrated on 1 November by decorating deceased family members' tombs and gathering in cemeteries to honor the dead.
      • Customs: Special family celebrations and social gatherings call for an asado, or barbecue, with beef roasted over open fires and accompanied by boiled mandioca and sopa paraguaya.
      • Religions: Roman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, and 1.1% are atheist
      • Foods: diets consists mainly of beef, corn, and cassava
    • Event
      • The current president Fernando Lugo is serving out the rest of his term. He failed to accomplish his former promises to the people about poverty and land reforms. It is believed that a bumper harvest put the economy on target for 8.6% growth in 2010, but this will soften to 4.5% in 2011.
    • Conclusion
      • Paraguay claimed its independence from Spain in 1811. Paraguay had a prospering economy until it was crippled by the lose to Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. The became stronger, after Paraguay defeated Bolivia in the Chaco War and claimed a considerable amount of land. Paraguay’s government has always remained very unstable because of the countless military dictators who have lead the country. In the late 1980s one of these dictators was overthrown by the country’s future president Raul Cubas Grau. In 2008 Fernando Lugo was elected president of this country. The presidents that preceded him were unsuccessful in helping the country.