Thalidomide is a drug that was widely prescribed in Canada & Europe in that late 1950s to treat nausea in pregnant women.
Book brought more coverage to the use of animals in scientific research. Disturbing photographs and descriptions of animals being subjected to all sorts of painful procedures – and argued that the pain and suffering on the animals is too high a moral price to pay for scientific research.
Chemicals are put in the eyes of restrained animals for testing cosmetics.
1981 – This is the story of the first-ever police raid on a research laboratory. PETA co-founder Alex Pacheco documented this landmark case of animal abuse during his four-month undercover investigation of the Institute for Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland. Surgically crippled, the 17 primates at IBR were tormented in attempts to make them use their deadened limbs, The conditions shown in this videotape led to the revocation of IBR's federal funds, the closing of the laboratory, the confiscation of the primates, and the first and only criminal conviction of an experimenter on charges of animal cruelty in the US. Even though animal cruelty charges were dropped, the monkeys were confiscated, and Congress forced the National Institute of Health (NIH) to cease the research. This was viewed as a major triumph by people involved in antivivisection and the growing animal rights movement at the time.
1996-97: PETA conducted an 8 month undercover investigation at a Huntington Life Sciences (HLS) facility in New Jersey.
The PHS includes government agencies such as the CDC, USDA and NIH. The NIH is the major source of funding for biomedical research in the U.S.
Animals in Research
Medical and veterinary investigations &
Annually between 100,000,000 and
Living animals used for these procedures are
called laboratory animals.
They usually die from these procedures or
Major issue for animal rights activists since
Procedure in which an
organism is cut apart
for scientific examination
Term used for all
invasive research and
testing performed on
Training tools for doctors and veterinarians
◦ E.g., inserting a catheter, administering anesthesia,
◦ Test subjects on vaccines, drugs, and other
So you have a spectrum of passionate belief.
May 2008 Gallup Poll
Table 5.1 page 78
Do you see a trend?
People react emotionally to these images.
Scientists and researchers prefer to
think of these animals as specimens
or clinical tools.
Took the position that animals were unthinking and unfeeling machines
Philosopher Rene Descartes 1596-1650
Jeremy Bentham – British
philosopher and political scientist
1894 – Animals’ Rights, Considered in
Relation to Social Progress
◦ “The practice of vivisection is revolting to the
human conscience, even among the ordinary
members of a not over-sensitive society.”
◦ Beginning of modern antivivisection
Scientific manipulation of living beings
American Anti-Vivisection Society – 1883
New England Anti-Vivisection Society – 1895
Doctors lobbied Congress to crack down on
dangerous drugs and personal products sold
◦ Opposed by powerful marketing groups
1937 – 100 children died from drinking a product
that contained antifreeze.
1938 – The Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act required
First tests – rats, up to one month
1957 – Drug testing on rats and dogs for up
to 6 months
1960s – Testing on pregnant animals* see
1980s – Rats and dogs up to 18 months
Bills introduced in Congress to regulate
animal dealers and laboratories
Life Magazine, 1966: Concentration Camps
for Dogs p. 80
Required licensing of animal dealers and regulation
of laboratory animals
Excluded (and still does) rats, birds and mice
Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals
*Dr. Peter Singer
Late 70s – Henry Spira, animal activist, accused major companies of animal cruelty in
animal testing. National Association for Biomedical Research and Michigan Society of r
Medical Research were soon founded.
1980 – Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrance Association funded the founding of
The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing at Johns Hopkins University.
*Draize Eye Test
Videos about animal experimentation,
dissection and activism
Click here for a Lexis news search lesson!
Type: biosearch and testing and lab! and Philadelphia
What happened after Biosearch?
Prohibits causing physical disruption to the
functioning of an animal enterprise
◦ Three types of animal enterprises:
Commercial or academic enterprises using animals to
produce food or fiber or for agriculture, research or testing
Zoos, aquariums, circuses, rodeos and other legal sporting
Fairs and similar events designed to advance agricultural arts
◦ Offenses that can be charged under the act include
using the mail to cause physical disruption at animal
enterprises and stealing, damaging, or causing the loss
of property, including animals and records.
Passed in 1985
Requires facilities that receive federal funding
from the Public Health Service* follow an
animal welfare policy (called Public Health
Must follow Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
Similar to requirements in AWA but HREA applies to all
vertebrates including mice, rats and birds
Drugs must receive FDA approval before they
can be sold in the U.S.
The FDA does not allow human testing to
occur if animal testing is unsatisfactory.
Animal testing is not required for cosmetics
(but is recommended).
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947 and
Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976
◦ EPA administers these two pieces of legislation
Federal Hazardous Substances Labeling Act – 1960
◦ Consumer Product Safety Commission administers
◦ Applies to household products
◦ Affects animals because household products with hazardous
ingredients must warn consumers
Click HERE for a timeline of the
history of advocating for
chimpanzees used in research.
2007: Six states accounted for 46% of all
regulated research animals
Number of animals used in research
by species, 1973-2007
◦ Biomedical Research
Vast majority of research animals are used in this area
CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific
Projects) – database of biomedical research projects
that have received federal funding since 1972
◦ Drug Testing
Drug companies usually test new drugs on at least 2
different animal species.
◦ Product Testing
◦ Consumer Products
◦ Surgical/Medical Training and Behavior Research
Personal Care for People Who Care
Who Tests on Animals?
2009 – ban on testing of cosmetic ingredients
on animals in Europe
2009 – ban on sale and import of cosmetics
tested on animals using certain tests
2013- final ban on the sale and import of
cosmetics tested on animals using any test
The following states have laws upholding a
student's right to choose humane alternatives
to dissection without being penalized:
Florida, California, Pennsylvania, New York,
Rhode Island, Illinois, Virginia, Oregon, New
Jersey and Vermont.
◦ Many schools and school boards have also
independently enacted student-choice policies.
PCRM – Physicians Committee for Responsible
Many veterinary schools now use animal
cadavers donated by people whose pets have
died of natural causes or have been humanely
euthanized due to an illness or condition.
More than 90% of all U.S. medical schools have
eliminated live animal labs to train medical
What does this mean?
Albany Medical College Animal Use Policy
American Anti-Vivisection Society
National Anti-Vivisection Society
◦ Personal Care for People Who Care
New England Anti-Vivisection Society
Physicians Committee for Responsible
Google “companies that do not test on