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Vancouver Referencing from instruction class

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  • 1.  Vancouver style - commonly used in the medical and scientific fields A research paper documented in Vancouver style should contain:  A reference list  identifies the references cited in the paper with publication information  appears at the end of the paper with the entries listed numerically and in the same order that they have been cited in the text  A bibliography  lists sources which were not cited in the text but are relevant to the subject  arranged alphabetically by the author’s name or the title, if no author’s name is provided
  • 2. Using the information from the outside sources:  Remember: Every piece of information that is taken from an outside source must be cited or referenced, unless it is considered common knowledge.  Common knowledge depends upon the audience: specialized vs. general audiences example: atrial fibrillation
  • 3. Cite all outside information.  Summaries – a more concise version of the original information - highlights the main points in your own words.
  • 4.  Paraphrases – same information contained in the original source - put in your own words  Use thesaurus for synonyms for example:  “Collaborate” – highlight the word – right click on it – select “synonyms”
  • 5. Quotations - wording from the outside source –  limit your use of quotes - only use quotes when the information can not easily be reworded – or, if it is reworded, the impact or effect of the writing will be lost.
  • 6.  (If you do use a direct quote, be sure it goes smoothly from your words to the words of the outside source so that it is understood who said those words and in what context.)  Rather than just saying “The author Davidson said” and then going into the quote, introduce Davidson’s words  Use a signal phrase which identifies exactly who made the statement and in what context. For example: The well-known researcher Charles Davidson argues that “-- -----.”
  • 7. Providing references within the text of your essay:  a number is assigned to each reference as it is cited  original number assigned to the reference or source is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the paper  references are identified by numbers, directly after the name of the author cited, or at the end of the quote or information from the author which has been paraphrased  the numbers: in round brackets, square brackets, or in superscript (ask your instructor which style to use for the assignment)
  • 8. For example:  Reebs argues that “Lake Superior will be ice-free most years in about three decades.” (1)  One scientist contends that, if current temperatures continue to rise, Lake Superior will have no ice in another thirty years. 1  Reebs (1) has argued that if current temperatures continue to rise, Lake Superior will have no ice in another thirty years.
  • 9. General Guidelines for Citing Sources  journal titles are abbreviated  months of publication are abbreviated to the first 3 letters  use the last name of the author and the first and middle initials  no periods in between the initials.  the first letter of the first word and any proper names in a book title are capitalized  “ed.” indicates the edition of a book  tables should each be given a brief title  illustrations and figures in the text should be numbered in consecutive order
  • 10.  Journal articles: Russell FD, Coppell AL, Davenport AP. In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient. Biochem Pharmacol 1998 Mar 1;55(5):697-701. (Note: In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient = name of the article; Biochem Pharmacol = title of the journal; 1998 Mar 1 = publication year, month, day; 55(5) = volume/issue numbers; 697-701 = page numbers [if the page numbers are continuous, you may omit the month, day, and year])
  • 11. Sample Article 1. Shetty R, Leitner J, Zhang M. Percutaneous catheter- based left atrial appendage ligation and management of periprocedural left atrial appendage perforation with the LARIAT suture delivery system. J Invasive Cardio [Internet]. 2012 Nov [cited 2013 Sept 5]; 24(11): E289-93. Available from: MEDLINE with Full Text: http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&sid =1c8966ad-1969-4556-aac7-911af393e427%40sessionmgr15 &hid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2Z Q%3d%3d#db=mnh&AN=23117323
  • 12. Sample Citations  Books with up to six authors:  Lodish H, Baltimore D, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Darnell J. Molecular cell biology. 3rd ed. New York: Scientific American; 1995.  Books with more than six authors:  Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, et al, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, Health Professions Division; 1998.  (Note: “et al” means “and others” and indicates that the authors beyond the first six are not listed)  Books with an editor:  Millares M, editor. Applied drug information: strategies for information management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, Inc.; 1998.
  • 13.  Chapter or parts books with an editor: Porter RJ, Meldrum BS. Antiepileptic drugs. In: Katzung BG, editor. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 6th ed. Norwalk, CN: Appleton and Lange; 1995. p. 361-80.  Books with an edition number: Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guide to the management of common illness. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998.  Books in a series: Bennett GL, Horuk R. Iodination of chemokines for use in receptor binding analysis. In: Horuk R, editor. Chemokine receptors. New York: Academic Press; 1997. p. 134-48. (Methods in enzymology; vol 288).  (Note: Chemokine = name of the book; Methods in enzymology = titles of the series; vol = Volume number)
  • 14.  Journal articles: Russell FD, Coppell AL, Davenport AP. In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient. Biochem Pharmacol 1998 Mar 1;55(5):697- 701. (Note: In vitro enzymatic processing of radiolabelled big ET-1 in human kidney as a food ingredient = name of the article; Biochem Pharmacol = title of the journal; 1998 Mar 1 = publication year, month, day; 55(5) = volume/issue numbers; 697-701 = page numbers [if the page numbers are continuous, you may omit the month, day, and year])
  • 15.  Articles with an unknown author: Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [editorial]. Biochem Pharmacol 1981;283:628.  Newspaper articles: Lee G. Hospitalizations tied to ozone pollution: study estimates 50,000 admissions annually. The Washington Post 1996 Jun 21;Sect. A:3 (col. 5).
  • 16.  Multimedia material: Get the facts (and get them organised) [videocassette]. Williamstown, Vic.: Appleseed Productions; 1990.  (Note: The details required are the same as those for a book, with the form of the item indicated in brackets after the title.)  Online journals: Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious disease. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar;1(1): [24 screens]. Available from: URL:http://www/cdc/gov/ncidoc/EID/eid.htm. Accessed December 25, 1999.
  • 17. LaPorte RE, Marler E, Akazawa S, Sauer F. The death of biomedical journals. BMJ [serial online]. 1995;310:1387-90. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/bmj/archive/6991ed2.htm. Accessed September 26,1996. (Note: Provide an abbreviated title of the electronic journal. Provide the volume number and issue number [in parentheses]. Indicate the number of screens in square brackets or pages.)
  • 18. Websites: Hoffman DL. St John's Wort. 1995;[4 screens]. Available at: URL:http://www.healthy.net/library/books/hoffman/materia medica/stjohns.htm. Accessed July 16, 1998. Health on the net foundation. Health on the net foundation code of conduct (HONcode) for medical and health web sites. Available at: http://www.hon.ch/Conduct.html. Accessed June 30, 1998. (Note: If the author is not documented, the title becomes the first element of the reference.
  • 19. Writing and Research Center Marvin Library, 2nd floor Monday through Thursday: 7am to 10pm Friday: 7am to 5pm Saturday: 9am to 4pm Ms. Hammond, Writing Specialist Writing and Research Center Marvin Library, 2nd floor 629-7865 or c.hammond@hvcc.edu Mon. 10 to 6 – Tues. 9:30 to 5:30 Wed. and Thu. 2 to 10 Fri. 9 to 5 Call 629-7230 for general information on Learning Centers’ services.