Ppt middle age

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Ppt middle age

  1. 1. Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle Ages Stages of Development of Western Europe During Middle Ages
  2. 2. What were the Middle Ages?What were the Middle Ages? Middle Ages = Term for western Europe during the Postclassical Era (A.P. World History’s 3rd time period) Middle Ages = Term for western Europe during the Postclassical Era (A.P. World History’s 3rd time period) If you see the term “the West” = western Europe (later includes America) If you see the term “the West” = western Europe (later includes America) The Middle Ages are also called the Dark Ages The Middle Ages are also called the Dark Ages Middle Ages began with the fall of Rome (476) and ended in the 1400s Middle Ages began with the fall of Rome (476) and ended in the 1400s
  3. 3. The Early Middle Ages (450-900)The Early Middle Ages (450-900) First part of Middle Ages = western Europe had many problems and considered backwards Eventually, western Europe would recover and advance rapidly, but that wasn’t until the later part of the Middle Ages (after 900 C.E.) Italy was struggling after the fall of Rome and Spain was ruled by Muslims
  4. 4. Early Middle Ages = Western Europe Weak Western Europe often invaded, making it hard to advance Western Europe often invaded, making it hard to advance Vikings = Scandinavian raiders, invaded Europe between 700s and 1000s Vikings = Scandinavian raiders, invaded Europe between 700s and 1000s
  5. 5. Literacy Low In Early Middle Ages For the most part, only the clergy and people in monasteries were literate, and they helped to preserve classic learning
  6. 6. Manor System
  7. 7. Manor System Manorialism = economic and political system b/t landlords and their peasants Manor System (Feudalism) increased due to a lack of trade during early part of the Middle Ages
  8. 8. A Serf’s LifeA Serf’s Life Serfs = most peasants, who were farmers, lived on self- sufficient estates called manors, got protection from lord (noble) in return for part of their good Serfs = most peasants, who were farmers, lived on self- sufficient estates called manors, got protection from lord (noble) in return for part of their good Moldboard Plow = new plow that could get through heavy soil Serf life was difficult: agricultural technology low and production low (had to spend many days repairing caste or working on lord’s land) Serf life was difficult: agricultural technology low and production low (had to spend many days repairing caste or working on lord’s land) Not slaves (couldn’t be bought and sold) owned land as long as obligations met Not slaves (couldn’t be bought and sold) owned land as long as obligations metThree-Field System = crop rotation leaving less land unused Though limited, some new technology did help
  9. 9. The Church After the fall of Rome, the church was the only strong form of organization (governments weak) Pope sponsored missions (converted England, Germany, parts of eastern Europe) to Christianity
  10. 10. Clovis German warrior who converted to Christianity in 496 and got control over the Franks (German tribe living where France is today)
  11. 11. The Role of Monasteries Many monasteries built during the Middle Ages, and they played a big role in medieval society Many monasteries built during the Middle Ages, and they played a big role in medieval society Monasteries showed the spiritual focus of medieval society and promoted education and literacy Monasteries showed the spiritual focus of medieval society and promoted education and literacy
  12. 12. Charles “The Hammer” Martel Ruler of the Franks (he was from the Carolingian family) Ruler of the Franks (he was from the Carolingian family) Defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours (732) stopping Muslim advance into western Europe Defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours (732) stopping Muslim advance into western Europe
  13. 13. Charlemagne Later Carolingian ruler who established empire in France and Germany around 800, called Holy Roman Empire Looked like glory of Rome would be revived, but never occurred
  14. 14. Charlemagne Western Europe became series of regional monarchies with weak kings (aristocracy powerful) After Charlemagne’s death in 814, empire split into 3 sections (France, Germany, Low Countries) so each of his sons could have one Most powerful of these regional monarchies in Germany and northern Italy
  15. 15. Europe Divided Culturally western Europe was united through Catholicism, but politically it was very divided No single language in western Europe (Latin was language of church, but spoken language was French, English, etc)
  16. 16. Things Turn Around Year 900 Agricultural Innovations such as the moldboard plow, three- field system, horse collar, and stirrups Viking raids began stopping in the 900s This led to population growth, which led to economic innovation and the growth of cities and towns Agricultural Innovations such as the moldboard plow, three- field system, horse collar, and stirrups Viking raids began stopping in the 900s This led to population growth, which led to economic innovation and the growth of cities and towns
  17. 17. Economic Growth More people meant more markets, trade grew Harsh serfdom still existed, but serfs gaining more freedom Feudal system weakened as towns grew (demand for peasant labor increased and landlords needed to entice them by giving them more freedom (now charged rent) A commercial, market-based economy began to exist in western Europe
  18. 18. Growth of Towns and Cities Towns and cities grew rapidly especially in Italy Asia still had more in cities than western Europe, but they were growing in western Europe Literacy spread in urban centers, as did use of vernacular (spoken) languages, like French and English Merchant activity and craft production grew
  19. 19. Universities Grow Church based schools formed in 800s By 1000s, first universities created – they trained middle class in the cities in theology, medicine, and law By 1100s, modern universities emerge throughout western Europe (such as Oxford and Cambridge in England)
  20. 20. Getting Back to the Feudal System  Began by 500s  Originally very local (lords had 5-10 vassals) but could span over large areas or kingdoms (such as Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire)  Feudalism hurt development of strong monarchies (feudal lords had power) but it reduced local warfare  Kings used feudalism to build power (France started as feudal lords near Paris who gradually expanded and built monarchy)
  21. 21. William the Conqueror Set up a central monarchy with a bureaucracy to help rule Set up a central monarchy with a bureaucracy to help rule Led the Norman (from Normandy, France) invasion of England in 1066, extending feudal system to England Led the Norman (from Normandy, France) invasion of England in 1066, extending feudal system to England
  22. 22. Feudal Monarchies Growth of feudal monarchies similar to China – both extensive bureaucracies To extend power, feudal monarchies hired professional armies, and hired businessmen to run bureaucracies
  23. 23. Limited Government Strong monarchies didn’t develop across Europe, as regional states and feudal lords still had much power Ex: Magna Carta and King John (1215) – forced to give up power (couldn’t add new taxes w/out parliament’s ok Parliament = legislative body representing 3 privileged estates (church, nobles, urban leaders) not commoners
  24. 24. Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) War fought between France and England War fought between France and England Led to decline of feudal system (monarchs) saw that feudal militaries (which did most of fighting) weren’t too effective, and a paid was army better Led to decline of feudal system (monarchs) saw that feudal militaries (which did most of fighting) weren’t too effective, and a paid was army better Since noble’s military power no longer needed, feudal system began fading away Since noble’s military power no longer needed, feudal system began fading away
  25. 25. Western Europeans Crave Expansion
  26. 26. The CrusadesThe Crusades The Crusades were the biggest expansionist movement The Crusades were the biggest expansionist movement Urban II – Pope who ordered 1st Crusade Urban II – Pope who ordered 1st Crusade Lasting impact of Crusades was West being exposed to Middle Eastern culture Lasting impact of Crusades was West being exposed to Middle Eastern culture
  27. 27. Religious Reform Church officials often caught up in politics, hurting church Investiture – practice of government appointing bishops, Gregory VII fought Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV on this issue and won Reform movements began to remove this secularism from the church and rid church of interference of feudal lords Began Western idea of separation of church and state Gregory VII – Pope (1073-1085) reformed church
  28. 28. Height of Medieval CivilizationHeight of Medieval Civilization Medieval Western civilization reached its peak in the 1100s and the 1200s Merchant activity was growing and the feudal system was slowly dying out

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