Service animals help humans with their needs and desires.
Win-win: Many of these programs rescue homeless animals from shelters .
The Hunters: falcons, hawks, owls or eagles Strict licensing requirements (these are wild birds and protected species) The Hunted: rabbits, squirrels, pigeons, quail and waterfowl ◦ California Hawking ClubFalconry ------------ A form of hunting
“Service Animals” and Hunting Primary dog breeds used for hunting include beagles, spaniels, griffons, retrievers, setters,pointers and hounds. Hunted animals include game birds and waterfowl such as pheasants, quails, partridges, ducks, pigeons. Other animals hunted are squirrels, bears, raccoons, mountain lions, foxes and other prey.
Southern Georgia Hunting of deer with dogs (called “dog running”)2003 – legislation severely restricted hunting of deer with dogs – page 124
Foxhunting (use of dogs in)Outlawed in Scotland, England and Wales (“upper-class” landowners opposed the outlaw – including members of the royal family)
The Reality Masters of Foxhounds Association of North AmericaAbout 171 recognized foxhunting clubs in North America and growing
Dogs are the most popular animal for guarding territory and people. Breeds include Doberman pinschers, rottweilers, komondors, German shepherds, and chows.
Guard dogs do not = watchdogs.
Unaccompanied guard dogs at commercial and industrial sites Many guard dogs are leased from security companies and rotated around to different locations so they don’t get accustomed to people in the area. This constant uncertainty makes these dogs all the more anxious and aggressive.
Common in developing countries
AmishDraft horses and mules are still used by a few farmers, particularly those in communities that use traditional farming techniques, such as the Amish.
Coalition for New York City Animals“Let Carriage Horses Run Free: It’s Time to Ban the Practice in New York City” (see News and Announcements)
Many dogs are used by U.S. law enforcement agencies at the local and national levels to perform important tasks. These agencies include police and sheriff departments, arson investigators, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.
Drug DogsThe dogs are specially trained to work with officers during searches and arrests and tosniff out illegal substances. Dogs have incredibly sensitive noses. Their sense of smell is several thousand times better than that of humans. Dogs can smell tiny quantities of substances and can distinguish particular scents with amazing accuracy. This natural ability has proven to be an extremely useful tool in law enforcement applications.
Arson dogs are specially trained to sniff for the presence of accelerants, such as gasoline, at sites where arson is suspected.
Federal agencies that guard U.S. borders have used dogs since the 1970s. In January 2009 a retired drug-sniffing dog in England died from a rare type of nose cancer. Max was a nine-year-old Springer spaniel. The dogs veterinarian believes that sniffing drugs, particularly cocaine, during his years of service to the police department was a factor in the development of cancer.
Mounted units are popular in both rural and metropolitan areas. The United Mounted Peace Officers of Texas (November 11, 2008, http://www.tumpot.org/about.htm) indicate that in 2008 Texasauthorities used 102 mounted units for patrols around the state. They are particularly useful in backcountry areas on dirt roads and ruggedterrain. Several large U.S. police departments use mounted patrols for crowd control and to provide greater visibility of officers on the streets.
Mounted units are not without controversy. There have been injuries to horses,police, and members of the public. Because mounted units often perform crowd control during protests and demonstrations, the horses and the riders are exposed to people who may be angry and confrontational. There are reports ofpolice horses being pelted with marbles and even garbage. Protesters claim thatpolice often charge their horses into crowds, knocking over and injuring people.
Search, Rescue and Recovery
National Association for Search and Rescue notes that therewere over 150 SAR dog units across the country in 2009. Thebreeds most often used for this work are German shepherds,Dobermans, rottweilers, golden retrievers, giant schnauzers, and Labrador retrievers.
More than 350 dogs scoured the rubble of the World Trade Center in New York City, along with their human trainers, looking for survivors and corpses. These dogs werefrom all over the United States and from foreign countries. The work was difficult. SARdogs suffered from paw cuts and burns, dehydration, burning eyes, and psychological stress. Some handlers reported that their dogs became depressed after not finding any live victims and could not eat or sleep normally. Campaigns were begun to collect donated booties and other items needed by the SAR dogs who participated in helping during the 9/11 aftermath, and donations poured in from around the world.
Humanitarian Mine Detection
Since World War II (1939-1945) trained dogs have been used in military applications to detect land mines on the battlefield.
Mine detection dogs – Afghanistan 2004 According to the Marshall Legacy Institute (2009, http://www.marshall- legacy.org/!our_dogs/dog-overview.html), approximately 700 dogs are used in humanitarian demining operations around the world. The dogs excellent sense of smell is particularly effective for detecting mines made up of nonmetal components.
According to Assistance Dogs International Inc. (2009, http://www.adionline.org/), acoalition of nonprofit organizations that train and place assistance dogs, assistance dogs fall into three broad categories: (1) Guide dogs for the blind and visually impaired (2) Hearing dogs for the deaf and hearing impaired (3) Service dogs for those with other physical disabilities
One controversial issue associated with guide dogs is the use of breeding programs to produce them. Many organizations and training schoolsrescue dogs from pounds and animal shelters. This provides good homes for dogs that might otherwise be euthanized. Animal welfarists arecritical of schools that breed their own dogs because there are already so many unwanted dogs in the country.
Therapy animals provide emotional support or assist in rehabilitation activities. Forexample, therapy animals can comfort people undergoing psychological counseling. Many organizations working with abused children use therapy dogs in their programs. Petting and hugging the dogs relaxes the children and allows them to open up to counselors. Similar programs are used to calm children suffering from autism.
Therapy dogs also visit hospitals, orphanages, and nursing homes to cheer people who may be lonely or depressed. Only gentle and social dogs with good dispositions are used in this work. They must go through rigorous training and receive Canine Good Citizenship certification.
Medical DetectionIt is believed that the dogs are able to detect trace amounts of chemicals not ordinarily present in the breath of healthy people
Military Service - most controversial
These animals are often On the contrary, put into tremendous members of the military danger, and many of say that service animals them die during their have saved many human service. lives in battle. They do not know what They argue that animal they are fighting for or deaths in war are against and have poor regrettable but chances of surviving. permissible if human lives are saved.Animal Welfarists/Rights Military
According to Wild Horses: An American Romance (January 15, 2008, http://netnebraska.org/extras/wildhorses/wh_man/wh_war.html), most of the 6 million horses that served the U.S. military in World War I (1914-1918) were killed. The deaths of millions ofother horses in military service to other countries severely depleted the worlds horse population. World War I was the last war in which horses played a major role in combat.
By 1942 all U.S. cavalry units were disbanded. Coincidentally, this was the same year that dogs were first officially inducted into the U.S. Army. Agroup called Dogs for Defense asked Americans to donate dogs to the army.
It became common practice to euthanize unusable and retired war dogs or leave them behind on the battlefield. Animal welfarists and soldiers were strongly against this policy, particularly after the Vietnam War (1954-1975).
Most service dogs that survived the war wereleft behind in Vietnam when U.S. troops pulled out. The fate of these dogs is unknown.
In November 2000 President Bill Clinton signed a new law into effect that allows retired military dogs to be adopted rather than euthanized. In December 2005 President George W. Bush signed legislation allowing the military to adopt out active-duty military dogs to their handlers under certain circumstances.
September 2004 about 2,300 dogs wereworking as sentries, detecting land mines andbombs, and performing SAR tasks for the U.S. military
The military conducts its own breeding program and purchases suitable dogs from other breeders. Most dogs have a militarycareer of around 10 years and are then retired from the service.
U.S. Department of Defense
Soldiers stationed around the world often befriend stray dogs and cats in other countries. Adopting a pet while on a tour of duty is strictly against U.S. military rules. ◦ Under General Order 1A, soldiers may receive a reduction in rank or a court-martial if they are caught with a pet while in active service overseas.