0
1.5 How do we measure length?
• The metre rule and half-metre rule are used to measure lengths to a
precision of 0.1 cm.
•...
1.5 How do we measure length?

• Correct way to read the scale on a ruler
• Position eye perpendicularly at the mark on th...
1.5 How do we measure length?
Zero Error
• Many instruments do not read exactly zero when nothing is being
measured
• Happ...
1.5 How do we measure length?
• The table below shows the range and precision of some measuring
instruments

Instrument

R...
1.5 How do we measure length?
Vernier Caliper
• allows measurements up to 0.01 cm
• Consists of a 9 mm long scale divided ...
1.5 How do we measure length?
Vernier Caliper
• The object being measured is between 2.4 cm and 2.5 cm long.
• The second ...
1.5 How do we measure length?
Vernier Caliper
•Here the eighth marking on the vernier scale coincides with the marking at
...
1.5 How do we measure length?
Using the Vernier Caliper
1.5 How do we measure length?
Micrometer Screw Gauge
• Used to measure diameter of fine wires, thickness of paper and smal...
1.5 How do we measure length?
Micrometer Screw Gauge

• Two scales: main scale and circular scale
• One complete turn move...
1.5 How do we measure length?
Using the micrometer
1.5 How do we measure length?
Precautions when Using a Micrometer
1. Never tighten thimble too much

– Modern micrometers ...
1.6 How do we measure time?
Time
• Measured in years, months, days, hours, minutes and seconds
• The SI unit for time is t...
1.6 How do we measure time?
Stopwatch

• Measure short intervals of time
• Two types: digital stopwatch, analogue stopwatc...
1.6 How do we measure time?
Errors Occur in Measuring Time

• If a digital stopwatch is used to time a race, should not
re...
1.6 How do we measure time?
Ticker-tape Timer

• An electrical device making use of the oscillations of a
steel strip to m...
1.6 How do we measure time?
Ticker-tape Timer

• Time interval between two consecutive dots is 0.02 s.
• If there are 10 s...
1.6 How do we measure time?
Period of a pendulum

• The oscillation of a simple pendulum is an example of a
regularly repe...
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Measuring length and time

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Transcript of "Measuring length and time"

  1. 1. 1.5 How do we measure length? • The metre rule and half-metre rule are used to measure lengths to a precision of 0.1 cm. • A vernier caliper is used to measure lengths to a precision of 0.01 cm. • A micrometer is used to measure length to a precision of 0.01 mm.
  2. 2. 1.5 How do we measure length? • Correct way to read the scale on a ruler • Position eye perpendicularly at the mark on the scale to avoids parallax errors • Another reason for error: object not align or arranged parallel to the scale
  3. 3. 1.5 How do we measure length? Zero Error • Many instruments do not read exactly zero when nothing is being measured • Happen because they are out of adjustment or some minor fault in the instrument • Add or subtract the zero error from the reading shown on the scale to obtain accurate readings
  4. 4. 1.5 How do we measure length? • The table below shows the range and precision of some measuring instruments Instrument Range of measurement Accuracy Measuring tape 0−5 m 0.1 cm Metre rule 0−1m 0.1 cm Vernier caliper 0 − 15 cm 0.01 cm Micrometer screw gauge 0 − 2.5 cm 0.01 mm
  5. 5. 1.5 How do we measure length? Vernier Caliper • allows measurements up to 0.01 cm • Consists of a 9 mm long scale divided into 10 divisions
  6. 6. 1.5 How do we measure length? Vernier Caliper • The object being measured is between 2.4 cm and 2.5 cm long. • The second decimal number is the marking on the vernier scale which coincides with a marking on the main scale
  7. 7. 1.5 How do we measure length? Vernier Caliper •Here the eighth marking on the vernier scale coincides with the marking at C on the main scale •Therefore the distance AB is 0.08 cm, i.e. the length of the object is 2.48 cm
  8. 8. 1.5 How do we measure length? Using the Vernier Caliper
  9. 9. 1.5 How do we measure length? Micrometer Screw Gauge • Used to measure diameter of fine wires, thickness of paper and small lengths • The micrometer has two scales: – Main scale on the sleeve – Circular scale on the thimble • There are 50 divisions on the thimble. • One complete turn of the thimble moves the spindle by 0.50 mm.
  10. 10. 1.5 How do we measure length? Micrometer Screw Gauge • Two scales: main scale and circular scale • One complete turn moves the spindle by 0.50 mm. • Each division on the circular scale = 0.01 mm
  11. 11. 1.5 How do we measure length? Using the micrometer
  12. 12. 1.5 How do we measure length? Precautions when Using a Micrometer 1. Never tighten thimble too much – Modern micrometers have a ratchet to avoid this 2. Clean the ends of the anvil and spindle before making a measurement – Any dirt on either of surfaces could affect the reading 3. Check for zero error by closing the micrometer when there is nothing between the anvil and spindle – The reading should be zero, but it is common to find a small zero error – Correct zero error by adjusting the final measurement
  13. 13. 1.6 How do we measure time? Time • Measured in years, months, days, hours, minutes and seconds • The SI unit for time is the second (s).
  14. 14. 1.6 How do we measure time? Stopwatch • Measure short intervals of time • Two types: digital stopwatch, analogue stopwatch • Digital stopwatch more accurate as it can measure time in intervals of 0.01 seconds. • Analogue stopwatch measures time in intervals of 0.1 s.
  15. 15. 1.6 How do we measure time? Errors Occur in Measuring Time • If a digital stopwatch is used to time a race, should not record time to the nearest 0.01 s. • This is because the reaction time in starting and stopping the watch will be more than a few hundredths of a second. • Here an analogue stopwatch would be just as useful.
  16. 16. 1.6 How do we measure time? Ticker-tape Timer • An electrical device making use of the oscillations of a steel strip to mark short intervals of time • Steel strip vibrates 50 times a second and makes 50 dots a second on a paper tape being pulled past it
  17. 17. 1.6 How do we measure time? Ticker-tape Timer • Time interval between two consecutive dots is 0.02 s. • If there are 10 spaces on a pieces of tape, time taken is 10 × 0.02 s = 0.20 s • Counting of the dots starts from zero. • A 10–dot tape is shown below.
  18. 18. 1.6 How do we measure time? Period of a pendulum • The oscillation of a simple pendulum is an example of a regularly repeating motion. • The time for 1 complete oscillation is referred to as the period of the oscillation.
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