Chapter 5
 Medical and veterinary investigations &
training
 Drug testing
 Cosmetic testing
 Consumer products
 Educational pro...
Living animals used for these procedures are
called laboratory animals.
They usually die from these procedures or
are euth...
 Procedure in which an
organism is cut apart
for scientific examination
 DISSECTION  VIVISECTION
 Term used for all
in...
 Training tools for doctors and veterinarians
◦ E.g., inserting a catheter, administering anesthesia,
performing operatio...
People react emotionally to these images.
Scientists and researchers prefer to
think of these animals as specimens
or clin...
Took the position that animals were unthinking and unfeeling machines
(French philosopher)
Philosopher Rene Descartes 1596...
Jeremy Bentham – British
philosopher and political scientist
1748-1832
 1894 – Animals’ Rights, Considered in
Relation to Social Progress
◦ “The practice of vivisection is revolting to the
hum...
 American Anti-Vivisection Society – 1883
 New England Anti-Vivisection Society – 1895
p. 79
Mark Twain “A Dog’s Tale”
 Doctors lobbied Congress to crack down on
dangerous drugs and personal products sold
to Americans.
◦ Opposed by powerful...
 First tests – rats, up to one month
 1957 – Drug testing on rats and dogs for up
to 6 months
 1960s – Testing on pregn...
* p. 80 - Pepper
 Media publicized
 Bills introduced in Congress to regulate
animal dealers and laboratories
 Life Magazine, 1966: Conce...
Required licensing of animal dealers and regulation
of laboratory animals
Excluded (and still does) rats, birds and mice
Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals
(1975)
*Dr. Peter Singer
Late 70s – Henry Spira, animal activist, accused major companies of animal cruelty in
animal testing. National Association...
Videos about animal experimentation,
dissection and activism
Click here for a Lexis news search lesson!
Type: biosearch and testing and lab! and Philadelphia
What happened after Biose...
 Prohibits causing physical disruption to the
functioning of an animal enterprise
◦ Three types of animal enterprises:
 ...
Stop Huntington Animal Cruelty
SHAC 7 Trailer
 Animal Welfare Act
 Health Research Extension Act
 Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
See USDA summary
 Passed in 1985
 Requires facilities that receive federal funding
from the Public Health Service* follow an
animal welfa...
 Drugs must receive FDA approval before they
can be sold in the U.S.
 The FDA does not allow human testing to
occur if a...
 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947 and
Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976
◦ EPA administers th...
Click HERE for a timeline of the
history of advocating for
chimpanzees used in research.
NIH temporarily bans new chimpanzee
research
2007: Six states accounted for 46% of all
regulated research animals
Number of animals used in research
by species, 1973-2007
◦ Biomedical Research
 Vast majority of research animals are used in this area
 CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information...
◦ Drug Testing
 Drug companies usually test new drugs on at least 2
different animal species.
◦ Product Testing
◦ Consumer Products
◦ Dissections
◦ Surgical/Medical Training and Behavior Research
 “Cruelty Free” P. 88
 Johns Hopkins FAQs
 Personal Care for People Who Care
 Who Tests on Animals?
 2009 – ban on testing of cosmetic ingredients
on animals in Europe
 2009 – ban on sale and import of cosmetics
tested o...
 The following states have laws upholding a
student's right to choose humane alternatives
to dissection without being pen...
 PCRM – Physicians Committee for Responsible
Medicine
Many veterinary schools now use animal
cadavers donated by people w...
More than 90% of all U.S. medical schools have
eliminated live animal labs to train medical
students.
What does this mean?...
 American Anti-Vivisection Society
 National Anti-Vivisection Society
◦ Personal Care for People Who Care
 New England ...
Genetic Engineering
Related Topics
For Friday: The Animal Welfare Act
Animals in Research
Animals in Research
Animals in Research
Animals in Research
Animals in Research
Animals in Research
Animals in Research
Animals in Research
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Animals in Research

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  • Thalidomide is a drug that was widely prescribed in Canada & Europe in that late 1950s to treat nausea in pregnant women.
  • Book brought more coverage to the use of animals in scientific research. Disturbing photographs and descriptions of animals being subjected to all sorts of painful procedures – and argued that the pain and suffering on the animals is too high a moral price to pay for scientific research.
  • Chemicals are put in the eyes of restrained animals for testing cosmetics.
  • 1981 – This is the story of the first-ever police raid on a research laboratory.  PETA co-founder Alex Pacheco documented this landmark case of animal abuse during his four-month undercover investigation of the Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.  Surgically crippled, the 17 primates at IBR were tormented in attempts to make them use their deadened limbs, The conditions shown in this videotape led to the revocation of IBR's federal funds, the closing of the laboratory, the confiscation of the primates, and the first and only criminal conviction of an experimenter on charges of animal cruelty in the US.
    Even though animal cruelty charges were dropped, the monkeys were confiscated, and Congress forced the National Institute of Health (NIH) to cease the research. This was viewed as a major triumph by people involved in antivivisection and the growing animal rights movement at the time.
  • 1996-97: PETA conducted an 8 month undercover investigation at a Huntington Life Sciences (HLS) facility in New Jersey.
  • The PHS includes government agencies such as the CDC, USDA and NIH. The NIH is the major source of funding for biomedical research in the U.S.
  • Animals in Research

    1. 1. Chapter 5
    2. 2.  Medical and veterinary investigations & training  Drug testing  Cosmetic testing  Consumer products  Educational programs  Annually between 100,000,000 and 115,000,000
    3. 3. Living animals used for these procedures are called laboratory animals. They usually die from these procedures or are euthanized. Major issue for animal rights activists since 1970s
    4. 4.  Procedure in which an organism is cut apart for scientific examination  DISSECTION  VIVISECTION  Term used for all invasive research and testing performed on live animals
    5. 5.  Training tools for doctors and veterinarians ◦ E.g., inserting a catheter, administering anesthesia, performing operations ◦ Test subjects on vaccines, drugs, and other products  So you have a spectrum of passionate belief.  May 2008 Gallup Poll  Table 5.1 page 78  Do you see a trend?
    6. 6. People react emotionally to these images. Scientists and researchers prefer to think of these animals as specimens or clinical tools.
    7. 7. Took the position that animals were unthinking and unfeeling machines (French philosopher) Philosopher Rene Descartes 1596-1650
    8. 8. Jeremy Bentham – British philosopher and political scientist 1748-1832
    9. 9.  1894 – Animals’ Rights, Considered in Relation to Social Progress ◦ “The practice of vivisection is revolting to the human conscience, even among the ordinary members of a not over-sensitive society.” ◦ Beginning of modern antivivisection ◦ Movement  Scientific manipulation of living beings
    10. 10.  American Anti-Vivisection Society – 1883  New England Anti-Vivisection Society – 1895
    11. 11. p. 79 Mark Twain “A Dog’s Tale”
    12. 12.  Doctors lobbied Congress to crack down on dangerous drugs and personal products sold to Americans. ◦ Opposed by powerful marketing groups 1937 – 100 children died from drinking a product that contained antifreeze. 1938 – The Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act required animal testing.
    13. 13.  First tests – rats, up to one month  1957 – Drug testing on rats and dogs for up to 6 months  1960s – Testing on pregnant animals* see notes  1980s – Rats and dogs up to 18 months
    14. 14. * p. 80 - Pepper
    15. 15.  Media publicized  Bills introduced in Congress to regulate animal dealers and laboratories  Life Magazine, 1966: Concentration Camps for Dogs p. 80
    16. 16. Required licensing of animal dealers and regulation of laboratory animals Excluded (and still does) rats, birds and mice
    17. 17. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals (1975) *Dr. Peter Singer
    18. 18. Late 70s – Henry Spira, animal activist, accused major companies of animal cruelty in animal testing. National Association for Biomedical Research and Michigan Society of r Medical Research were soon founded. 1980 – Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrance Association funded the founding of The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing at Johns Hopkins University. *Draize Eye Test
    19. 19. Videos about animal experimentation, dissection and activism
    20. 20. Click here for a Lexis news search lesson! Type: biosearch and testing and lab! and Philadelphia What happened after Biosearch?
    21. 21.  Prohibits causing physical disruption to the functioning of an animal enterprise ◦ Three types of animal enterprises:  Commercial or academic enterprises using animals to produce food or fiber or for agriculture, research or testing  Zoos, aquariums, circuses, rodeos and other legal sporting events  Fairs and similar events designed to advance agricultural arts & sciences ◦ Offenses that can be charged under the act include using the mail to cause physical disruption at animal enterprises and stealing, damaging, or causing the loss of property, including animals and records.
    22. 22. Stop Huntington Animal Cruelty SHAC 7 Trailer
    23. 23.  Animal Welfare Act  Health Research Extension Act  Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
    24. 24. See USDA summary
    25. 25.  Passed in 1985  Requires facilities that receive federal funding from the Public Health Service* follow an animal welfare policy (called Public Health Service Policy)  Must follow Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals  Similar to requirements in AWA but HREA applies to all vertebrates including mice, rats and birds
    26. 26.  Drugs must receive FDA approval before they can be sold in the U.S.  The FDA does not allow human testing to occur if animal testing is unsatisfactory.  Animal testing is not required for cosmetics (but is recommended).
    27. 27.  Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947 and Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 ◦ EPA administers these two pieces of legislation  Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act – 1960 ◦ Consumer Product Safety Commission administers ◦ Applies to household products ◦ Affects animals because household products with hazardous ingredients must warn consumers
    28. 28. Click HERE for a timeline of the history of advocating for chimpanzees used in research.
    29. 29. NIH temporarily bans new chimpanzee research
    30. 30. 2007: Six states accounted for 46% of all regulated research animals
    31. 31. Number of animals used in research by species, 1973-2007
    32. 32. ◦ Biomedical Research  Vast majority of research animals are used in this area  CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects) – database of biomedical research projects that have received federal funding since 1972
    33. 33. ◦ Drug Testing  Drug companies usually test new drugs on at least 2 different animal species.
    34. 34. ◦ Product Testing ◦ Consumer Products ◦ Dissections ◦ Surgical/Medical Training and Behavior Research
    35. 35.  “Cruelty Free” P. 88  Johns Hopkins FAQs
    36. 36.  Personal Care for People Who Care  Who Tests on Animals?
    37. 37.  2009 – ban on testing of cosmetic ingredients on animals in Europe  2009 – ban on sale and import of cosmetics tested on animals using certain tests  2013- final ban on the sale and import of cosmetics tested on animals using any test
    38. 38.  The following states have laws upholding a student's right to choose humane alternatives to dissection without being penalized: Florida, California, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode Island, Illinois, Virginia, Oregon, New Jersey and Vermont. ◦ Many schools and school boards have also independently enacted student-choice policies.
    39. 39.  PCRM – Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Many veterinary schools now use animal cadavers donated by people whose pets have died of natural causes or have been humanely euthanized due to an illness or condition.
    40. 40. More than 90% of all U.S. medical schools have eliminated live animal labs to train medical students. What does this mean? Albany Medical College Animal Use Policy
    41. 41.  American Anti-Vivisection Society  National Anti-Vivisection Society ◦ Personal Care for People Who Care  New England Anti-Vivisection Society  Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine  Google “companies that do not test on animals.”
    42. 42. Genetic Engineering Related Topics
    43. 43. For Friday: The Animal Welfare Act
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