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Indian economy

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population growth in India is covered under this topic.

population growth in India is covered under this topic.


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  • 1. PREPARED BY: HSK
  • 2. POPULATION GROWTH IN INDIA 2HSK
  • 3. INTRODUCTION: • India comes next only to China as regards the size of its population but is seventh in this world as regards the size of its area. • Thus, on 2.4 percent of world's area with 1.8 percent of world income, India is maintaining 18 percent of world's population. • It clearly indicates that there is excessive burden of population in India. 3HSK
  • 4. 4HSK
  • 5. Size and Growth of lndia’s population: India's population increased rapidly in the post-independence period.  Between 1951-61, it increased by more than 7.82 crore which exceeded its growth rate of the previous 40 years.  Between 1971-81, growth rate of population was 24.8 percent.  Between 1981-91 it was 23.8 percent.  The population was estimated to be 84 crore 63 lakh in the year 1991 and 102.90 crore in 2001.  In the year 2011, size of population was 121.02 crore.  Every year there is an addition of about 1 crore 80 lakhs persons in our country population. 5HSK
  • 6. Size and growth of India’s population till 2011 are indicated in the following table: Growth of population of India Year Population (crore) Increase in Population (crore) 1891 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 23.87 25.13 27.90 31.87 36.11 43.92 54.82 68.33 84.63 102.90 121.02 ----- 1.26 2.77 3.97 4.24 7.81 10.90 13.51 16.30 18.27 18.12 6HSK
  • 7. 7HSK
  • 8. Classification of Growth of Population: Period of stable population(1891-1921) Period of growth of population(1921-1951) Period of population explosion(1951-1981) Period of high growth but with signs of slowing down 8HSK
  • 9. Birth Rate And Death Rate: Birth rate refers to number of children born per thousand persons in a year. Death rate refers to number of people dying per thousand persons in a year. when it is said that birth rate in India is 22 it means every year 22 children are born per thousand persons, on the average. 9HSK
  • 10. Birth rate and death rate situation in India for the last 108 years is shown in Table : Period Birth rate (per 1,000 per Year) Death rate (per 1,000 per Year) Growth Rate (Of Decade) 1901-1910 1921-1930 1951-1960 1961-1970 1971-1980 1981-1990 1991-2001 2009 49.2 46.4 41.7 37.9 36.0 32.5 25.0 22.5 42.6 36.3 22.8 19.0 15.0 11.4 8.1 7.3 6.6 10.1 18.9 18.9 21.O 21.1 16.9 15.2 10HSK
  • 11. 11HSK
  • 12. Rural-Urban Population : India is an agricultural country, so ratio of urban population is less than rural population. Ratio of urban-rural population in different census years is shown in the following Table: Year Ratio of Rural Population (%) Ratio of Urban Population (%) 1901 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 89.2 82.7 82.0 80.1 76.7 74.3 72.2 10.8 17.3 18.0 19.9 23.3 25.7 27.8 12HSK
  • 13. 13HSK
  • 14. Two main causes of rise in urban population in India are :  Migration Effect: Rural life in India suffers from many difficulties, such as, less opportunities of employment, low level of income, lack of educational and training facilities, lack of health and medical facilities, etc. In order to get rid of these difficulties rural-people migrate to urban areas.  Attraction Effect: Urban living has its own attraction, such as educational, medical and health facilities, job opportunities, development of railways, recreation centres, restaurants and park, etc. Rural people are very much tempted by these allurements and decide to settle in towns and cities. According to a report by National Sample Survey, main cause of rural-male to migrate to urban areas is employment and rural-female is wedding ties. 14HSK
  • 15. Age Structure/Composition : Age structure of the population of a country indicates the extent to which the population of that country is useful from the economic point of view.  Population in the age group of 15-60 years is known as working population.  Population in the age group of 0-14 years and above 60 years is known as non-working/dependent population. Higher proportion of working population is beneficial for the economic development of the nation. 15HSK
  • 16. Further information with regard to age structure is given in table : Year Age-group: 0-14 years (%) Age-group: 15-60 years (%) Age-group: Above 60 years (%) 1911 1951 1981 1991 2001 2006 2016(target) 38.8 37.4 39.5 36.5 35.3 32.3 25.1 60.2 57.1 54.0 57.1 57.0 58.7 64.8 1.0 5.5 6.5 6.4 7.7 9.0 10.1 16HSK
  • 17. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Age-group: 0-14 years (%) Age-group: 15-60 years (%) Age-group: Above 60 years (%) 17HSK
  • 18. Expectation of Life/Life Expectancy: Expectation of life refers to the average life of the people of a country. In India expectation of life of the people is very short. Average life expectancy is shown in Table: Year Expectation of Life (in years) Year Expectation of Life (in years) 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 19.4 26.9 32.0 33.0 41.0 1971 1981 1991 2001 2010 52.0 54.0 59.0 64.0 64.4 18HSK
  • 19. 19HSK
  • 20. Sex Ratio : In fact, in most of the nations of the world, males out number the females. Sex ratio in the world is 984 females to 1,000 males. According to 2011 Census, sex ratio in India was 940 females to 1,000 males. It has changed from census to census as shown in Table. Year No. of Women per 1,000 men Year No. of Women per 1,000 men 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 972 964 955 950 945 946 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 941 930 934 927 933 940 20HSK
  • 21. 21HSK
  • 22. Literacy: Any person above the age of 7 years, who can read and write in any language is treated as literate.  According to the census of 2011, the rate of literacy in India is 74.04 per cent. — Males rate of literacy is 82.l4 percent. — Females rate of literacy is 65.46 percent. State Literacy rate (%) (female) State Literacy rate (%) (female) Kerala Rajasthan Punjab 92 52.7 71.3 Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand 66.8 76.6 56.2 22HSK
  • 23. 23HSK
  • 24. Occupational Structure of Population : Economists divide all occupations into three sectors:  Primary Sector: It includes such economic activities as are related to agriculture, animal husbandry forestry, fisheries, etc.  Secondary Sector: It includes manufacturing industries, village and small-scale industry, etc.  Tertiary Sector: It includes trade, transport, communication, banking, insurance, etc. 24HSK
  • 25. Changes in the occupational distribution of population in India are shown in table : Occupation 1901 1971 1991 2000 2004- 2005 2006- 2007 Primary Sector Secondary Sector Tertiary Sector 71.7 12.6 15.7 72.1 11.2 16.7 67.4 12.1 20.5 57.4 16.8 25.8 52 19.5 28.5 50.2 20.4 29.4 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 25HSK
  • 26. 26HSK
  • 27. Following inferences can be drawn regarding occupational distribution of population in India: Agriculture is Main occupation Less Development of industries Indian economy is highly unbalanced Less income Small villages Backward agriculture Increase in the proportion of agricultural labourers No special change in occupational distribution Less development of tertiary activities 27HSK
  • 28. Suggestions regarding occupational structure:  With regard to occupational structure of India, the policy of the government has been to develop rapidly small and cottage industries, transport, banking, trade, etc.  Prof. Wadia and Merchant have suggested that small and medium sized industries should be developed in the country.  Dr. Rangnekar have suggested that the lobourers instead of rushing to manufacturing industries should join service sector i.e. transport, petrol pump, hotel, etc.  India should lay more stress on the development of labour intensive technology to effect change in occupational structure for the good of the economy. 28HSK
  • 29. Projected Population Statistics Items 2011 2016 2021 2026 (1) Population (crore) (2) Population Growth Rate (%, p.a.) (3) Birth Rate (Per 1000, Per Year) (4) Death Rate (Per 1000, Per Year) (5) Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (6) Life Expectancy (Years) Male Female 121.02 (Actual) 1.3 (Actual) 21,9 7.3 2.5 65.8 68.1 120.9 1.2 19.6 7.2 2.3 67.3 69.6 134 1.1 18 7.1 2.2 68.8 71.1 140 0.9 18 7.1 2.0 69.8 72.3 29HSK
  • 30. THANK YOU 30HSK