By: Hope Hudson, Christina Adamo, and Kaitlyn Reilly
Ancient History of the Circus The earliest circus (Circus Maximus) dates back to the early Roman Empire in 7 B.C. Elephants have been used in circuses since the first recorded circus. Other animals used included: dolphins, horses, oxen, sheep, and tigers.
The Man Who Started It. Phineas Taylor Barnum; born1810, he was a well knownshowman who was famous forengaging hoaxes. He startedthe “Barnum’s AmericanMuseum” featuring exhibitssuch has the “Fiji Mermaid”,and Siamese Twins.The museum burned down,and he set up anothermuseum in another locationwhich also caught fire.
Creation of the CircusAfter the destruction of Barnum’s Museum, P.T. pairedwith William Cameron Coup and "P.T Barnums GrandTraveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan& Hippodrome“was born and it was a traveling freak show.In 1872 Barnum coined the phrase “The Greatest Show OnEarth”In 1881 Barnum merged with competition James Bailey andJames L. Hutchinson. After some splits the Barnum &Bailey Circus was created.
Barnum &Bailey CircusAt this time the main attraction was anAfrican Elephant named JumboP.T. Barnum passed away in 1891 andJames Bailey bought the circus fromthe widow, where he toured the USand the moved to Europe. He returnedto the US to find The Ringling Brothershad a huge reputation. In 1907 JamesBailey passes away, and the circus wassold to The Ringling Brothers for$400,000
The Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus
Elephants in the Circus
This Past Week… This was a photo taken when Ringling was in Albany this past week. The star you see on the hind quarters of the elephant is a brand. There is no logical reason why this elephant should have been branded with a star.
Public DangerAfter the years of abuse elephants are forced to endure, they sometimessnap and go on rampages. This is what happened in 1994 with Tyke. Shekilled his trained, injured 12 spectators and in the end was gunned down bypolice. He was shot close to 100 times.In more than 35 instances since 2000 elephants have ran from circusesthrough streets, injuring the public.Also, most elephants in the circus carry tuberculosis which can be passedto humans, and can be deadly to those with lowered immune systems.
Baby BarackBaby Barack, was infectedwith a deadly virus(endotheliotropicherpesvirus) that could havebeen prevented.He was less than a year oldwhen he was moved to theFlorida State Fairgrounds.But after one month, afterperforming in Orlando andJacksonville, he was takenoff the road because of thisvirus. Stress is believed to bea huge factor in thedevelopment of this disease.(2010)In 2011 Barack was treatedfor having EEHV again. Thereis no cure for the disease andit is usually fatal.
Ringling Fined Largest Penalty Circus History In November 2011 Feld entertainment, the parent company of Ringling Brothers was fined $270,000 in for violation of the AWA dating back to 2007. This was the largest settlement of its kind. In addition to receiving the largest penalty, Ringling must now provide all employees who handle animals, with training and they must hire a staff member dedicated to AWA compliance.
Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus speaks.“How does Ringling Bros. feel about local legislation banning the use of animal acts in some towns?A: We believe that these bans are unnecessary and take away a treasured part of the circus experience thatpatrons tell us they support and love. (Fortunately, such communities are the exception, not the rule.) Bybanning performing animals, the town is effectively saying that our experts are not fit to handle the animalsthey have devoted their lives to caring for. We cant say it enough: Ringling Bros. loves animals as much asyou do!”Q: What are the conditions where the animals live at each arena?A: We pride ourselves on the level of care and the healthy environment we provide for all our animalperformers. In arenas where space permits, our animal facility is outdoors and in the full view of the public.Each animal is groomed daily. The entire stable area, as well as individual animal stalls, is kept clean aroundthe clock. We often provide guided tours of our facility for animal experts and media.Q: How are the animals trained to perform their routines?A: Our animals are great performers, because their routines are tailored to each animal’s natural abilities andindividual preferences which we observe during their playtime. Reinforced through a system of reward andrepetition, these abilities and behaviors are linked together on cue which ultimately becomes the routinethat you see at a Ringling Bros. Circus.]
Ringling Responds to a PETA video(July 28, 2009 - Vienna, VA) – Following the release last week of a deceptively edited video by the animal rights groupPeople for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey conducted veterinary examinationsof all our elephants on the Ringling Bros. ® Red Unit. This and the 60 other veterinary examinations over the past six monthsfound that the elephants are all in good health.Ringling Bros. believes that the validity of the latest footage released by PETA, which may appear disturbing, remainsquestionable and that PETA’s video allegations should have been disclosed immediately, not months later, if they were trulyconcerned about the welfare of our elephants. Nevertheless, Ringling Bros. wants to assure the public that we take anyallegations concerning animal care very seriously, no matter the source. The company has initiated a review of elephanthandling on the Red Unit to maintain the high standard of respect for animals required by Ringling Bros., which goes beyondmeeting regulatory requirements. The company is addressing the matter and will take all necessary actions, includingredoubling its educational efforts, taking disciplinary actions, where appropriate, and possibly instituting additional systemsof internal monitoring.In addition to being regularly examined by a team of veterinarians, the Red Unit just concluded two weeks of performancesin Anaheim, CA, where it was inspected by local animal control officials and was in compliance with animal welfare laws andregulations. In the past six months, including the time period allegedly covered by PETA’s video, this circus unit has beeninspected by 12 different state, local and federal inspection authorities and was in compliance with animal welfare laws andregulations.“Ringling Bros. is committed to ensuring the absolute best for its animals and those who care for them, including correctingany perception that may contradict our dedication to the care and management of the largest herd of Asian elephants inthe Western Hemisphere,” said Janice Aria, Director of Animal Stewardship and Training, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey.“By addressing this issue, we trust that our customers, our employees and our industry colleagues will continue to seeRingling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey as a responsible animal steward and that we are committed to providing the very best ofcare for all our animals.”
Other infowww.peta.orghttp://www.ringlingbeatsanimals.com/default.aspKamahl- The elephant songMandy Miller- Nellie the Elephant