Research Animals


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Research Animals

  1. 1. Research Animals<br />Chapter 5<br />
  3. 3. Medical and veterinary investigations & training<br />Drug testing<br />Cosmetic testing<br />Consumer products<br />Educational programs<br />Annually between 100,000,000 and 115,000,000<br />Research Animals<br />
  4. 4. Living animals used for these procedures are called laboratory animals.<br />They usually die from these procedures or are euthanized.<br />Major issue for animal rights activists since 1970s<br />
  5. 5. Procedure in which an <br /> organism is cut apart <br /> for scientific examination<br />Terminology<br />Term used for all invasive research and testing performed on live animals<br />DISSECTION <br />VIVISECTION<br />
  6. 6. Training tools for doctors and veterinarians<br />E.g., inserting a catheter, administering anesthesia, performing operations<br />So you have a spectrum of passionate belief.<br />May 2008 Gallup Poll<br />Table 5.1 page 78<br />Do you see a trend?<br />What might be some advantages to using live animals in medical research?<br />
  7. 7. People react emotionally to these images.<br />Scientists and researchers prefer to think of these animals as specimens or clinical tools.<br />
  8. 8. So how’d we get here?<br />
  9. 9. Took the position that animals were unthinking and unfeeling machines<br />Philosopher Rene Descartes 1596-1650<br />
  10. 10. “The question is not, Can they reason? Nor, Can they talk? But, Can they suffer?”<br />Jeremy Bentham<br />1748-1832<br />
  11. 11. 18th and 19th centuries… unclaimed bodies of poor people and criminals were often turned over to medical colleges for dissection … poor and working class associated medical research with grave robbing to supply researchers with corpses…<br />
  12. 12. Modern Antivivisection Movement<br />
  13. 13. Henry Salt <br />1894 – Animals’ Rights, Considered in Relation to Social Progress <br />“The practice of vivisection is revolting to the human conscience, even among the ordinary members of a not over-sensitive society.”<br />
  14. 14. United States Antivivisection<br />American Anti-Vivisection Society – 1883<br />New England Anti-Vivisection Society – 1895<br />
  15. 15. p. 79<br />Mark Twain “A Dog’s Tale”<br />
  16. 16. Doctors lobbied Congress to crack down on dangerous drugs and personal products sold to Americans.<br />Opposed by powerful marketing groups<br />1937 – 100 children died from drinking a product that contained antifreeze.<br />1938 – The Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act required animal testing.<br />1930s<br />
  17. 17. First tests – rats, up to one month<br />1957 – Drug testing on rats and dogs for up to 6 months<br />1960s – Testing on pregnant animals<br />1980s – Rats and dogs up to 18 months<br />Growth of Animal Testing<br />
  18. 18. What happened in July 1965 that strengthened the antivivisection movement?<br />p. 80 - Pepper<br />
  19. 19. Media publicized<br />Bills introduced in Congress to regulate animal dealers and laboratories<br />Life Magazine, 1966: Concentration Camps for Dogs p. 80<br />In the wake of Pepper’s death…<br />
  20. 20. 1966 Laboratory AnimalWelfare Act<br />Required licensing of animal dealers and regulation of laboratory animals<br />
  21. 21. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals (1975)<br />Dr. Peter Singer<br />
  22. 22. Late 70s – Henry Spira, animal activist, accused major companies of animal cruelty in animal testing.<br />1980 – Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrance Association funded the founding of <br />The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing at Johns Hopkins University.<br />Draize Eye Test<br />
  23. 23. Silver Spring Monkey Case p. 81 <br />
  24. 24. Animal Liberation Front<br />
  25. 25. Prohibits causing physical disruption to the functioning of an animal enterprise<br />Three types of animal enterprises – p. 81<br />Offenses that can be charged under the act include using the mail to cause physical disruption at animal enterprises and stealing, damaging, or causing the loss of property, including animals and records.<br />Animal Enterprise Protection Act 1992<br />
  26. 26. SHAC7<br />Stop Huntington Animal Cruelty<br />SHAC 7 Trailer<br />
  27. 27. Federal Legislation and Oversight<br />
  28. 28. Federal Legislation and Oversight<br />Animal Welfare Act<br />Health Research Extension Act<br />Food Drug and Cosmetic Act<br />
  29. 29. Animal Welfare Act<br />See Separate PowerPoint.<br />
  30. 30. Passed in 1985<br />Requires facilities that receive federal funding from the Public Health Service follow an animal welfare policy (called Public Health Service Policy)<br />Must follow Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals<br />Similar to requirements in AWA but HREA applies to all vertebrates including mice, rats and birds <br />Health Research Extension Act<br />
  31. 31. Drugs must receive FDA approval before they can be sold in the U.S.<br />The FDA does not allow human testing to occur if animal testing is unsatisfactory.<br />Animal testing is not required for cosmetics (but is recommended).<br />Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act<br />
  32. 32. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947 and Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976<br />EPA administers these two pieces of legislation<br />Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act – 1960<br />Consumer Product Safety Commission administers<br />Applies to household products<br />Affects animals because household products with hazardous ingredients must warn consumers<br />Other Federal Legislation<br />
  33. 33. CHIMP ACT<br />p. 85<br />
  34. 34. See Tables 5.5 and 5.6<br />Biomedical Research<br />Drug Testing<br />Product Testing<br />Consumer Products<br />Dissections<br />Surgical/Medical Training and Behavior Research<br />Lab Animals and Their Uses<br />
  35. 35. “Cruelty Free” P. 88<br />Johns Hopkins FAQs<br />Consumer Products <br />
  36. 36. Personal Care for People Who Care<br />Who Tests on Animals?<br />National Anti-Vivisection Society<br />
  37. 37. 2009 – ban on testing of cosmetic ingredients on animals in Europe<br />2009 – ban on sale and import of cosmetics tested on animals using certain tests <br />2013- final ban on the sale and import of cosmetics tested on animals using any test <br />European Union<br />
  38. 38. The following states have laws upholding a student's right to choose humane alternatives to dissection without being penalized: Florida, California, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode Island, Illinois, Virginia, Oregon, New Jersey and Vermont. <br />Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts and New Mexico have Board of Education policies, and Louisiana passed a state resolution in 1992. Many schools and school boards have also independently enacted student-choice policies. <br />Student Choice: Laws & Legislation <br />
  39. 39. PCRM – Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine<br />Many veterinary schools now use animal cadavers donated by people whose pets have died of natural causes or have been humanely euthanized due to an illness or condition.<br />Surgical Training<br />
  40. 40. More than 90% of all U.S. medical schools have eliminated live animal labs to train medical students.<br />What does this mean?<br />Albany Medical College Animal Use Policy<br />According to PCRM:<br />
  41. 41. American Anti-Vivisection Society<br />National Anti-Vivisection Society<br />Personal Care for People Who Care<br />New England Anti-Vivisection Society<br />Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine<br />Google “companies that do not test on animals.”<br />Helpful Links:<br />
  42. 42. What you buy makes a difference.<br />