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dk;ZLFky ij
;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk
(izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk)

fiz;k u:yk
dSFkjhu LyxsV

áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ
2010
,pvkj,y,u ds mís';

�	yHkwr ekuokf/dkjksa dh lqj{kk] oafpr leqnk;ksa dh
ew
�	lh lnk'k; U;k; iz.kkyh fodflr djus esa ;ksxnk...
Jherh ¼U;k;kèkh'k½ lqtkrk euksgj
iwoZ U;k;kèkh'k] loksZPp U;k;ky;

lnL;
lnL;

jk"Vªh; ekuokfèkdkj vk;ksx
^^dk;ZLFky ij ;kS...
b

izkDdFku

l ckr dh dkQh laHkkouk jgrh gS fd ;kSu mRihM+u dh f'kdk;rdrkZ vU; izdkj dh izrkM+uk] vdsykiu]
Xykfu dh Hkh f'...
Hkkxhnkjh djus okys laxBu	
ifjp;	
D;k gS ;g izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk	
QSflfyVsVlZ ds fy, /;ku nsus ;ksX; ckrsa	

9
11
15
17

fok;...
fok;lwph

Hkze vkSj ;FkkFkZ 	
vius ewY;ksa vkSj eukso`fÙk;ksa dk vUosk.k djuk	
dsl LVMh1	
dsl LVMh2	
dsl LVMh3	
loksZPp U;...
Hkkxhnkjh djus okys laxBu
áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ ¼,pvkj,y,u½
;g 1988 dh ckr gS tc eqacbZ esa dqN odhyksa vkSj lkekftd dk;d...
lg;ksx djrk jgk gSA

vkea=.k
,pvkj,y,u vkSj vfèkdkj 2001 ls feydj reke laLFkkuksa ds chp dke dj jgs gSa rkfd os dk;ZLFky i...
ifjp;
D;k gS ;kSu mRihM+u
lfn;ksa ls ;kSu mRihM+u dh ?kVuk,a vyxvyx rjg ls gksrh jgh gSaA lkekU; ax ls bls bl rjg dgk tk l...
n	ckgj

feyus ds fy, ncko cukuk
n	lsDl LohÑfr ds fy, ncko cukuk
n	dkeqd ;k xSjfe=rkiw.kZ fVIi.kh djuk
n	tsaMj dks vkèkkj c...
O;oLFkk dks ykxw djsaA vc lHkh {ks=ksa elyu laxfBr] vlaxfBr] ljdkjh] futh vkSj 'kS{kf.kd vkfn esa fu;ksDrk ds
fy, t:jh gks...
n	lHkh

{ks=ksa elyu laxfBr] vlaxfBr] lkoZtfud] futh vkSj f'k{kk ds lkFklkFk nwljs xSjljdkjh laxBuksa] dkuwu
ykxw djus oky...
D;k gS ;g izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk
izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk ds mn~ns';
bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk dks bl rjg rS;kj fd;k x;k gS fd QSflfyVsVlZ ...
dkMZ@ekeys dk vè;;u ¼vxj dksbZ gks rks½ pkfg,A izfrHkkfx;ksa dh fofoèkrk dks è;ku esa j[kdj rf[r;ka@baMsDl
dkMZ@ekeys dk v...
QSflfyVsVlZ ds fy, /;ku nsus ;ksX; ckrsa
;kSu mRihM+u dks ysdj foe'kZ
dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u tSls fok; ij viuh lkekftd] ...
4- lHkh yksxksa dks viuh ckr dgus dk iwjk volj nsa
n pqi jgus okys izfrHkkfx;ksa ls vuqjksèk djsa fd os vius fopkj j[ksa
n...
vè;k; 1

izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe
vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe

vH;kl
Lokxr vkSj ifjp;
y{;
izf'k{k.k dk;ZØeksa] iQSflfyVsVlZ vkSj
izf'k{k.k LFky ls voxr djkuk v...
vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe

vH;kl
vkilh ifjp;
y{;
ny ds lnL;ksa dk ,d ,d nwljs ls
ifjp; djkuk vkSj bl dk;ZØe dks ysdj
mudh m...
vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe

vH;kl
vkilh fo'okl c+kus dk
dk;ZØe
(laoknghurk rksM+us dk oSdfYid
rjhdk bl iqfLrdk ds var esa fn...
vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe

vH;kl
lkewfgd lgefr
y{;
lewg ds lnL;ksa dks ysdj viuh mEehnksa
dks LiV djuk vkSj lnL;ksa ls dguk...
vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe

vH;kl
lkewfgd lgefr
(tkjh---)

LiVhdj.k Hkh gksrk pyrk gSA ;g jhdSi O;fDr viuh ckrksa dks ikap
f...
vè;k; 2

tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd
fyax voèkkj.kk
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl
tsaMj cuke lsDl
(lkekftd fyax cuke fyax)
y{;
lkekftd fyax dh voèkkj.kk l...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

gSaMvkmV1

baMsDl dkMZ

tsaMj (lkekftd fyax) vkSj
fyax (lsDl) dh ifjHkkkk,a

t...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl
cpiu dh ;knsa
y{;
tsaMj dh vo/kj.kk dks Bksl ax ls
leuk vkSj O;fDrxr Lrj...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl

izfØ;k

dk;ZLFky ij iq#k vkSj L=kh
dh Hkwfedk vkSj ewY;

1-	 izR;sd O;f...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk
esjs O;fDrxr thou ls

vius laxBu ds vanj

iq#k Hkkxhnkj ds fy,

efgyk Hkkxhnkj ...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

gSaMvkmV2

:f+c¼ èkkj.kk cuuk (LVhfj;ksVkbfiax)
yksxksa dks ysdj çkFkfedrk,a
:...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk
djrk gSA felky ds rkSj ij] cgqèkk ;g ekuk tkrk gS fd iq#k :f+c) èkkj.kk okys iq...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl

çfØ;k
uksV% bl vH;kl dks vkoklh; dk;Z'kkyk esa fd;k tk,] ¼nwljs vkSj rh...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl
var%dj.k esa kaduk
(tkjh---)

pkSFkk lewg % ifjppkZ ds eqís
l	;kSfudrk@v...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk
l

	D;k vki ;g ekurs gSa fd iq#kksa vkSj efgykvksa ds fy, lQyrk
leku vFkZ j[krh...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl

	vki vius vkarfjd ihM+k vkSj pksV dks dSls O;ä djrs@djrh gSa
	vki nwljs...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk
esa mls Hkh FkIiM+ jlhn djuk pkfg,

9- laj{kd
	laj{kd dk vFkZ vkids fy, D;k gS
...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl

	D;k mi;qZä ckrsa vkids lkFk Hkh ykxw gksrh gSa
	efgykvksa ij 'kkjhfjd ...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl
iq#kRo vkSj L=khRo
y{;
iq#kRo vkSj L=khRo dh voèkkj.kkvksa rFkk
bls nks ...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl
iq#kRo vkSj L=khRo
(tkjh---)

5-	 fuEu fcanqvksa dks m)`r djrs gq, l= dk...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

gSaMvkmV3
çR;sd L=kh ds fy,
uSUlh vkj- fLeFk
çR;sd ml L=kh ds fy, tks detksj y...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl
'kfDr] HksnHkko vkSj mRihM+u
y{;
'kfDr] HksnHkko esa bldh Hkwfedk vkSj
m...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk
4-	 bl fcanq ij pk; ds fy, czsd dh ;kstuk jf[k,A
5-	 pk; czsd ds nkSjku ;g è;ku...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

gSaMvkmV4

mRihM+u@viotZu dk pØ
ge buesa tUes gSa%

O;fäxr
xfrfofèk;ka
cukrh g...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

gSaMvkmV5

iwokZxzg dk çn'kZu

iwokZxzg
;g D;k gS

1-	 yf{kr lewg ds çfr ekSf[...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk
HksnHkko
vfèkdkjksa dk cjkcjh ds lkFk mi;ksx djus dh ikcanh
dks HksnHkko ds :i ...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

gSaMvkmV6
'kfDr
vke èkkj.kk ds eqrkfcd] 'kfä fdlh O;fä dks
gkfly og {kerk gksr...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

vH;kl

çfØ;k

^lkekU;* vkSj ^vyx*
dh voèkkj.kkvksa dks
ij[kuk

1-	 f¶yi pkVZ i...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

5-	

6-	

7-	

8-	

9-	

èkkj.kkvksa ds lkgp;Z esa fodflr gqvk jgrk gSA blh rj...
vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk

gSaMvkmV7

n Mk;eaM ekWMy
^lkekU;*
l

	lokZfèkd 'kfä@
lalkèku okyk lewg

	Åaph...
vè;k; 3

dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk
vè;k;3% dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk

vH;kl
;kSfudrk dh voèkkj.kk
y{;
;g leuk fd ge lcds fy,
;kSfudrk D;k ek;us j[krh gS
i¼fr
eaFk...
vè;k;3% dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk

3-	

4-	
5-	
6-	

dk;Z] drZO;] izse] Hk;] çtuu vkSj eqfäA
l	udkjkRed ;kSu vuqHko fofHkUu dkj...
vè;k;3% dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk

vH;kl

çfØ;k

'kjhj dk ekufp=k.k

1-	 bl vH;kl ds nkSjku bl ckr dk è;ku j[ksa fd dqN yksxksa...
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi
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Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi

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Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi

Published by Human Rights Law Network(HRLN), a division of Socio Legal Information Centre(SLIC). For more details about our works, visit us at http://hrln.org

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Transcript of "Sexual Harassment Training Manual in Hindi"

  1. 1. dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk (izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk) fiz;k u:yk dSFkjhu LyxsV áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ 2010
  2. 2. ,pvkj,y,u ds mís'; � yHkwr ekuokf/dkjksa dh lqj{kk] oafpr leqnk;ksa dh ew � lh lnk'k; U;k; iz.kkyh fodflr djus esa ;ksxnku ,s vko';d lalk/uksa rd igqap c<+kuk vkSj HksnHkko nwj djukA djuk tks lekt ds detksj vkSj oafpr rcdksa ds fy, lqyHk] lkFk gh tokcnsg] ikjn'khZ] pqLr&nq#Lr vkSj vke tu dh vkfFkZd igqap ds Hkhrj gksA � a ds fy, izHkkoh dkuwuh lgk;rk iz.kkyh fodflr djus esa ;ksxnku djukA xjhcks � tufgr esa #fp j[kus okys odhyksa vkSj dkuwu ls fdlh u fdlh :i esa tqMh u;h ih<+h ds yksxksa dks mfpr izf'k{k.k + nsuk rkfd lkekftd vkanksyuksa dks le>us vkSj t:jrean yksxks] leqnk;ksa dks dkuwuh lgk;rk nsus ds vykok u;h fof/d a ladYiuk,a vkSj j.kuhfr;ka fodflr djus esa n{krk gkfly gks ldsA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk* (izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk) fnlacj 2010 © lksfl;ks yhxy bUiQjes'ku lasVj** ewy vaxzsth VkbVy n dSEisu vxsaLV lsDlqvy gSjslesaV ,V n odZIysl (2002) ys[ku&laiknu fiz;k u:yk] dSFkjhu LyxsV fganh vkys[k laiknu lqjs'k ukSfV;ky laiknu lg;ksx Hkxorh izlkn MksHkky] vi.kkZ f}osnh vuqokn jathr oekZ fMtkbu egsUæ cksjk fp=kkadu fo'oT;ksfr ?kks"k izdk'ku áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ 576] efLtn jksM] taxiqjk] ubZ fnYyh&110014 iQksu% $91&11&24379855@56 bZ&esy% publications@hrln.org osclkbV% www.hrln.org lg;ksx ;wjksfi;u ;wfu;u MSu ppZ ,M eqæ.k *bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk dk ewy vaxzsth laLdj.k 2002 esa izdkf'kr gqvk FkkA dksf'k'k dh x;h gS fd gj rjg dh folaxfr;ksa vkSj viw.kZrkvksa ls cpk tk ldsA fiQj Hkh dksbZ vifjgk;Z =kqfV ;k folaxfr jg x;h gks rks ,pvkj,y,u bldh ftEesnkjh ysrk gSA **bl ladyu dk dksbZ Hkh Hkkx tufgr esa g~;weu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ dh fcuk vfxze vuqefr iajrq mi;qDr vkHkkj ds lkFk izdkf'kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
  3. 3. Jherh ¼U;k;kèkh'k½ lqtkrk euksgj iwoZ U;k;kèkh'k] loksZPp U;k;ky; lnL; lnL; jk"Vªh; ekuokfèkdkj vk;ksx ^^dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#) tkx:drk** fo"k; ij izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk fudkyus ds fy, izdk'kd dks fu'p; gh cèkkbZ nsuh pkfg,A ,d vksj ;kSu mRihM+u dh f'kdk;rsa c<+ jgh gSa] ogha nwljh vksj ;g Hkh yxrk gS fd ,slh f'kdk;rksa dh izÑfr dks le>us vkSj mudk leqfpr nks"kfuokjd mik; djus esa fu;ksDrk gj ekspsZ ij vlQy lkfcr gq, gSaA lkQrkSj ij bl ckr dh t:jr gS fd ;kSu mRihM+u vkSj mldh otg ls ihfM+rk ij iM+us okys cqjs izHkko dks ysdj fu;ksDrk vkSj deZpkfj;ksa dks laosnu'khy cuk;k tk,A loksZPp U;k;ky; us ;|fi ;g Li"V dj fn;k gS fd dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dk eryc D;k gksrk gS vkSj lkFk gh ;kSu mRihM+u dh jksdFkke vkSj fdlh ds nks"kh ik;s tkus ij ltk dks ysdj Hkh Li"V fn'kkfunsZ'k ns fn;s gSa ysfdu ;s fn'kkfunsZ'k 'kk;n gh dHkh ykxw fd;s tkrs gSaA cgqr FkksM+s gh ,sls fu;ksDrk gSa tks ,sls ekeyksa dks ftruh xaHkhjrk ls ysuk pkfg, mruh xaHkhjrk ls ysrs gSaA vuq'kklukRed dkjZokbZ pykus ds fy, tc ,sls ekeyksa dks f'kdk;r desVh ds lqiqnZ fd;k tkrk gS] rc os u rks bl nqO;Zogkj dh izo`fr dks vkSj u bldh xaHkhjrk dks gh <ax ls le> ikrh gSA eSa mEehn djrh gwa fd ;g iqfLrdk t:jh laosnu'khyrk dks c<+kus esa enn djsxh rkfd dk;ZLFky ij efgyk dks leku volj fey ikus esa tks cM+h ckèkk gS] mls nwj fd;k tk ldsA ,sls le; esa tc ge yksx efgykvksa ds l'kDrhdj.k ds fy, dke dj jgs gSa] ;g t:jh gks x;k gS fd izkFkfedrk ls bl ckèkk dks nwj fd;k tk,A eSa vk'kk djrh gwa fd ;g izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk ;kSu mRihM+u dh voèkkj.kk dks mfpr <ax ls le>us vkSj ,sls ekeyksa dks fuiVkus esa ;kSu mRihM+u f'kdk;r lfefr ds lnL;ksa dks l{ke cukus esa enn djsxhA lqtkrk euksgj twu 2002
  4. 4. b izkDdFku l ckr dh dkQh laHkkouk jgrh gS fd ;kSu mRihM+u dh f'kdk;rdrkZ vU; izdkj dh izrkM+uk] vdsykiu] Xykfu dh Hkh f'kdkj gks tk,A lkFk gh] dk;ZLFky] lekt vkSj ifjokj esa mlds dke ij cqjk izHkko iM+sA loksZPp U;k;ky; Hkh bl ckr dh t:jr ij cy nsrk gS fd lHkh dk;ZLFkyksa ij ;kSu mRihM+u f'kdk;r lfefr vo'; xfBr dh tk, tks vkerkSj ij dke djus okyh foHkkxh; dkjZokbZ lfefr ls fHkUu gksA QSlys esa bl ckr dks Hkh vko';d ekuk x;k gS fd f'kdk;r lfefr esa rhljs i{k dks Hkh t:j j[kk tk, tks ;k rks dksbZ xSjljdkjh laxBu gks ;k dksbZ ,slk O;fDr tks tsaMj vkSj lSDlqvfyVh vFkkZr~ lkekftd fyax vkSj ;kSfudrk eqn~nksa dh le j[krk gks vkSj lkFk gh ;g Hkh tkurk gks fd ;kSu mRihM+u ds ekeyksa ls dSls fuiVk tkrk gSA fofHkUu dk;ZLFkyksa ij izf'k{k.k nsrs gq, ge yksxksa us eglwl fd;k fd ,d izdkj dh izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk rS;kj djus dh t:jr gSA tsaMj vkSj lsDlqvfyVh dks ysdj dbZ izdkj ds laosnu'khy eqn~ns mHkjs ftlls twuk t:jh Fkk rkfd dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dh leL;k ls izHkkoh ax ls fuiVk tk ldsA Hkkxhnkjksa dh eukso`fr] iwokZxzgksa vkSj ewY;ksa dks cnyus ds fy, u;s iz;ksx djus gksaxs vkSj leL;kxzLr èkkj.kkvksa dks Hk;jfgr rjhds ls pqukSrh nsuh gksxhA izf'k{k.k dk;ZØeksa dk ,d t:jh fgLlk ;g gS fd vkilh lenkjh fodflr dh tk,A [ksy vkSj mRlkgoèkZu bl dke ds fy, csgn mi;ksxh gSaA dbZ izdkj dh otZuk,a bl rjg VwVrh gSaA vU; izdkj ds rjhds tSls fd lkewfgd ckrphr] vuqdj.k djuk] ekeys dk vè;;u] vfHku; djuk vkSj dqN ukeksa dks mtkxj djus ls Hkh lqfoèkktud fLFkfr rS;kj gksrh gS ftlls Hkkxhnkjksa dks ekeyksa dh oLrqijd ax ls tkap djus esa enn feyrh gSA ;g izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk ;kSu mRihM+u ds fofHkUu vk;keksa dks tkapus esa enn djrh gS vkSj og mik; is'k djrh gS ftlls ;g leus esa enn feyrh gS fd ;kSu mRihM+u fdls dgrs gSa] blds D;k ifj.kke gksrs gSaA vxj vki f'kdk;r lfefr esa gSa rks ;g iqfLrdk blesa Hkh enn djrh gS fd ;kSu mRihM+u ds ekeyksa ls dSls fuiVk tk,A ge ;g nkok ugha djrs gSa fd geus ;kSu mRihM+u ls tqM+s lkjs varjjkVªh; dkuwuksa dk vè;;u dj fy;k gS ysfdu fo'o ds nwljs fgLlksa esa ;kSu mRihM+u ls tqM+s tks fofHkUu fl)kar izpfyr gSa muesa ls dqN dks fpfUgr djus dh dksf'k'k dh gSA fM;ksu ep] uferk 'kekZ] jfo xsjk vkSj lerk jk; dh ge vkHkkjh gSa ftUgksaus bl iqfLrdk dks rS;kj djus esa viuk egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku fn;k vkSj bldks ysdj oSpkfjd le iSnk djus esa gekjh lgk;rk dhA ;kSu mRihM+u ds eqn~ns dks izeq[krk ls cgl ds dsanz esa ykus ds fy, *vfèkdkj* laxBu baMksdukMk dksvkWijs'ku vkxsZtkbus'ku dks vo'; gh èkU;okn nsuk pkgrk gSA ;kSu mRihM+u dh viuh uhfr dks gekjs lkFk lkk djus ds fy, ge ,sD'ku,M dk Hkh èkU;okn djuk pkgsaxhA fo'kskK lg;ksx nsus vkSj ijh{k.k vH;kl esa 'kkfey gksus ds fy, ge va'kq flUgk] xhrkatfy xks;y] eksfudk jk; vkSj fjfRod nÙkk dks èkU;okn nsrh gSaA ekSds ij lgk;rk iznku djus ds fy, ge bafM;k lsaVj QkWj áweu jkbV~l ,aM ykW eqacbZ dh uhrk jseaM vkSj js.kqdk eqdne dh Hkh vkHkkjh gSaA mRlkgoèkZu djus ds fy, ge fo'ksk :i ls vkuafnrk dq'kokgk vkSj dkWfyu xksUlkfYol ds izfr vkHkkj izdV djuk pkgrh gSaA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds f[kykQ bl tkx:drk vfHk;ku esa lg;ksx djus ds fy, eSdvkFkZj QkmUMs'ku vkSj ,pvkbohvks,l dks Hkh èkU;okn nsuk pkgrh gSaA vc bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk dks fganh esa izdkf'kr djus ds fy, Mhlh,;wjksfi;u ;wfu;u dk vkHkkj izdV djrh gSaA fiz;k u:yk áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ dSFkjhu LyxsV vfèkdkj
  5. 5. Hkkxhnkjh djus okys laxBu ifjp; D;k gS ;g izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk QSflfyVsVlZ ds fy, /;ku nsus ;ksX; ckrsa 9 11 15 17 fok;lwph vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe Lokxr vkSj ifjp; vkilh ifjp; vkilh fo'okl c+kus dk dk;ZØe lkewfgd lgefr 20 21 22 23 vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax voèkkj.kk tsaMj cuke lsDl ¼lkekftd fyax cuke fyax½ gSaMvkmV1% tsaMj vkSj fyax dh ifjHkkkk,a cpiu dh ;knsa dk;ZLFky ij iq#k vkSj L=h dh Hkwfedk vkSj ewY; gSaMvkmV2% #f+c) ¼LVhfj;ksVkbfiax½ /kkj.kk cuuk var%dj.k esa kaduk iq#kRo vkSj L=hRo gSaMvkmV3% izR;sd L=h ds fy, 'kfDr] HksnHkko vkSj mRihM+u gSaMvkmV4% mRihM+u@viotZu dk pØ gSaMvkmV5% iwokZxzg gSaMvkmV6% 'kfDr ^lkekU;* vkSj ^vyx* dh voèkkj.kkvksa dks ij[kuk gSaMvkmV7% n Mk;eaM ekWMy 26 27 28 29 31 33 39 41 42 44 45 47 48 50 vè;k;3% dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk ;kSfudrk dh voèkkj.kk 'kjhj dk ekufp=.k dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu vfHkO;fDr futh lhek,a gSaMvkmV8% lqdwunsg {ks= vfrdYiuk vkSj vfrdYiuk fu;a=.k gSaMvkmV9% fl)kFkZ vkSj iwtk ;kSu ifjlhek mYya?ku gSaMvkmV10% ;kSu ifjlhek mYya?ku dk;ZLFky ij tc lgefriw.kZ lacaèk fodflr gks gSaMvkmV11% dk;ZLFky ij izse 52 54 55 57 59 60 62 65 67 68 70 vè;k;4% dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u D;k gS ;kSu mRihM+u ;kSu mRihM+u ds izHkko dks leuk lokZsPp U;k;ky; dh xkbMykbu gSaMvkmV12% ;kSu mRihM+u dh ifjHkkkk 76 77 79 80
  6. 6. fok;lwph Hkze vkSj ;FkkFkZ vius ewY;ksa vkSj eukso`fÙk;ksa dk vUosk.k djuk dsl LVMh1 dsl LVMh2 dsl LVMh3 loksZPp U;k;ky; ds fn'kkfunsZ'k ds vuqlkj ;kSu mRihM+u ds ekeyksa ls fuiVuk dsl LVMh1 ls 3 dsl LVMh4 ls 7 dsl LVMh8 ls 10 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 vè;k;5% ;kSu mRihM+u % uhfr;ka vkSj lfefr;ka ;kSu mRihM+u lfefr esa dke djus ds fy, mi;qDr dkS'ky vkSj midj.k fodflr djuk D;k gSa ekuokfèkdkj HksnHkko vkSj vfèkdkj ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#) uhfr;ka dSls fodflr djsa ;kSu mRihM+u dk izHkko f'kdk;r izfØ;k dh dkjZokbZ dsl LVMh12 dsl LVMh3 ls 8 dsl LVMh910 ijke'kZ ijke'kZ dsl LVMh gSaMvkmV13% ijke'kZ dh ifjHkkkk xksiuh;rk uhfr dk vuqikyu dsl LVMh% ;kSu mRihM+u dh f'kdk;r 94 95 96 97 100 101 102 103 104 105 107 108 110 111 113 vè;k;6% ewY;kadu vkSj lekiu ewY;kadu ldkjkRed fVIi.kh lekiu 'kfDr lapkjd% ckWy xse ÝwV lykn fti tSi cksbax ewfoax ckWy dwy Mkmu 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 vuqyXud vuqyXud1% vuqyXud2% vuqyXud3% vuqyXud4% vuqyXud5% vuqyXud6% laxBuksa ,oa lalk/ku dsUæksa dh funsZf'kdk izf'k{k.kiwoZ vkdyu iz'ukoyh izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk esa vH;kl ds izdkj loksZPp U;k;ky; ds fn'kkfunsZ'k ;kSu mRihM+u f'kdk;r lfefr D;k djs vkSj D;k u djs ,D'ku,M bafM;k dh ;kSu mRihM+u uhfr 124 127 129 131 137 139
  7. 7. Hkkxhnkjh djus okys laxBu áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ ¼,pvkj,y,u½ ;g 1988 dh ckr gS tc eqacbZ esa dqN odhyksa vkSj lkekftd dk;drkZvksa dk ,d NksVk lk lewg bdB~Bk gqvk vkSj ekuokfèkdkjksa dh j{kk ds fy, dkuwu dks dop dh rjg iz;ksx djus ds fy, [kqn dks lefiZr dj fn;kA rcls ;g NksVk lk lewg fodflr gksdj izHkkoh ekuokfèkdkj vkSj dkuwu laxBu cu x;k gSA vc rd mPp U;k;ky;ksa vkSj loksZPp U;k;ky; esa tufgr ;kfpdk nk;j dj lQyrkiwoZd dqN csgrj dke fd;s x, gSa ysfdu fupyh vnkyrksa esa dkuwuh lgk;rk fn;s tkus ij vkt Hkh T;knk tksj jgrk gSA xjhc O;fDr dks dHkh Hkh mYVs eqag ugha ykSVk;k x;k gSA vkSj lS)kafrd rkSj ij iq#kksa }kjk efgykvksa ds f[kykQ vkSj ekfydksa }kjk etnwjksa ds f[kykQ fd;s tkus okys eqdneksa dks vkt Hkh gkFk esa ugha fy;k x;kA bl dke ds lkFk gh ns'k Hkj esa ,d usVodZ cukus dh dksf'k'k dh x;hA okZ 1989 esa *ekuokfèkdkj] lkekftd vkanksyu vkSj Hkkjr esa dkuwu* fok; ij jkVªh; dk;Z'kkyk vk;ksftr dh x;hA blh dk;Z'kkyk esa áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ ¼,pvkj,y,u½ dh LFkkiuk dh x;hA okZ 1993 esa vxyh jkVªh; dk;Z'kkyk esa oSdfYid vnkyr ds rkSj ij Hkkjrh; tu vnkyr ¼vkbZihVh½ dh 'kq#vkr dh x;hA vusd iwoZ U;k;kèkh'kksa us yhd ls gVdj dbZ egRoiw.kZ tkapiM+rky ds dke vkbZihVh ds rgr fd;sA okZ 1997 vkrsvkrs dkuwuh lgk;rk ls gVdj fuxjkuh] 'kks/k] vfHk;ku] izys[ku vkSj ekuokfèkdkj ij izf'k{k.k tSls u;s {ks=ksa esa Hkh dke fd;s tkus yxsA ekuokf/kdkj vkSj dkuwuh lgk;rk ds fy, bafM;k lsaVj QkWj áweu jkbV~l dh LFkkiuk dh x;h tks 'kh?kz gh ,d egRoiw.kZ dsanz ds :i esa fodflr gks x;kA bl ckr dks eglwl djrs gq, fd xjhc xzkeh.k vkSj nsgkrh yksxksa dks dkuwuh lgk;rk dh l[r t:jr gS] :jy yhxy usVodZ vkSj vkfnoklh yhxy usVodZ dh Hkh LFkkiuk dh x;hA okZ 2000 esa ipxuh esa usVodksZa dks vkil esa tksM+us dk dke gqvk] tgka *ekuokfèkdkj] lkekftd vkanksyu] HkweaMyhdj.k vkSj dkuwu* ij fopkj foe'kZ djus ds fy, 1400 odhy] U;k;kèkh'k] lkekftd dk;ZdrkZ vkSj i=dkj bR;kfn bdV~Bs gq,A ;gh og txg Fkh tgka ekuokfèkdkj dh if=dk *dkWEcSV ykW* dk chtkjksi.k gqvkA nl lky ds Hkhrj lksfl;ks yhxy bUQjes'ku lsaVj ¼,l,yvkbZlh½ ,d cM+k laxBu cu x;k vkSj ns'k Hkj ds dbZ Hkkxksa esa blds dkuwuh lgk;rk dsanz [kqy x;sA loksZPp U;k;ky; esa eqdneksa dh ns[kjs[k ds fy, fnYyh esa eq[; vkWfQl [kksy fn;k x;kA tkapiM+rky] izf'k{k.k] ekuokfèkdkj dh fuxjkuh] eqfge vkSj izys[ku dk dke ;gka fd;k tkus yxkA vc ;g pqukSrh gS fd dSls áweu jkbV~l ykW usVodZ dks vkSj etcwr fd;k tk, vkSj ns'k ds lHkh jkT;ksa esa ekuokfèkdkj vkSj dkuwuh lgk;rk ;wfuV dh LFkkiuk dh tk,A bl dsanz dh LFkkiuk bl mn~ns'; ls dh x;h Fkh fd U;k; ikus ds fy, vke vkneh U;k;ky; esa yM+ ldsA vkt Hkh blh utfj;s ds lkFk ge py jgs gSa vkSj vkxs c+ jgs gSaA vfèkdkj vfèkdkj tsaMj vf/kdkjksa ds fy, lefiZr laxBu gSA bldh LFkkiuk 1997 esa bl mn~ns'; ds lkFk Hkh gqbZ Fkh fd lekt esa lkekftd fyax lekurk dks gkfly fd;k tk ldsA ;g laxBu fnYyh esa fLFkr gSA O;fDrxr fodkl esa lgk;rk djus vkSj dk;ZLFky ij tsaMj laca/kh eqn~nksa dks mBkus vkSj izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe pykus esa bldh n{krk gSA vfèkdkj tks izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe pykrk gS og muesa ftu izlaxksa dks ysrk gS] os gSa vkRefodkl] vkxzg'khyrk] fyax ds varj dks lers gq, laosnu'khyrk] fofoèkrk vkSj HksnHkko] ,pvkbZoh@,M~l] ;kSfudrk vkSj dk;ZLFky esa ;kSu mRihM+uA fyax dks iquiZfjHkkfkr djuk gj dk;Z'kkyk ds ewy esa gksrk gSA bldh Vhe us rsy ,oa izkÑfrd xSl fuxe ¼vks,uthlh½] baQksfll ¼caxykSj½] Hkkjrh; i;ZVu fodkl fuxe] ;w,uMhih ¼Jhyadk½] lso n fpYMªsu ¼;wds½] Hkkjr gSoh bysfDVªdy fyfeVsM] ,eIyk;lZ izksfoMsaV QaM vkWxsZukbts'ku] fnYyh iqfyl vkSj vf[ky Hkkjrh; izcaèku ,lksfl,'ku bR;kfn ds fy, tsaMj laosnu'khyrk ij dk;ZØe fd;s gSaA vks,uthlh] chvkbZ,l tSlh daifu;ksa esa ;kSu mRihM+u fojksèkh uhfr;ka viukus vkSj f'kdk;r lfefr ds xBu esa vfèkdkj n9
  8. 8. lg;ksx djrk jgk gSA vkea=.k ,pvkj,y,u vkSj vfèkdkj 2001 ls feydj reke laLFkkuksa ds chp dke dj jgs gSa rkfd os dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dh leL;k dks fuiVkus esa l{ke gks ldsaA bl iqfLrdk esa 'kkfey T;knkrj vH;kl dk;Z'kkykvksa esa vktek;s tk pqds gSaA vki bl iqfLrdk dks [kqys fnekx ls ns[ksa vkSj viuh lkaLFkkfud t:jr ds fglkc ls bldk bLrseky djsaA xSjljdkjh laxBu] ;kSu mRihM+u f'kdk;r lfefr;ka] ljdkjh] futh vkSj ifCyd lsDVj ds izf'k{k.k vkSj ekuo lalkèku foHkkx@dkfeZd ny ;k vkSj Hkh dksbZ tks bl ckr dks ysdj tkx:d gaS fd dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u u gks] os lHkh bl iqfLrdk dk bLrseky dj ldrs gSaA n 10
  9. 9. ifjp; D;k gS ;kSu mRihM+u lfn;ksa ls ;kSu mRihM+u dh ?kVuk,a vyxvyx rjg ls gksrh jgh gSaA lkekU; ax ls bls bl rjg dgk tk ldrk gS fd ;g ,d ,slk vkpj.k gS] ftldh izÑfr dkeqd gksrh gS vkSj ;g lkeus okys dh bPNk ds foijhr] ml ij Fkksik gqvk vkSj ,drjQk gksrk gSA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u O;fDr dh ukSdjh] rjDdh vkSj O;fDrxr lq[k ij csgn cqjk izHkko Mkyrk gS vkSj lkFk gh dk;kZy; ds okrkoj.k dks mlds fy, Mjkouk] 'k=qrkiw.kZ vkSj viekutud cuk nsrk gSA ihfM+rk ij iM+us okys izHkko dks vkèkkj eku dj ;kSu mRihM+u dh O;k[;k dh tkrh gS] u fd ijs'kku djus okys ds bjkns ds vkèkkj ijA Hkkjr dk loksZPp U;k;ky; ;kSu mRihM+u dh O;k[;k djrs gq, dgrk gS fd ;g fdlh Hkh izdkj dk vokafNr dkeqd O;ogkj gS tks iwjh fu'p;kRedrk ds lkFk fd;k tkrk gS tSls fd% n 'kjhj Nwuk vkSj lVus dh dksf'k'k djuk ;kSfud LohÑfr dh ekax djuk ;k vuqjksèk djuk n ;kSutfur QfCr;ka dluk n v'yhy fp= fn[kkuk] vkSj n fdlh Hkh izdkj dk vokafNr 'kkjhfjd] 'kkfCnd ;k b'kkjs esa fd;k x;k dkeqd izo`fÙk dk O;ogkj ;kSu mRihM+u ckWlekrgr lacaèk dh vfHkO;fDr Hkh gS vkSj tsaMj HksnHkko dk ,d izdkj gSA ifj.kkeLo:i] iq#kksa dh vis{kk efgykvksa ds ;kSu izrkM+uk dk f'kdkj gksus dh laHkkouk T;knk gksrh gSA varjkZVªh; Je laxBu ¼vkb,yvks½ ds vuqlkj ^^,slk eq[; :i ls blfy, gksrk gS D;ksafd muds ikl vksgns dh rkdr de gksrh gS rFkk os detksj vkSj vlqjf{kr fLFkfr;ksa esa jgrh gSa] vkRefo'okl dh muesa deh gksrh gS] ;k lekt mUgsa bl rjg rS;kj djrk gS fd os lc dqN pqipki lgus esa gh HkykbZ lerh gSaA**1 bfrgkl esa kadus ij irk pyrk gS fd fL=;ka lkekftd] vkfFkZd] lkaLÑfrd vkSj jktuhfrd :i ls 'kfDrghu gksrh gSa vkSj vupkgs ;kSfud O;ogkj dh f'kdkj gksrh jgrh gSaA ;g O;ogkj v'yhy QfCr;ka ¼tks muds 'kjhj vkSj lsDl ds fy, mudh miyCèkrk dks ysdj gksrk gS½] ?kwjuk] b'kkjk djus ls gksrk gqvk lsDl ds fy, geys vkSj cykRdkj rd tkrk gSA vusd izdkj ls lkeus vkus okys ;kSu mRihM+u dks eq[; :i ls nks Jsf.k;ksa esa cakVk tk ldrk gS] igyk gS fDoM izks dks ¼;g ,d ySfVu eqgkojk gS ftldk eryc gksrk gS *blds cnys og*½ vkSj nwljk gS 'k=qrkiw.kZ okrkoj.k ds dkj.k mRihM+uA ^fDoM izks dks mRihM+u*--- dk eryc gksrk gS fd fu;ksDrk ;k dksbZ Hkh vfèkdkjh tc viuh ekrgr dks dgrk gS fd vxj og mlds lkFk ;kSu lacaèk cukus dks rS;kj gks tk, rks og mls ;g ukSdjh] ;k izksUufr ns nsxk ;k mlds osru esa btkQk dj nsxkA**2 n ;|fi ^fDoM izks dks mRihM+u* ds ekeys Hkjs iM+s gSa vkSj ^fDoM izks dks* dks nqfu;k Hkj esa ?k`f.kr ekuk tkrk gSA nwljh vksj izfrdwy okrkoj.k ds dkj.k mRihM+u T;knk tfVy] vLiV vkSj O;kid gksrk gSA blesa 'kkfey gSa gj izdkj ds vokafNr vkSj v#fpdj ;kSu O;ogkjA izfrdwy okrkoj.k ds dkj.k fd;s tkus okys mRihM+u ds dqN mnkgj.k ;gka uhps fn;s tk jgs gSa% n tkucw dj fd;k tkus okyk 'kkjhfjd laidZ] tSls fd Nwuk] 'kjhj ij qd tkuk] ,d rjg ls ?ksjrs tkuk] fpdksVh dkVuk] VVksyuk ;k lV dj fudy tkuk n Hkn~ns ladsr djuk n v'yhy rjhds ls ?kwjuk vkSj@;k QfCr;ka dluk n v'yhy rjhds dh NsM+NkM+ n 11
  10. 10. n ckgj feyus ds fy, ncko cukuk n lsDl LohÑfr ds fy, ncko cukuk n dkeqd ;k xSjfe=rkiw.kZ fVIi.kh djuk n tsaMj dks vkèkkj cuk dj viekfur djuk ;k QfCr;ka dluk n VsyhQksu ij v'yhy mn~xkj izdV djuk ;k bZesy Hkstuk] vkSj n v'yhy fp= fn[kkuk leL;k Hkkjr dk lafoèkku fyax ds vkèkkj ij fd;s tkus okys HksnHkko dk fuksèk djrk gS vkSj lHkh ds fy, lekurk dh xkjaVh nsrk gSA rc Hkh dk;ZLFky ij efgyk,a jkstkuk HksnHkko dh f'kdkj gksrh gSa vkSj vius iq#k ckWl ;k n¶rj esa lkFk dke djus okys lkFkh }kjk lsDl ds fy, mRihfM+r dh tkrh gSaA jkVªh; efgyk vk;ksx ds fy, fd;s x, ,d vè;;u esa ik;k x;k fd ns'k ds ikap jkT;ksavkaèkzizns'k] eè; izns'k] egkjkVª] if'pe caxky vkSj mÙkj izns'k esa ftu 1211 efgykvksa ls ckrphr dh x;h muesa ls yxHkx vkèkh efgykvksa us dk;ZLFky ij fuEufyf[kr esa ls fdlh ,d ;k T;knk leL;kvksa ls okLrk iM+us dh ckr dgh% n 'kkjhfjd mRihMu n ekufld mRihM+u n tsaMj vk/kkfjr HksnHkko] vkSj n vU; izdkj dh leL;k,a tSls fd dke dh 'krksZa dk lEeku ugha gksuk3 tks vU; vè;;u fd;s x;s os Hkh ;gh jgL;ksn~?kkVu djrs gSa fd ;kSu mRihM+u O;kid gS vkSj dkedkth 4060 izfr'kr efgykvksa vkSj Nk=kvksa dk thou blls izHkkfor jgrk gSA vktknh ds ipkl lky ckn 1997 ls Hkkjr esa ;kSu mRihM+u dks xaHkhjrk ls fy;k tkus yxkA 1997 rd ns'k esa efgyk,a dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dh f'kdk;r vDlj vU; nwljs dkuwuksa ;Fkk cykRdkj] NsM+NkM+] vkSj L=h xfjek ls f[kyokM+ djus tSls dqdeksZa ds fy, cus dkuwuksa ds tfj;s djrh FkhaA ml oDr rd dksbZ Hkh ,slk fo'ksk vkSj izHkkoh dkuwu ugha Fkk tks ;kSu mRihfM+r efgykvksa dh lqj{kk djrkA ;kSu mRihM+u rc Hkh ekStwn Fkk ysfdu bldh f'kdk;rsa ;nkdnk gh gksrh Fkh D;ksafd efgyk,a Mjrh Fkha mUgsa yxrk Fkk fd f'kdk;r djus ij ukSdjh pyh tk,xh ;k mls vkSj lrk;k tk,xk ;k mls *pfj=ghu* dgk tkus yxsxkA dqN tks f'kdk;rsa dh x;ha mudk ifj.kke ;gh lkeus vk;k fd dkuwuh dkjZokbZ yach] [kphZyh] f'kdk;rdrkZ efgyk ds fy, nq[knk;h vkSj ltk fn;s tkus ds ekeys esa vlQy gksrh FkhaA 1997 esa loksZPp U;k;ky; us fo'kk[kk ,oa vU; cuke jktLFkku jkT; ,oa vU; ds ekeys esa vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ QSlyk lquk;k] ftlesa igyh ckj dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dks ekuokfèkdkj guu ds rkSj ij Lohdkjk x;kA fo'ksk rkSj ij loksZPp U;k;ky; us ekuk fd% **izR;sd ,slh ?kVuk ¼dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u½ dk ifj.kke **tsaMj lekurk** dk ekSfyd vfèkdkj vkSj **thou vkSj Lora=rk ds vfèkdkj** ds guu ds :i esa lkeus vkrk gSA ;g lafoèkku ds vuqPNsn 14] 15 vkSj 21 ds rgr fn;s x;s vfèkdkj dk [kqyk mYya?ku gSA ,slh fdlh ?kVuk ds rkfdZd ifj.kke ls ,d ;g Hkh vk'k; gS fd bl rjg dh ?kVuk,a vuqPNsn 19¼1½¼th½ ds rgr **fdlh Hkh is'ks dks viukus ;k dksbZ Hkh O;olk; ;k m|e viukus** ds ihfM+rk ds ekSfyd vfèkdkj dk mYya?ku gSA bl rjg ds guu ds ekeys dks vuqPNsn 32 ds rgr lhèkk loksZPp U;k;ky; esa mBk;k tk ldrk gS vkSj efgykvksa ds ekSfyd vfèkdkjksa dh cgkyh dh nyhy nh tk ldrh gSA**4 è;ku nsus dh ckr ;g gS fd dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds f[kykQ dksbZ ?kjsyw dkuwu ugha gksus ij Hkh loksZPp U;k;ky; us varjkZVªh; lekSrksa vkSj ekudksa dks ekU;rk nhA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ;kSu mRihM+u dks ifjHkkfkr djus ds vfrfjDr fo'kk[kk ekeys esa loksZPp U;k;ky; us fn'kkfunsZ'k Hkh tkjh fd;s ftuds rgr fu;ksDrkvksa dks funsZ'k fn;k x;k fd os dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ij jksd yxk;sa vkSj f'kdk;r nwj djus dh n 12
  11. 11. O;oLFkk dks ykxw djsaA vc lHkh {ks=ksa elyu laxfBr] vlaxfBr] ljdkjh] futh vkSj 'kS{kf.kd vkfn esa fu;ksDrk ds fy, t:jh gks x;k gS fd og f'kdk;r nwj djus dh leqfpr O;oLFkk djs] lkFk gh ;kSu mRihM+u lacaèkh fuf'pr uhfr viuk;s vkSj f'kdk;r fuokj.k lfefr dk xBu djsA cgjgky] vfèkdrj fu;ksDrk loksZPp U;k;ky; ds fn'kkfunsZ'k dks ykxw djus esa vlQy lkfcr gq, gSaA vkSj ;g vke ekU;rk vHkh Hkh py jgh gS fd ;kSu mRihM+u futh ekeyk gS] u fd ;g dksbZ lkaLFkkfud@dk;ZLFkyh; xaHkhj elykA blh ladqfpr lksp ds dkj.k ;kSu mRihM+u vHkh Hkh cnLrwj tkjh gSA u bl ij dksbZ fuxjkuh j[kus okyk gS] u bldh dgha fjiksVZ gksrh gS vkSj u gh fdlh dks blds fy, ltk gksrh gSA vfèkdrj fu;ksDrkvksa dks rks irk Hkh ugha gS fd loksZPp U;k;ky; ds fn'kkfunsZ'k D;k gSaA nwljs] ftUgsa irk gS os bl ckr ls lkQ badkj djrs gSa fd muds ;gka ;kSu mRihM+u dk dksbZ ekeyk dHkh mBk gksA dqN eSustj bl Mj ls fd dgha fiNys ekeys Hkh flj u mBk ysa] bl dksf'k'k esa jgrs gSa fd deZpkfj;ksa dks bl ckcr dksbZ lwpuk feys gh ughaA vkSj tc bl lPpkbZ ls lkeuk gks gh tkrk gS fd ;g ;kSu mRihM+u dk ekeyk gS rks fu;ksDrkvksa esa ls vfèkdrj ?kVuk dks lhèks rkSj ij ugha ysrs vkSj vius rjhds ls bldk fuiVkjk djrs gSaA tSls fd os f'kdk;rdrkZ dks gh ukSdjh ls ckgj dj nsaxs ;k mls rcknys ds fy, ck/; djsaxsA dqN gh yksxksa us izf'k{k.k dk;ZØeksa dks pykus ds fy, gkeh Hkjh ysfdu dke ds izfr leiZ.k vkSj Vhe ds :i esa dke djus dh ekufldrk dk fodkl djus laca/kh de laosnu'khy eqn~nksa dks izf'k{k.k ds fy, pqukA dqN gh daifu;ksa us Lohdkj fd;k fd ;kSu mRihM+u tsaMj HksnHkko dk xaHkhj :i gSA uhfr;ka ykxw dj mUgksaus f'kdk;r fuokj.k lfefr dk xBu rks t:j fd;k ysfdu vius ;gka cM+s ypj ax ls uhfr;ka cuk;ha vkSj lfefr dk xBu Hkh bl rjg ls fd;k fd mlesa lHkh Lrj ds dfeZ;ksa dk izfrfufèkRo ugha gks ik;kA vDlj mUgksaus iwokZxzgjfgr rhljs i{k dks desVh esa txg gh ugha nh tSls fd fdlh xSjljdkjh laxBu ;k fdlh vkSj izdkj ds laxBu ds izfrfufèk ;k fdlh Lora= O;fDr dks tks ;kSu mRihM+u ds gj igyw ls iwjh rjg okfdQ gks vkSj loksZPp U;k;ky; }kjk fn;s x;s fn'kkfunsZ'kksa dks Hkh tkurk gksA ,d vke ckr ;g Hkh ik;h x;h fd tgka lfefr Fkh Hkh ogka lfefr ds lnL;ksa dks BhdBhd ugha irk gksrk Fkk fd mUgsa dke dSls djuk gSA ifj.kke ;g gksrk Fkk fd ihfM+rk tks f'kdk;r ysdj vkrh dks bu lfefr;ksa ds lkeus vkSj Hkh ijs'kkuh dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk FkkA fo'kk[kk esa fn;s x;s loksZPp U;k;ky; ds QSlys ds okksZa ckn Hkh bl ckr dh t:jr gS fd tsaMj HksnHkko vkSj dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dks ysdj yksxksa esa tkx:drk iSnk dh tk,] iqjkuh vkSj f?klhfiVh ifjikVh dks [kRe fd;k tk, vkSj [kqys fny ls loksZPp U;k;ky; ds QSlys dks ykxw fd;k tk,A O;ofLFkr rjhds ls izo`fr esa cnyko ykus dh t:jr gS D;ksafd rHkh dk;ZLFky ;kSu mRihM+u ls eqDr gks ik,axs vkSj lHkh dke djus okyksa ds fy, lqjf{kr LFky lkfcr gks ik,axsA orZeku fLFkfr efgyk vfèkdkjksa ds fy, la?kkZjr lewgksa ds vuqHko ds vkèkkj ij lkFk gh lkFk ;g dksf'k'k Hkh dh tk jgh gS fd orZeku esa tks fn'kkfunsZ'k gSa mUgsa dSls vkSj etcwr fd;k tk,A ns'k Hkj esa lsfeukj vkSj ehfVax dj ;g dke fd;k tk jgk gSA bu ijke'kksZa ds tks ifj.kke vk jgs gSa mUgsa loksZPp U;k;ky; ds le{k esèkk dksroky ekeys esa j[kk tk jgk gS tks vHkh LohÑfr ds fy, yafcr iM+k gSA bl chp] jkVªh; efgyk vk;ksx us Hkh dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dks ysdj dkuwu cukus dk izLrko j[kkA cgjgky] jkVªh; efgyk vk;ksx ds bl elkSns dks efgyk vfèkdkj laxBuksa us [kkfjt dj fn;kA r; fd;k x;k fd fo/ks;d cdk elkSnk bl eqn~ns ij dke djus okys laxBuksa vkSj O;fDr;ksa ls ijke'kZ djus ds ckn gh rS;kj fd;k tk,xkA eqfge vizSy 2000 esa ,pvkj,y,u dh fnYyh bdkbZ us dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds f[kykQ eqfge dh 'kq#vkr dhA dk;ZLFky ij efgykvksa ij c+rs ;kSu mRihM+u ds en~nsutj vkSj ;g ns[krs gq, fd yxHkx lHkh fu;ksDrk loksZPp U;k;ky; ds fn'kkfunsZ'k dks ykxw ugha dj ik jgs gSa] ,pvkj,y,u us ;g chM+k mBk;kA bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk dks rS;kj djuk vkSj fQj bldk izdk'ku bl eqfge dh ,d egRoiw.kZ dM+h gSA bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk ds izdk'ku ds vfrfjDr bl vfHk;ku esa fuEufyf[kr eqn~ns Hkh 'kkfey gSa% n ,pvkj,y,u ds fnYyh vkWfQl esa izf'k{k.k vkSj lkèku dsanz LFkkfir djukA n efgyk,a ;kSu mRihM+u dh f'kdkj efgykvksa ds fy, VsyhQksu gsYiykbu 'kq: djukA n 13
  12. 12. n lHkh {ks=ksa elyu laxfBr] vlaxfBr] lkoZtfud] futh vkSj f'k{kk ds lkFklkFk nwljs xSjljdkjh laxBuksa] dkuwu ykxw djus okyh ,tsafla;ka vkSj etnwj laxBuksa ds chp usVodZ rS;kj djukA n ;kSu mRihM+u ds f[kykQ uhfr;ka rS;kj djus vkSj f'kdk;r lfefr xfBr djus esa laLFkkuksa dh enn djukA ,DliksVZ balisDlu dkmfUly vkWQ bafM;k] foKku ,oa izkS|ksfxdh ea=ky;] tgktjkuh ea=ky;] Hkkjrh; fu;a=d ,oa egkys[kk ijh{kd dk;kZy;] LVhy vkWFkksfjVh vkWQ bafM;k fyfeVsM vkSj bLikr ea=ky; vkfn dqN ,slh txgsa gSa ftudh f'kdk;r lfefr ds lnL; ds rkSj ij ,pvkj,y,u lfØ; gSA n leku lksp ds fofHkUu laxBuksa ds chp usVodZ rS;kj djuk rkfd ijLij lg;ksx fodflr gks ldsA n tsaMj lsaflVkbts'ku vkSj dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dks ysdj izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe pykukA ,pvkj,y,u bl rjg dk dk;ZØe vf[ky Hkkjrh; izcaèku ,lksfl,lu] fnYyh iqfyl] vLirky] ,DliksVZ balisDlu dkmfUly rFkk xkxhZ vkSj jketl dkWystksa ds fy, igys dj pqdk gSA n lkèku vkSj 'kSf{kd lkexzh fodflr djukA n ykWchbax djuk] vkSj n mu efgykvksa dks dkuwuh lgk;rk iznku djuk ftUgksaus vius laLFkkuksa ij ;g ncko cukus ds fy, dksVZ esa ;kfpdk nk;j dj j[kh gks fd os loksZPp U;k;ky; ds fn'kkfunsZ'k dks ykxw djrs gq, f'kdk;r lfefr dh LFkkiuk vkSj dk;ZLFky ij lqjf{kr okrkoj.k rS;kj djsaA lanHkZ% 1- tsaMj! , ikVZujf'ki vkWQ bZdqvYl] vkb,yvks izdk'ku] 2000] ist 58 2- :Vj] ihVj] ,eMh] vaMjLVSafMax ,aM izhosafVax lsDlqvy gSjslesaV% n dEiyhV xkbM] cSaVe cqDl] ;w,l,] 1997] ist 11 3- larsd dalyVsUV~l izkbosV fyfeVsM] laxfBr ,oa vlaxfBr {ks=ksa esa dk;Zjr efgykvksa ds mRihM+u ds vkdyu ds fy, fd;s x;s vè;;u dh fjiksVZ] jkVªh; efgyk vk;ksx] Hkkjr ljdkj] u;h fnYyh ds fy, rS;kj dh x;h fjiksVZ ¼lky ekywe ugha½] ist 140 4- uS'kuy ,yk;al vkWQ ohesu ¼,u,MCY;wvks½] dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ij loksZPp U;k;ky; }kjk fn;s x;s QSlys] ySaMekdZ ttesaV lhjht1 ,u,MCywvks] u;h fnYyh] 1997] ist 1 n 14
  13. 13. D;k gS ;g izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk ds mn~ns'; bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk dks bl rjg rS;kj fd;k x;k gS fd QSflfyVsVlZ dks tsaMj vk/kkfjr eqn~nksa vkSj dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dh rg rd tkus esa lgwfy;r gks ldsA bl iqfLrdk dk mn~ns'; lewg lnL;ksa dh lgk;rk djuk gS rkfd os% n tsaMj ls tqM+s eqn~nksa vkSj dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dks ysdj vkSj T;knk tkx:d gks ldsaA n le ldsa fd ;kSu mRihM+u dh voèkkj.kk D;k gS vkSj dk;ZLFky ij fdlfdl rjg ds O;ogkj ;kSu mRihM+u ds varxZr vkrs gSaA n dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ij loksZPp U;k;ky; dh O;oLFkk D;k gS vkSj mlesa D;k fn'kkfunsZ'k fn;s x;s gSaA n bruh l{kerk fodflr dh tk lds fd dk;ZLFky ij ;fn tsaMj tfur HksnHkko ;k ;kSu mRihM+u dh ?kVuk gksrh gS rks mldh fjiksVZ dj ldsa] vkSj n ,slh uhfr rS;kj dh tk lds fd ;kSu mRihM+u ds ekeyksa dk lenkjh vkSj U;k;ksfpr ax ls dk;ZLFky ij gh lekèkku fudkyk tk ldsA vH;klksa ds QkWjesV bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk esa lkewfgd vH;kl vkSj tsaMj lacaf/kr eqn~nksa vkSj dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ls lacafèkr rf[r;ka dSlh gksa bls crk;k x;k gSA vH;klksa dks bl rjg rS;kj fd;k x;k gS rkfd laokn dk;e gks lds] lHkh dks Hkkxhnkjh eglwl gks vkSj vuqHkwfrtU; yxs ¼tSls fd vkRefoysk.k½ rkfd izf'k{k.k esa izfrHkkxh fok;ksa dks lkQ rkSj ij le ldsaA izR;sd rS;kj vH;kl esa dqN fuEu izdkj ds QkWjesV dk bLrseky fd;k x;k gS% 1½ mn~ns'; 2½ fofèk 3½ lkexzh 4½ le; 5½ izfØ;k] vkSj 6½ rf[r;ka@baMsDl dkMZ@ekeys dk vè;;u ¼vxj dksbZ gks rks½ n n n n n n mn~ns';% izR;sd vH;kl dh fo'kskrk dks blesa crk;k tk,xkA fofèk% blds varxZr ;g r; fd;k tkrk gS fd vH;kl fdl izdkj dk gksxkA vH;kl dh izo`fÙk dks bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk ds layXud 1 esa n'kkZ;k x;k gSA lkexzh% izR;sd vH;kl ds fy, t:jh HkkSfrd lkeku dh lwph blesa nh tkrh gSA le; % izR;sd vH;kl dks iwjk djus esa fdruk le; fn;k tkuk pkfg,] ;g lqko blds varxZr fn;k tkrk gSA le; ds lanHkZ esa ;g cl ,d lqko Hkj gS tks nl yksxksa ds lewg dks è;ku esa j[k dj fn;k x;k gSA bls lewg dh t:jr ds fglkc ls ?kVk;k ;k c+k;k tk ldrk gSA fnekx esa ;g ckr j[kuh t:jh gS fd le; i;kZIr gks u fd vH;kl iwjk djus Hkj dh jLe iwjh gksA le; bruk gksuk pkfg, fd vxys vH;kl ds igys izfrHkkfx;ksa dks vkjke djus dk FkksM+k le; fey tk,A izfØ;k% blesa dks crk;k x;k gS fd dSls izfrHkkfx;ksa dks èkhjsèkhjs iwjk fooj.k j[krs gq, lqko fn;k tk, vkSj dSls lHkh vH;klksa dks iwjk djuk gSA ladsr Hkh blds rgr fn;s x;s gSaA rf[r;ka@baMsDl dkMZ@ekeys dk vè;;u% fdlh vH;kl dks iwjk djus ds fy, fdl izdkj dh rf[r;ka@baMsDl n 15
  14. 14. dkMZ@ekeys dk vè;;u ¼vxj dksbZ gks rks½ pkfg,A izfrHkkfx;ksa dh fofoèkrk dks è;ku esa j[kdj rf[r;ka@baMsDl dkMZ@ekeys dk vè;;u dk p;u djuk pkfg,A izklafxd mnkgj.kksa ds tfj;s izR;sd lewg dh [kkl t:jr dks iwjk djus dh dksf'k'k dh tkuh pkfg,A izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe ij ,d utj izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe dks pkj Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x;k gS tks bl izdkj gSa % 1½ tsaMj dh voèkkj.kk 2½ dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk 3½ dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u] vkSj 4½ ;kSu mRihM+u dks ysdj uhfr;ka vkSj lfefr;ka iwjs izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe dks bl rjg rS;kj fd;k x;k gS fd mls xgu :i ls lkr fnu rd pyk;k tk, rks iwjk gks tk,xk ;k vxj dk;ZØeksa esa FkksM+h de xgurk jgh rks Hkh vkB fnu esa iwjk dj fy;k tk,A cgjgky] dk;ZØeksa dks miyCèk le; ds vuqlkj vius ax ls Hkh rS;kj fd;k tk ldrk gSA izR;sd dk;Z'kkyk esa vH;klksa ds lHkh fgLlksa dks 'kkfey fd;k tkuk t:jh gSA n 16
  15. 15. QSflfyVsVlZ ds fy, /;ku nsus ;ksX; ckrsa ;kSu mRihM+u dks ysdj foe'kZ dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u tSls fok; ij viuh lkekftd] lkaLÑfrd] èkkfeZd vkSj O;fDrxr otgksa ls ckr djuk eqf'dy gks tkrk gSA dqN iq#k ,sls gksrs gSa tks efgykvksa ds lkeus bl eqn~ns ij ckr ugha djuk pkgrs vkSj dqN efgyk,a ,slh gksrh gSa tks iq#kksa ds lkeus bl eqn~ns ij os ckr ugha djuk pkgrh gSaA dqN yksx rks ,sls Hkh gksrs gSa tks vius ckWl ;k vius dk;ZLFky ij bl eqn~ns ij ckr djus dks ysdj ,dne vfuPNqd gksrs gSaA ,sls yksx rHkh [kqyrs gSa] tc izFke opu esa ckr ugha gks jgh gksrh gSA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ij lewg izf'k{k.k l= dks pykus esa QSflfyVsVj vFkkZr ennxkj gksus ds ukrs vkids fy, ;g t:jh gS fd vki viuh Hkkoukvksa] ewY;ksa vkSj fopkjksa ls iwjh rjg voxr jgsa vkSj bl ckr ls Hkh fd vkids dgs dks ;s lkjh phtsa fdl rjg izHkkfor djrh gSaA ;g Hkh vkids fy, csgn t:jh gS fd ;kSu mRihM+u vkSj reke nwljs laosnu'khy eqn~ns tSls fd ;kSfudrk] ;kSu O;ogkj vkSj 'kjhj ds vaxksa dks ysdj [kqydj ckr djrs oDr vki viuk O;ogkj lkekU; j[ksaA vius fopkjksa vkSj laosxksa dks Nqikdj j[k ikuk cgqr eqf'dy gks ldrk gS] ysfdu ;kn j[ksa fd vPNk QSflfyVsVj ogh gS tks iwjs izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe ds nkSjku iwokZxzgjfgr vkSj igys ls dksbZ voèkkj.kk cuk dj ugh pysA lewg ennxkj dh Hkwfedk vkSj tokcnsgh ,d vPNk QSflfyVsVj dSls cuk tk,] bldks ysdj uhps dqN fVIl fn;s x;s gSa % 1- lqjf{kr okrkoj.k cuk;s j[ksa n lewg ds lHkh lnL;ksa dk /;ku j[ksa n vkn'kZ O;ogkj dk vkn'kZ izLrqr djsa vkSj mls izksRlkfgr djsa n izfrHkkfx;kas dh Hkkoukvksalaosxksa dks egRo nsa n ,sfPNd Hkkxhnkjh dks izksRlkfgr djsa vkSj lEeku nsa n t:jh gks rks vkxs c+dj vU; lg;ksx Hkh nsa 2- lewg ds fy, kapk eqgS;k djsa n izR;sd vH;kl ds fy, le; vkSj leqfpr xfr dk izcaèk djsa n ewy fu;e cukus vkSj mldk ikyu djus ds fy, lewg dks izksRlkfgr djsa n izfØ;k dks nq#Lr cuk;s j[ks jgus ds fy, t:jh gks rks gLr{ksi djsa n fofoèk izdkj ds vH;kl lqfuf'pr djsa 3- fn'kk iznku djsa vkSj izfØ;k ls lrr ltx jgsa n fok;ksa dks ,d lkFk tksM+sa n lqfuf'pr gks ysa fd eqn~nksa ;k xM+s dks leqfpr ax ls fuiVk fy;k x;k gS] ;k vxj vkidks yxs fd ekeys dk fuiVkjk rqjar ugha gks ldrk gS rks mls fQygky NksM+ nsa vkSj vkxs c+sa n fdlh Hkzfer laokn dks LiV djus dh dksf'k'k djsa] mldh O;k[;k u djsa n vko';d :i ls ifj.kfr dks ysdj ugha] ysfdu fu.kZ; ds izfr yksxksa dks LiV jgus ds fy, xkbM djsa n 17
  16. 16. 4- lHkh yksxksa dks viuh ckr dgus dk iwjk volj nsa n pqi jgus okys izfrHkkfx;ksa ls vuqjksèk djsa fd os vius fopkj j[ksa n ckjckj Vksdus okys lgHkkxh dks dkS'kyrkiwoZd 'kkar j[ksa vius izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe dh ;kstuk cuk;sa fdlh Hkh izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe dh 'kq#vkr djus ls igys vkidks iDdk gks tkuk pkfg;s fd bl fok; ij vkidh tkudkjh vPNh gS] iwokZxzgjfgr vkSj lelkef;d gSA lewg ds lnL;ksa dk vki ij Hkjkslk gks fd vki mUgsa ,dne lgh vkSj rktk tkudkjh ls voxr djk;saxsA dbZ ckj vki ik,axs fd vkidks bl {ks= dk fo'kskK ekuk tk jgk gSA vxj vkidks yxrk gS fd vkidks dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds elys ij iwjh tkudkjh j[kuh pkfg, rks vki lzksr dsanzksa ls laidZ dj ldrs gSaA bu dsanzksa dh lwph bl izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk ds var esa nh x;h gSA vkidks vius lewg ds lnL;ksa dh i`BHkwfe dh Hkh iwjh tkudkjh gksuh pkfg,A uhps dqN loky fn;s x;s gSa] muds tokc feyus ij muds ckjs esa tkuuk vfèkd ljy gks tk,xk% n fdrus yksx Hkkx ysus okys gSa n muds fyax] lsDl] mez] lewg] f'k{kk] lk{kjrk dk Lrj vkSj laLFkku esa muds in dh tkudkjh n muds Kku dk orZeku Lrj D;k gS vkSj foijhr fyax ds izfr fdrus laosnu'khy gSa D;k mudh lkaLÑfrd vkSj èkkfeZd :f+okfnrk mUgsa ;kSu mRihM+u ij [kqy dj cksyus ugha nsxh n fefJr fyax lewg ;k leku fyax lewg esa ls fdlesa os vius dks vkjkensg fLFkfr esa ik,axs n D;k mUgksaus dk;ZØe esa Hkkx ysus dh bPNk izdV dh ;k mUgsa ukSdjh dh t:jr iwjh djus ds fy, ;gka vkuk iM+k ;s lkjh lwpuk,a fey tkus ls vkidks vius izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe dks izfrHkkfx;ksa dh t:jr vkSj #fp;ksa ds fglkc ls rS;kj djus esa cgqr enn feysxhA bu lwpukvksa dks ikus dk ,d rjhdk ;g gS fd izf'k{k.kiwoZ t:jr ds rkSj ij ;g iz'ukoyh muds chp tkjh djsa ;k lewg ppkZ ds tfj;s t:jr dk vkdyu djrs gq, ;g dke djsaA n n 18
  17. 17. vè;k; 1 izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe
  18. 18. vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe vH;kl Lokxr vkSj ifjp; y{; izf'k{k.k dk;ZØeksa] iQSflfyVsVlZ vkSj izf'k{k.k LFky ls voxr djkuk vkSj izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe ds mn~ns';ksa dks LiV djuk i¼fr iQSflfyVsVlZ dh lewg ls ckrphr lkexzh fÝyi pkVZ vkSj jaxhu ekdZj dye le; 20 feuV izfØ;k 1- izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe izkjaHk djus ls igys mlds mn~ns';ksa dks f¶yi pkVZ isij ij fy[k nsaA izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe ds mn~ns';ksa ls izfrHkkfx;ksa dks fuEufyf[kr ckrsa leus esa vklkuh gksrh gS % l tsaMj laca/kh laca/kh eqn~nksa vkSj dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds izfr os T;knk tkx:d gks tkrs gSa l ;kSu mRihM+u dh voèkkj.kk dks leus vkSj ;g tkuus esa fd fdlfdl rjg dk O;ogkj ;kSu mRihM+u ds rgr vkrk gS l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds f[kykQ loksZPp U;k;ky; dh O;oLFkk vkSj fn'kkfunsZ'k dh le cuuk l tsaMj lacaf/kr HksnHkko vkSj dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u dh fjiksVZ djus ds fy, i;kZIr :i ls etcwr gksuk l ;kSu mRihM+u ds ekeys dks dk;ZLFky ij gh fuiVkus dh laosnuk'khy vkSj U;k;ksfpr ;qfDr fodflr djuk 2- lewg dk Lokxr djrs gq, dk;ZØe dh 'kq#vkr djsa vkSj viuk ifjp; nsaA mUgsa crk;sa fd vki dkSu gSa vkSj vki D;k djus okys gSaA 3- izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe dh laf{kIr :ijs[kk j[ksa vkSj izR;sd mn~ns'; dks Nq,aA 4- mUgsa lek,a fd izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe dks bl rjg rS;kj fd;k x;k gS fd ;g ikjLifjd] vkxs c+dj fgLlk ysus okyk vkSj vuqHkotU; gSA lewg dk izR;sd lnL; izksRlkfgr Hkh eglwl djs] iwjh rjg 'kkfey gksa vkSj dk;ZØe ls T;knk ls T;knk lh[k ldsA 5- mUgsa crk;sa fd izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe ds tfj;s nksuksa i{kksa dks lh[kus dks feysxk ,d izf'k{kd gksus ds ukrs vkidks vkSj izf'k{k.k ikus ds ukrs mUgsaA blls vkil dh nwjh [kRe gksrh gS vkSj lewg esa fo'okl dh Hkkouk c+rh gSA 6- la{ksi esa] iwjs fnu pyus okys dk;ZØe dk [kkdk [khap nsa fd dc 'kq: gksxk vkSj dc lekIr gksxk rFkk Hkkstu vkSj tyiku bR;kfn dk le; D;k jgsxkA 7- izf'k{k.k LFky dh Hkh iwjh tkudkjh nsa tSls fd okgu [kM+k djus dk D;k bartke gS] flxjsV ihus dks ysdj izf'k{k.k LFky ij D;k fu;e gSa] 'kkSpky; dgka fLFkr gS vkSj ckgj fudyus dk njoktk fdèkj gS bR;kfnA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 20
  19. 19. vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe vH;kl vkilh ifjp; y{; ny ds lnL;ksa dk ,d ,d nwljs ls ifjp; djkuk vkSj bl dk;ZØe dks ysdj mudh mEehnksa vkSj vleatlrk dk irk yxkuk i¼fr mRlkfgr djuk] tksMs+ cukuk vkSj lkewfgd ppkZ esa Hkkx ysuk lkexzh liQsn cksMZ vkSj jaxhu ekdZj dye izfØ;k 1- lQsn cksMZ ij fuEufyf[kr loky fy[ksa % l vkidk uke D;k gS l vki D;k djrs gSa l izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe ls vki D;k mEehn djrs gSa l bl {k.k vki dSlk eglwl dj jgs gSa 2- yksxksa ls dgsa fd os vius ikl cSBs O;fDr ls tksM+k cuk,a vkSj ikap feuV bu lokyksa ij mlds lkFk ppkZ djsaA vkxs mUgsa crk;sa fd os ,d ckj fQj tc lewg esa okil 'kkfey gksaxs] rc muesa ls izR;sd dks vius lkFkh dk lewg ds lHkh yksxksa ls ifjp; djkuk gksxkA 3- ikap feuV ckn lewg ds lHkh lnL;ksa ls okil 'kkfey gksus dh vihy djsa vkSj izR;sd O;fDr dks cqyk dj muls dgsa fd os vius lkFkh ds ckjs esa iwjs lcdks crk;sasA vxj yksxksa dks eqf'dy gks ;kn djus esa fd mlds lkFkh us D;k dgk Fkk rks mlds lkFkh ls dgsa fd og mldh enn djsA fjiksVZ djus ds fy, ikap feuV dk le; nsaA 4- bl vè;k; dk ,d laf{kIr :i ;g gS fd yksxksa ls dgsa fd os viuk ifjp; [kqn nsaA le; 30 feuV dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 21
  20. 20. vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe vH;kl vkilh fo'okl c+kus dk dk;ZØe (laoknghurk rksM+us dk oSdfYid rjhdk bl iqfLrdk ds var esa fn;k x;k gS) y{; lnL;ksa dks ekSdk nsa fd os vkil esa [kqysa vkSj dk;Z'kkyk esa 'kkfey yksx ,d nwljs dks tkuuk vkSj vkil esa fo'okl djuk 'kq: djsa i¼fr mRlkgo¼Zu lkexzh dqN ugha le; 15 feuV izfØ;k 1- izfrHkkfx;ksa ls dgsa fd NksVk nk;jk cuk dj [kM+s gks tk,aA 2- ,d dk;ZdrkZ ls dgsa fd og ?ksjs ds chp esa tkdj [kM+k gks tk,A 3- dk;ZdrkZ ¼pkgs og yM+dk gks ;k yM+dh½ dks djuk ;g gS fd og viuh vka[k can djsxk vkSj fQj fdlh Hkh fn'kk dh vksj fxjsxkA 4- ny ds nwljs lHkh lnL; ;g dksf'k'k djsaxs fd og ugha fxjs vkSj mls pksV Hkh ugha vk,A 5- vc ny ds lHkh lnL; dk;ZdrkZ dks ,dnwljs dh vksj dqN bl rjg fxjk,axs fd mls pksV ugha vk;sA 6- ;g dke rc rd pyrk jgsxk] tc rd fd dk;ZdrkZ dksbZ ijs'kkuh u eglwl dj jgk gksA 7- blh dke dks nwljs dk;ZdrkZ ds lkFk nksgjk,aA QSflfyVsVlZ ds fy, dqN t:jh lqko QSflfyVsVlZ dks pkfg, fd og igyk dk;ZdrkZ cuus dh bPNk izdV djsA l izfrHkkfx;ksa dh lqj{kk lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, ;g csgn t:jh gS fd izfØ;k dks iwjh rjg lek fn;k tk,A l esytksy c+ tkus ds ckn var esa ifjppkZ j[kuk vkilh fo'okl dks c+kus vkSj vius fopkjksa dks [kqydj O;Dr djus ds fglkc ls Qk;nsean jgsxkA l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 22
  21. 21. vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe vH;kl lkewfgd lgefr y{; lewg ds lnL;ksa dks ysdj viuh mEehnksa dks LiV djuk vkSj lnL;ksa ls dguk fd fdl rjg O;ogkj djsaxs] fdl rjg lkewfgd tokcnsgh ysaxs i¼fr xaHkhj eaFku lkexzh fÝyi pkVZ] jaxhu ekdZj dye vkSj fpidkus okyk Vsi le; 15 feuV izfØ;k 1- ny dks crk,a fd vc vki dqN *lewg fn'kkfunsZ'k* fufeZr djus tk jgs gSa ftldk edln oSlh txg rS;kj djuk gS] tgka izR;sd lnL; lqfoèkktud ax ls viuk ;ksxnku dj ldsaA vkxs fn'kkfunsZ'k lewg }kjk fodflr fd;s tk,axs vkSj iwjs lewg dh lgefr ds ckn gh buesa ifjorZu fd;k tk,xkA lewg ls dgsa fd vius euilan fn'kkfunsZ'k pqusaA 2- lewg }kjk fn;s x;s lqkoksa dh ,d lwph cuk,a] ftlesa fuEufyf[kr ckrsa 'kkfey dh tk ldrh gSa% l le; dh ikcanh l ,d le; esa ,d gh O;fDr dk laokn l nwljksa dks lqusa l izFke opu esa oDrO; nsa ¼O;fDrxr vuqHko ds vkèkkj ij viuh ckr dgsa½ l lnL;ksa dks *ikl* djus dk vfèkdkj gksxk ¼bldk eryc gqvk fd vxj dksbZ viuh ckr fdlh eqn~ns ij ugha dguk pkgrk gS ;k vius vuqHko dks nwljksa ls ugha ckaVuk pkgrk gS rks mls dgus ds fy, ckè; ugha fd;k tk,xk½ vlgefr ij lger gksus ds fl)kar dk ikyu l vH;kl ds nkSjku /kweziku fuks/k l viuk fu.kZ; u nsa 3- lewg ds lnL;ksa }kjk cuk;h x;h lwph dks ns[ksa vkSj vxj vkidks yxrk gks fd blesa dqN tksM+k tkuk t:jh gS rks t:j lqko nsaA [kkldj tc ns[ksa fd lwph esa dqN Hkh oSlk ugha fy[kk x;k gS tks fnekx dks fparueuu ds fy, ck/; djus okyk gksA mUgsa dgsa fd xksiuh;rk dks Hkh lwph esa LFkku nsaA ny ds lEeq[k xksiuh;rk dh ifjHkkkk vkSj mldk LiVhdj.k cgqr lkoèkkuh ls fd;k tkuk pkfg,A bl vè;k; dh t:jr ;gh gS fd lewg ds lHkh lnL;ksa dks bl fo'okl esa fy;k tk, fd os tks Hkh mn~?kkfVr djsaxs mls xksiuh; j[kk tk,xkA ,slk dgus ls muds vanj fo'okl dh Hkkouk txsxhA fdlh lnL; }kjk lwpuk vxj lkk dh tkrh gS rks ml lnL; dh vuqefr ds fcuk ckgj bldh ppkZ ugha dh tk,xhA 4- vxj vkids ikl le; miyCèk gks rks vki crk ldrs gSa fd vki fdl ifjfLFkfr esa fdl fn'kkfunsZ'k dk bLrseky djsaA 5- vki crk,a fd izR;sd l= esa lewg ds lnL;ksa ds fy, rS;kj fn'kkfunsZ'k nhokj ij Vaxs jgsaxsA vkSj blds ckn vki iwjh dksf'k'k djsa fd izR;sd l= esa fn'kkfunsZ'k nhokj ij t:j Vaxs gksaA l jhdSi O;fDr bl vè;k; esa ,d ckr vkSj ;g tksM+h tk, fd ny ds lnL;ksa ls dgk tk, fd os ,d **jhdSi O;fDr** dks fpfUgr djsaA blds ihNs lksp ;g gS fd bl rjg ,d ;k nks O;fDr tks pqus tk,axs os fiNys fnu ds l=ksa esa D;k gqvk Fkk] mls nksgjk;saxs vkSj vkt fnu Hkj pys l= dh eq[; ckrksa dks j[ksaxsA blls dk;ZØe esa fujarjrk cuh jgrh gS vkSj eqn~nksa dk dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 23
  22. 22. vè;k;1% izf'k{k.k dk;ZØe vH;kl lkewfgd lgefr (tkjh---) LiVhdj.k Hkh gksrk pyrk gSA ;g jhdSi O;fDr viuh ckrksa dks ikap feuV esa j[ksxkA izR;sd fnu dh 'kq#vkr esa fdlh nwljs lnL; dks jhdSi O;fDr ds :i esa pquk tk ldrk gSA mRlkgo)Zu fØ;k mRlkgo)Zu fØ;k dk bLrseky ny ds lnL;ksa esa mRlkg Hkjus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA vxj dksbZ cgl yach f[kap tkrh gS vkSj lnL;ksa ds mRlkg esa deh iM+ tkrh gS ¼lkekU;r% ,slk yap ds ckn okys l= esa gksrk gS½ rks euksjatuiw.kZ [ksy [ksyk tk ldrk gS ftlls fd nksckjk ÅtkZ dk lapkj gksA lnL;ksa dks bldh NwV nsa fd os dk;Z'kkyk ds nkSjku dHkh Hkh mRlkgo)Zu ik ldsaA ¼mRlkgo)Zu fØ;k fdl izdkj dh gks bls] iqfLrdk ds var esa ns[kk tk ldrk gS½ dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 24
  23. 23. vè;k; 2 tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax voèkkj.kk
  24. 24. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl tsaMj cuke lsDl (lkekftd fyax cuke fyax) y{; lkekftd fyax dh voèkkj.kk ls ifjp; djkuk vkSj fyax vkSj fyax varj dks leuk i¼fr lkewfgd ppkZ lkexzh ,d r[rh ftl ij fy[kk gks lkekftd fyax ,oa fyax dh ifjHkkkk vkSj dqN baMsDl dkMZ ftu ij lkekftd fyax ,oa fyax ls lacafèkr dqN tkudkfj;ka fy[kh gksa le; 45 feuV izfØ;k 1- lHkh yksxksa ds chp lkekftd fyax ,oa fyax dh fyf[kr ifjHkkkk,a ckaV nsaA 2- lewg ds lnL;ksa ls iwNuk 'kq: djsa fd ;kSu mRihM+u ds ekeys dh tkap djrs oDr lkekftd fyax dh voèkkj.kk dks leuk D;ksa t:jh gS muds tokc tkuus ds fy, dqN feuV rd bl ij ppkZ djrs jgsaA 3- bl ckr dh O;k[;k dj crk;sa fd lkekftd fyax ds vuq:i O;ogkj djus dh Hkwfedk gesa cpiu ls gh fey tkrh gS vkSj gels ;g mEehn dh tkrh gS fd ge lekt }kjk fuèkkZfjr ekunaMksa ds vanj jgsaxsA fofHkUu lektksa] laLÑfr;ksa vkSj ,sfrgkfld dkyksa esa iq#k vkSj L=h dh Hkwfedk esa varj ik;k tkrk gS] ftls lkekftd fyax ;k tsaMj ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA mez] oxZ] tkfr] 'kgjh vkSj xzkeh.k ax dk thou HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr dqN eq[; dkjd gSa tks lkekftd fyax dh Hkwfedk dks fuèkkZfjr djrs gSaA ;kSu mRihM+u ds ekeys ij tc fopkj fd;k tk jgk gks rc gekjs fy, bl ckr dks leuk cgqr t:jh gks tkrk gS fd iq#k vkSj L=h nksuksa dk vyxvyx rjhds ls lkekthdj.k gksrk gS tks gesa nckrk gS vkSj jksdrk gSA gekjs lkekftd fyaxtfur vuqdwyu gesa crkrs gSa fd og txg D;k gS ftls ge viuk gksus dk nkok dj ldrs gSaA tc ge ns[krs gSa fd gekjh viuh txg vfrØfer dh tk jgh gS rc fLFkfr ls fuiVus dk gekjk rjhdk cny tkrk gSA 4- fuEufyf[kr oDrO;ksa dks baMsDl dkMZ ij vyxvyx fy[ksa vkSj ,d,d dj fn[kk,a vkSj lewg ds lnL;ksa ls izfrfØ;k tkfgj djus dks dgsa fd ;g D;k gS buesa ls dkSulk oDrO; fyax lkekftd vkSj lakLÑfrd :i ls O;k[;kf;r gksus dk ladsr nsrk gS vkSj dkSulk fyax ;k lsDl 'kkjhfjd vkSj tSfod :i ls O;k[;kf;r gSA 5- blds ckn fuEufyf[kr loky iwNrs gq, bl laf{kIr ppkZ dks ,d fn'kk nsa% l D;k fdlh oDrO; ls vki pfdr gq, l oDrO;ksa ls tks vkidks ladsr feys D;k os vkids vanj fuf'pr lkekftd fyax esa iSnk gksus ds dkj.k tUe ls Fkk ;k mls vkius cM+s gksdj lekt ls tkuk ¼lekt }kjk fufeZr½ l vki ,slk D;ksa lksprs gSa fd tsaMj vkids lekt dk ,d vfoHkkT; fgLlk gS l l D;k vkidk tsaMj fuèkkZfjr gS ;k blls vkxs c+ dj lkspk tk ldrk gS D;k gksrk gS tc dksbZ O;fDr vius tsaMj ;k lkekftd fyax ds eqrkfcd vkpj.k ugha djrk gS ;k oSlk gh fn[krk Hkh ugha gS dSls lekt bl ij izfrfØ;k tkfgj djrk gS ;g vH;kl if'pe caxky ;kSu LokLF; ifj;kstuk ds fy, ukt QkmaMs'ku U;kl ¼Hkkjr½ }kjk rS;kj tsaMj bu lsDlqvy gsYFk b';q% Vªsfuax vkWQ VªsulZ eSuqvy ds tsaMj cuke fyax ls fy;k x;k gS dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 26
  25. 25. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk gSaMvkmV1 baMsDl dkMZ tsaMj (lkekftd fyax) vkSj fyax (lsDl) dh ifjHkkkk,a tsaMj ¼lkekftd fyax½ cuke lsDl ¼fyax½ tsaMj ifjHkkkk1% yksx pwafd iq#k ;k L=kh esa ls dksbZ ,d gksrs gSa] blfy, lkekftd lajpuk ds lacaèk esa ;g ekuk tkrk gS fd os bUgha nks esa ls fdlh ,d fyax ds gSa ifjHkkkk2% tsaMj dk lacaèk iq#k vkSj L=kh ds chp ds ml varj ls gS tks lkekftd vkSj lakLÑfrd :i ls rS;kj ,d gh ifjokj vkSj fofHkUu laLÑfr;ksa ds chp ns[kk tkrk gS vkSj tks le; ds lkFk cnyrk tkrk gS fyax (lsDl) ifjHkkkk1% iq#k vkSj L=kh ds chp dk 'kkjhfjd vkSj tSfod varj fyax (lsDl) gSA ;g iwjh nqfu;k esa leku :i ls ik;k tkrk gS1 ifjHkkkk2% iq#k ;k L=kh gksus ds ukrs tks 'kkjhfjd fo'kskrk ik;h tkrh gS] og fyax (lsDl) gS vkSj ;g vkuqokaf'kd Lrj ij r; gksrk gS l l l fL=;ka cPpksa dks tUe nsrh gSa( iq#k ughaA yM+fd;ka lq'khy gksrh gSa( yM+ds dBksj gksrs gaSA iq#k vkWVksfjD'kk pykrs gSaA yM+dksa dh vkokt fd'kksjkoLFkk ls eksVh gks tkrh gS( yM+fd;ksa dh ughaA l cPpksa dh ns[kHkky ds ekeys esa fL=;ka iq#kksa ls csgrj gksrh gSaA l iq#kksa ds 'kjhj ij cky vPNs ekus tkrs gSa] tcfd fL=;kas dks bUgsa gVkuk iM+rk gSA l fL=;ka lsDl dks ysdj cgqr bPNqd ugha gksrh gSa] tcfd iq#kksa ds fnekx esa ges'kk lsDl pyrk jgrk gSA l fL=;ka cPpksa dks Lruiku djkrh gSa] tcfd iq#k cksry ls nwèk fiykrs gSaA l yM+ds ckgj [ksyus tkrs gSa] tcfd yM+fd;ka ?kj ds vanj [ksyuk ilan djrh gSaA l fL=;ka nqfu;k esa gks jgs dqy dke dk 67 izfr'kr djrh gSa] rc Hkh dqy dekbZ esa mudk oSf'od fgLlk flQZ 10 izfr'kr gh gS ¼;w,uvks ds vkadM+ksa ds vuqlkj½A l 1- tsaMj izf'k{k.k laLFkku dh izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk *dk;ZLFky ij tsaMj lekurk* ds i`B 2526 ij nh x;h ifjHkkkk ds vuq:i gS vkSj ifjHkkkk 2 fo'o [kk| dk;ZØe dh tsaMj 'kCnkoyh ds i`B 26] 55 ls yh x;h gS dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 27
  26. 26. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl cpiu dh ;knsa y{; tsaMj dh vo/kj.kk dks Bksl ax ls leuk vkSj O;fDrxr Lrj ij tsaMj psruk dh iM+rky djuk i¼fr fu;af=kr ax ls dYiuk djuk] tksM+k cukuk vkSj lkewfgd ppkZ lkexzh dqN ugha le; 60 feuV izfØ;k 1- lewg ds lnL;ksa ls dgsa fd os Q'kZ ij lqfoèkktud txg wasa] ogka cSBsa ;k ysV tk,aA muls dgsa fd os viuh vka[ksa can dj ysa vkSj viuh lkal ij è;ku dsafnzr djsaA lewg ds yksxksa dks bl vH;kl ds mn~ns'; crk,a vkSj muls dgsa fd ;g dksbZ vkjke djus dk vH;kl l= ugha gS] cfYd vkjke dk bLrseky dYiuk ij è;ku dsafnzr djuk gSA 2- tc yxs fd lc yksx vkjke dh fLFkfr esa gSa] rc uhps fn;s x, fp=ksa ds ekè;e ls mUgsa funsZf'kr djsa fd os mu ij è;ku dsafnzr djsaA bl dke ds fy, 20 feuV dk le; nsaA lqfuf'pr djsa fd chpchp esa ekSu jgs rkfd lcdks dYiuk dh mM+ku Hkjus dk le; feysA 3- ny dks tksM+ksa esa ckaV nsa] dksf'k'k djsa fd tksM+h leku fyax dh cus vkSj fQj muls dgsa fd os vius lkFkh ls vius cpiu ds fnuksa dh ckrsa lkk djsaA oSdfYid rkSj ij muls dgsa fd os vius fopkjksa dks fy[kdj ;k fp= cukdj izdV djsaA 4- nl feuV ds ckn yksxksa ls lewg esa okil vkus dks dgsa vkSj bl chp tks dqN mUgksaus ;kn fd;k ;k vius lkFkh dks crk;k Fkk] mls yksxksa ds lkeus crkus dks dgsa ;k vxj mUgksaus fp= cuk;k gS rks muls dgsa fd os ml fp= dks yksxksa dks fn[kk,a vkSj mlds ckjs esa crk,aA 5- lekiu ls igys yksxksa ls dgsa fd D;k ;qokoLFkk esa tsaMj vk/kkfjr ikcafn;ka T;knk c+ tkrh gSa bl iz'u ds vklikl ppkZ dks dks fn'kk nsaA 6- fuEufyf[kr fcanqvksa dks izeq[krk nsrs gq, lekiu djsa % l tUe ysus ds lkFk gh tsaMj dh 'krksZa ds vuqlkj ijofj'k 'kq: gks tkrh gSA l bl izfØ;k dks bruk lkekU; cuk fn;k x;k gS fd ge eglwl Hkh u dj ldsa fd gekjh Hkwfedk@O;ogkj dks tsaMj ds vuq:i cuk;k tk pqdk gSA lkekftd fyax ¼tsaMj½ ds vuqlkj ijofj'k L=h vkSj iq#k dk lkekthdj.k ,slk djrh gS fd fyax ds vuqlkj O;ogkj dh lhek,a r; gks tkrh gSaA l ;g le cukuk fd tsaMj lekt dh nsu gS vFkok bls ysdj tks gekjk O;ogkj gS og fl[kk;k x;k gS] ijarq bl /kkj.kk ls vkxs tkus Hkh nks fd tSfod] vkuqoaf'kd] gkeksZu blesa dkjd gSa vkSj iq#k blfy, ugha lq/kj ldrs fd izkd`frd :i ls vkØked gkssrs gSa vkSj fL=;ka detksj gksrh gSa fygktk Lo;a dk dk;ZLFky esa cpko ugha dj ldrhaA l ;g vH;kl tsaMj izf'k{k.k laLFkku dh izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk dk;ZLFky ij tsaMj lekurk ls fy;k x;k gSA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 28
  27. 27. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl izfØ;k dk;ZLFky ij iq#k vkSj L=kh dh Hkwfedk vkSj ewY; 1- izR;sd O;fDr dks dkxt vkSj dye ;k isafly nsaA 2- lewg ds lnL;ksa ls dgsa fd os vius O;fDrxr thou ds ckjs esa dqN fy[ksa vkSj dkxt dh nwljh vksj mYysf[kr fcanqvksa ds vuq:i tokc nsaA y{; fofHkUu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa L=kh vkSj iq#k gksus dh otg ls mRiUu rqyukRed varj dh O;k[;k djus dh dksf'k'k djuk i¼fr O;fDrxr Rofjr fVIi.kh vkSj lkewfgd ppkZ 3- izfrHkkfx;ksa ls dgsa fd os vius mRrj nwljksa ls lkk djsa vkSj mls lQsn cksMZ ij fy[ksaA 4- vc] lewg ds yksxksa ls dgsa fd os vius is'ksxr thou ij dqN izdk'k Mkysa vkSj dkxt dh nwljh vksj mYysf[kr fcanqvksa ds vuq:i tokc nsaA 5- izfrHkkfx;ksa ls dgsa fd os vius mRrj nwljksa ls lkk djsa vkSj mls lQsn cksMZ ij fy[ksaA 6- bu nksuksa lwfp;ksa dh rqyuk djsa vkSj fuEufyf[kr lokyksa ds vklikl ppkZ dsafnzr j[ksa% l lkexzh iqfLrdk 2 yksxksa dks ysdj ilan] dkxt] dye] liQsn cksMZ vkSj jaxhu ekdZj dye l l l le; 60 feuV vkius tks dqN lh[kk D;k vki mlls pfdr gSa D;k fHkUu fyaxksa ds n`fVdks.k esa varj Fkk fL=;ksa ds O;fDrxr vkSj is'ksxr thou esa tasMj dks ysdj eq[; :i ls D;k ikcafn;ka Fkha iq#kksa ds O;fDrxr vkSj is'ksxr thou esa fyax dks ysdj eq[; :i ls D;k ikcafn;ka Fkha D;k vkidh laLFkk esa tssaMj foHkktu gS l D;k tsaMj foHkktu esa dksbZ deh vk;h gS ;k mlesa dksbZ cnyko vk jgk gS l ?kj esa ;k dk;ZLFky ij tsaMj foHkktu dks ysdj D;k cnyko vk, gSa 7- ^tsaMj] fyax vkSj tsaMj dh Hkwfedk* dh voèkkj.kk ls lokyksa ds tokc dks tksM+rs gq, l= dk lekiu djsaA 8- gSaMvkmV2] ^LVhfj;ksVkbfiaxizhQjsUlst vckmV ihiy* ¼:f+c) èkkj.kk cuuk½ dk yksxksa ds chp forj.k djsa rkfd vius [kkyh le; esa os mls i+saA l ;g vH;kl tsaMj izf'k{k.k laLFkku dh izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk dk;ZLFky ij tsaMj lekurk ls fy;k x;h gSA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 29
  28. 28. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk esjs O;fDrxr thou ls vius laxBu ds vanj iq#k Hkkxhnkj ds fy, efgyk Hkkxhnkj ds fy, D;ksafd eSa iq#k gwa] blfy, dj ldrk gwa% D;ksafd eSa efgyk gwa] blfy, dj ldrh gwa% l l l l l l vxj eSa L=h gksrk rks ;g djrk% vxj eSa vkneh gksrk rks ;g djrh% l l l l l l iq#k Hkkxhnkj ds fy, efgyk Hkkxhnkj izf'k{kq ds fy, D;ksafd eSa iq#k gwa] blfy, dj ldrk gwa% D;ksafd eSa L=h gwa] blfy, dj ldrh gwa% l l l l l l vxj eSa L=h gksrk rks eSa ;g djrk% vxj eSa iq#k gksrh rks ;g djrh% l l l l l l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 30
  29. 29. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk gSaMvkmV2 :f+c¼ èkkj.kk cuuk (LVhfj;ksVkbfiax) yksxksa dks ysdj çkFkfedrk,a :f+c) èkkj.kk dh ifjHkkkk :f+c) èkkj.kk] ,d NksVs jkLrs ds tfj, yksxksa dks ysdj çkFkfedrkvksa dks tkuus] oxhZ—r djus vkSj mls n'kkZus ds rjhds dks dgrs gSaA fdlh O;fä fo'ksk ds pfj= ds ckjs esa tks ge dYiuk djrs gSa] mlh çrhd vkSj fo'kskrkvksa ds leqPp; dks :f+c) èkkj.kk dgrs gSaA :f+c) èkkj.kk,a gkykafd vf/kdrj ekSdksa ij xyr gksrh gSa vkSj os lkekU;hdj.k ds lkèkkj.k rjhds ls iSnk gksrh gSaA :f+c) èkkj.kk ds dqN egÙoiw.kZ y{k.k gSa% blesa ,d [kkl Nfo ;k /kkj.kk dk iqfyank 'kkfey gksrk gS] ftlls ,d lewg ds vfèkdrj yksxksa ds ckjs esa dksbZ O;fä utfj;k cukrk gSA l ;s blfy, fodflr gksrs gSa] D;ksafd os gekjs bnZfxnZ dh fofoèkrkvksa dks lhfer dj nsrs gSaA l cgqèkk ;g voyksdu djus okys lewg dh ç—fr ls r; gksrk gS vkSj va'kr% voyksfdr gksus okys lewg dh ç—fr lsA vkSj ;g ges'kk O;fäxr vuqHko ds tfj, gh ugha curk ;g bl ij Hkh fuHkZj dj ldrk gS fd ifjokj esa fdlh O;fä us D;k lquk vkSj D;k i+k gSA l fyax dh :f+c) èkkj.kk,a ¼lsDl LVhfj;ksVkbIl½ :f+c) èkkj.kkvksa ds çn'kZu ds fy, lcls egÙoiw.kZ {ks= esa ls ,d gS fyax ls tqM+s iwokZxzgA fyax dk lkekftd lkaL—frd egÙo vkSj bldh –fVxr çdVrk] blds oxhZdj.k ds fy, ekud vkèkkj çnku djrs gSaA fyax vkèkkfjr oxhZdj.k] fyax dh :f+c) èkkj.kk rd ys tkrh gSA ySafxd :f+c) èkkj.kk,a ,d rjg ls vopsru fparuvH;kl gS] tks O;fäxr fo'kskrkvksa dks fyax ls tksM+rh gSA ySafxd :f+c) èkkj.kk bldk pfj= fp=.k djus esa enn djrh gS fd lewg ds lnL; dSls gSaA ml lacaèk esa ge] nwljs yksxksa dk fdl rjg vocksèku djrs gSa vkSj muds O;ogkj dh O;k[;k djrs gSa rFkk dSls :f+c) èkkj.kk dks lqfuf'pr djus ds ç;kl dks vius Hkhrj vocksfèkr djrs gSa] ;g bl ij çHkko Mkyrh gSA ml funsZ'kkRed :i esa] ySafxd :f+c) èkkj.kk,a gesa crkrh gSa fd fyax dk eryc D;k gksrk gSA ;s L=h vkSj iq#k ds O;ogkj dks ekius okys voyksdudrkZ ds ekud ds fygkt ls dk;Z djrs gSaA ,slh :f+c) èkkj.kk,a ;g Hkh çHkkfor djrh gSa fd ge nwljs yksxksa ds ckjs esa vkSj muds O;ogkj ds ckjs esa D;k lksprs gSaA vr% :f+c) èkkj.kk,a vLiV fl) karksa] vocksèku dks iwokZxzgiw.kZ cukus] O;k[;kvksa] ladsrhdj.k] fnekx esa lqjf{kr j[kus] yksxksa ds ckjs esa lwpukvksa dks iqu% ;kn djus ds fy, dk;Z djrh gSaA ySafxd :f+c) èkkj.kkvksa ds mnkgj.k jes'k ds ikl xsan gSA og yM+dksa ds lkFk mls yidus dk [ksy [ksyrk gSA mldh cgu] lksfu;k] ns[krh gSA l esjh iRuh D;k djrh gS vksg] og ?kjsyw L=h ek= gSA l efgyk,a [kjkc okgu pkyd gksrh gSaA l yM+dksa dks cgknqj gksuk pkfg,A l rqEgkjs csVs dk xqfM+;ksa ds lkFk [ksyuk D;k lkekU; O;ogkj gks ldrk gS l l çksfrek! fdruh ckj rqEgsa dguk iM+sxk fd jsÝhtjsVj dks Bhd djuk rqEgkjs x`g foKku ikBîØe dk fgLlk ugha gS! 'kfä çHkko ¼ikoj bQsDV~l½ ySafxd :f+c) èkkj.kk gekjh pkg] vocksèku] Le`fr] O;k[;k vkSj nwljs ds O;ogkj ds ewY;kaduksa esa iwokZxzg dks çLrqr dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 31
  30. 30. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk djrk gSA felky ds rkSj ij] cgqèkk ;g ekuk tkrk gS fd iq#k :f+c) èkkj.kk okys iq#kksfpr dk;ksaZ ¼esy VkLDl½ djrs gSa rFkk fL=;ka :f+c) èkkj.kk okys fL=;ksfpr dk;ksaZ ¼Qhesy VkLDl½ dks fuiq.krk ls djrh gSaA fdlh dke esa mudh lQyrk ;k vlQyrk dk eryc O;fä ls vfèkd tqM+k gqvk ugha gS cfYd ;g ml dke esa muds mi;qä gksus u gksus dh fo'kskrk ij fuHkZj djrk gSA yksx ml lwpuk dks ryk'krs gSa] çkFkfedrk nsrs gSa vkSj ;kn djrs gSa tks mudh :f+c) èkkj.kkvksa dk leFkZu djrh gks vkSj ,slh lwpuk dks utjvankt djrs gSa] mls NksM+ nsrs gSa vkSj mls Hkwy tkrs gSa] tks bls pqukSrh nsrh gksA oxhZdj.k pwafd ds çfr ;g qdko lkoZHkkSfed gS] blfy, ,slh 'kfä èkkj.k djus ls O;fä nwljs yksxksa ds oxhZdj.k ds fy, vfrfjä ç;kl djus dks rRij jgrs gSa vkSj bldh Nkuchu djrs jgrs gSaA elyu] vehjksa dh 'kfä mUgsa ;g gSfl;r nsrk gS fd og xjhcksa dh vkylh] vlH; bR;kfn ds :i esa :f+c) èkkj.kk fodflr dj nsaA blds vfrfjä 'kfä] nwljksa ds ckjs esa lVhd lwpuk ikus ds fy, yksxksa dh vfHkçsj.kk ij vlj Mkyrh gSA 'kfäghuksa ds fy, pawfd 'kfä'kkfy;ksa ds ckjs esa xyr gksus ij mUgsa vfèkd [kkfe;ktk Hkqxruk iM+rk gS vkSj 'kfä'kkfy;ksa ds fy, Bhd bldk myV gksrk gSA 'kfäghuksa dh rqyuk esa 'kfä'kkfy;ksa dh :f+c) èkkj.kk vfèkd etcwr gksrh gSA ukSdjhis'kk yksx bu laKkukRed i)fr;ksa ds tfj, fyax vkèkkfjr HksnHkko dh 'kk[kk dks U;wu dj ldrs gSaA ,sls lewg ftlesa lHkh fyaxksa ds yksx gksa vkSj ftuds lnL;ksa dh ,dnwljs ij fuHkZjrk gks os laKkukRed ySafxd HksnHkko ls de çHkkfor jgrs gSaA ;fn uhfrfuekZrk vkSj lk{kkrdrkZ ifjek.kkRed ekunaM ij vkèkkfjr oLrqfuB vkadM+ksa dk bLrseky djds vius QSlys dks tkfgj djrs gSa rc Hkh bu iwokZxzgksa dks nck;k tk ldrk gSA oxhZdj.k ds mi;qZä fl)kar dks x‚MZu MCY;w- vyiksVZ dh fdrkc ^n uspj v‚Q fiztqfMl*] ,fMlu ,aM osLys] jhfMax] ,e-,- 1979 ls fy;k x;k gSA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 32
  31. 31. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl çfØ;k uksV% bl vH;kl dks vkoklh; dk;Z'kkyk esa fd;k tk,] ¼nwljs vkSj rhljs fnu½ var%dj.k esa kaduk y{; vius Lo;a ds thou esa iq#kRo vkSj L=khRo dh cqukoV dh lw{e iM+rky djuk i¼fr NksVh dsfUær lewg ifjppkZ lkexzh pkVZ isij vkSj jaxhu ekdZj isu le; 'kke 1- lewg dks milewg esa ckaV fn;k tk,] lqfoèkkuqlkj leku fyax ds lewg esaA ;fn ;g laHko ugha gS rks lHkh milewgksa dks fefJr lewg ds rkSj ij jgus fn;k tk,A 2- çR;sd lewg dks nks eqíksa ls lacafèkr ç'uksa ds lsV fn;k tk,aA milewgksa ds chp ç'uksa ds lsV dk bLrseky djrs gq, dsafær lkewfgd ifjppkZ ¼QksdLM xzqi fMLd'ku½ djk;k tk, rkfd os bl lenkjh rd igqap ldsa fd dSls ;s eqís muds thou dks çHkkfor dj jgs gSaA lewg ds lnL;ksa ds chp t:jh ugha gS fd ,d leku lgefr cus] ysfdu ;g mEehn dh tkuh pkfg, fd os ,d lewg ds rjhds ls viuh rgdhdkr djsaA 3- çR;sd milewg dks viuk ,d usrk pquus fn;k tk, fdlh ,sls O;fä dks] ftlesa lewg ds çR;sd lnL; dks bl çfØ;k esa Hkkxhnkj cukus vkSj muls ,d nwljs ds lkFk lkk dj ldus dh yyd gksA milewg ds fdlh ,d lnL; }kjk iwjh çfØ;k dks fjd‚MZ fd;k tk,A 4- eqíksa dks Bhd ls leus vkSj mlds Hkhrj igqap ldus ds fy, mi lewgksa dks ftruk le; pkfg,] og fn;k tk,A fofoèk ç'uksa ij cgl djus ds nkSjku lewgksa dks bl ckr ds fy, çksRlkfgr djsa fd os ftruk laHko gks mruh xgjkbZ esa ckr dks ysdj tk,aA 5- çR;sd lewg dks vxyh lqcg çLrqfr nsus dks dgk tk,A çR;sd çLrqfr ds nkSjku cgl dks QSflfyVsVj çksRlkgu nsa vkSj fQj ls ,d lkewfgd çfrfØ;k dh iM+rky djsaA 6- vH;kl ds nkSjku fofHkUu eqíksa ij çR;sd milewgksa ds chp ls vkus okyh ckrksa dk lkjla{ksi fd;k tk, vkSj bl ifjppkZ dks vkxs c+k;k tk, fd dSls iq#kRo vkSj L=hRo dh voèkkj.kk gekjs thou dks çHkkfor djrh gSA 7- fQj ls tsaMj dh fufeZfr vkSj lkekU;rk dh fufeZfr] tks mUgha laLFkkvksa ds tfj, lq–+ gksrs gSa ftuls lekt dk fuekZ.k gqvk gS] mu çeq[k fcanqvksa dks m)`r djrs gq, vH;kl dk lkj fudkyk tk,A mRihM+u ds pØ ¼lkbdy v‚Q v‚çs'ku] i`-36½ dk lanHkZ ysaA fL=;ksa vkSj iq#kksa ds O;ogkj] [kkl rkSj ij Hkkoqd vfHkO;fä] vkRe lEeku] fgalk vkSj vkuan ds {ks=ksa ij dsafær jgsaA lewg cVokjk igyk lewg % ifjppkZ ds eqís l ykyuikyu l lQyrk nwljk lewg % ifjppkZ ds eqís l laHkj.k l Hkkoqdrk rhljk lewg % ifjppkZ ds eqís l fgalk ;k mxzrk l laj{kd dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 33
  32. 32. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl var%dj.k esa kaduk (tkjh---) pkSFkk lewg % ifjppkZ ds eqís l ;kSfudrk@vkuan Qksdl xzqi ;k lewg ifjppkZ ds fy, ekxZn'kZd iz'u 1- ykyuikyu vkids cpiu ds vuqHko D;k gSa ¼lanHkZ% diM+s] [kkuk] [ksy] fdrkcsa bR;kfn½ l vkidks igysigy dc Kkr gqvk gqvk vkidks dSls ;g eglwl gqvk l vkids cM+s gksus ij vkils vkids ifjokj us D;kD;k mEehnsa yxk j[kh gSa l D;k gksxk] vxj vki mu mEehnksa ij [kjs ugha mrjrs gSa l ?kj esa efgyk lnL;ksa ds eqdkcys iq#k lnL;ksa ds lkFk fdl rjg dk O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gS l nksuksa ds fy, vktknh dk Lrj D;k gS l cM+s gksus ds lkFk vkids ifjokj esa iq#k lnL;ksa vkSj efgyk lnL;ksa dh ftEesnkfj;ksa vkSj muls dh tkus okyh mEehnksa esa fdl rjg dk varj gS l vius tsaMj ds fygkt ls vkius vius fy, D;kD;k mEehnsa] Hkwfedk,a vkSj O;ogkj lksp j[kk gS D;k vki blls [kq'k gSa l cguksaHkkb;ksa ds lkFk vkidk lacaèk dSlk gS l D;k dksbZ ,slh pht gS ftls vkids HkkbZcgu dj ldrs gSa] ysfdu vkids fy, og oftZr gS l blls vkidks dSlk eglwl gksrk gS l tc vki fd'kksjkoLFkk esa igqaps rks vkidh ftanxh] ifjos'k] fØ;kdykiksa esa D;k D;k varj vk;k l vius 'kjhj esa vk jgs cnykoksa ij vkius dSlk eglwl fd;k l 2- lQyrk lQyrk vkids fy, D;k gS ifjHkkfkr djsaA ,d ;qok L=h ;k iq#k gksus ds ukrs vkids lius vkSj pkgr D;kD;k gSa vkSj D;ksa gSa l vki fdl rjg mUgsa gkfly djsaxs vkSj fdl rjg ugha djsaxs l ,sls dkSudkSu ls dkjd gSa tks vkids bu liuksa dks gkfly djus esa vkidh enn djsaxs ;k blesa vojksèkd cusaxs l vki fdl pht dks lQyrk ekurs gSa vki lQyrk dks dSls ekisaxs ¼mnkgj.k ds fy,] dfBu 'kkjhfjd ifjJe] ifjokj dk ikyuiksk.k] foÙkh;] fj'rsnkjhukrsnkjh] HkkSfrd oLrqvksa dh çkfIr] vkfn½ l dSlsdgka vkidks eglwl gqvk fd thou esa vki lQy gSa l vki fdl pht dks vlQyrk ekurs gSa l dSlsdgka vkidks eglwl gqvk fd thou esa vki vlQy gSa l vxj vkidk tUe nwljs fyax esa gqvk gksrk rks phtsa vkids fy, fdl rjg fHkUu gksrha l D;k lQyrk dks gkfly djus ds Øe esa vkius dksbZ ncko eglwl fd;k vxj fd;k] rks os D;k Fks] LiV djsa l l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 34
  33. 33. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk l D;k vki ;g ekurs gSa fd iq#kksa vkSj efgykvksa ds fy, lQyrk leku vFkZ j[krh gS dSls 3- miktZd ds eqís Hkj.kiksk.k vkids fy, D;k vFkZ j[krk gS l fdl rjg vki vius ifjokj dk Hkj.kiksk.k djrs gSa l ifjokj ds Hkj.kiksk.k ds fy, vki fdu nckoksa dk lkeuk djrs gSa l dekus vkSj u dekus ds çfr vki dSlk eglwl djrs gSa l D;k vki viuh ekStwnk dekbZ ls larqV gSa l vius ifjokj ds eq[; miktZd gksus ds çfr vki dSlk eglwl djrs gSa l vki mu iq#kksa dks ysdj D;k eglwl djrs@djrh gSa tks vius ifjokj dk Hkj.kiksk.k ugha djrs l vki mu ifjokjksa ds ckjs esa D;k eglwl djrs gSa ftuesa çeq[k ikyudrkZ iRuh gksrh gSa l ,d iq#k gksus ds ukrs vkidks dSlk yxsxk ;fn vkidh iRuh dke ij tk, vkSj vkidks ?kj ij jgdj ?kjsyw dkedkt ns[kuk iM+s l vki vius ls T;knk dekus okys iq#kksa ds eqdkcys [kqn dks dSlk eglwl djrs@djrh gSa l vki vius ls T;knk dekus okyh efgykvksa dks ysdj dSlk eglwl djrs gSa l foÙkh; ncko vkidks dSls çHkkfor djrk gS l iq#k gksus ds ukrs vius ifjokj ds foÙkh; laHkj.k ds vfrfjä vki ifjokj esa vkSj D;k ;ksxnku nsrs gSa l efgyk,a fdl rjg vius ?kjifjokj ds fy, laHkj.k djrh gSa l D;k ;g iq#kksa }kjk dh tkus okyh O;oLFkk ds cjkcj gS l 4- Hkkoqdrklaosx ifjHkkfkr djsa fd Hkkoqdrk vkids fy, D;k ek;us j[krh gS l iq#k] lkekU;r% fdl rjhds ls viuh Hkkoqdrk dks tkfgj djrs gSa l efgyk,a] lkekU;r% fdl rjhds ls viuh Hkkoqdrk dks tkfgj djrh gSa l D;k vkidks ;kn gS fd cpiu esa dHkh vkidks viuh laosxHkkoqdrk dks fu;af=r djus ds fy, dgk x;k Fkk l cpiu ds eqdkcys bl le; vki viuh Hkkoqdrk dks fdl rjg O;ä djrs gSa l tc vki NksVs Fks@NksVh Fkha] ml le; vkius viuh Hkkoqdrk dks dqN bl rjg ls tkfgj dj fn;k gks tks oftZr ekuk tkrk gksA rc D;k gqvk Fkk l Hkkoqdrk esa fdl rjg O;ogkj djuk gS] ;g vkius fdlls lh[kk l os dkSu yksx Fks ftUgksaus vkidks crk;k fd Hkkoqdrk esa [kkl rjg ls O;ogkj djuk gS l vki viuh [kq'kh] vius xqLls] viuh galh] etkd vkSj mnklh dks fdl rjg O;ä djrs@djrh gSa l tc vki mi;qZä laosx dks O;ä djrs@djrh gSa rks ml rjhds ij yksx dSlh çfrfØ;k tkfgj djrs gSa l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 35
  34. 34. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl vki vius vkarfjd ihM+k vkSj pksV dks dSls O;ä djrs@djrh gSa vki nwljs yksxksa ds lkeus bu Hkkoksa dks dSls O;ä djrs gSa l vki jksus okys iq#kksa ds ckjs esa D;k lksprs@lksprh gSa l tc dksbZ iq#k fe= vkids lkeus jksrk gS rks vki dSlh çfrfØ;k tkfgj djrh gSa l tc dksbZ efgyk fe= vkids lkeus jksrh gS rks vki dSlh çfrfØ;k tkfgj djrs gSa l l var%dj.k esa kaduk (tkjh---) 5- fgalkmxzrk vki fdls fgalk ekurs@ekurh gSa] ifjHkkfkr djsa l cpiu esa fdlfdl rjg dh fgalk ls vkidk lkeuk gqvk l D;k vki lksprs@lksprh gSa fd cpiu esa fgalk fdlh mís'; dks iwjk djrh gS l cM+s gksus ij vkids fgald ;k mxz O;ogkj ij vkius ç'kalk ik;h gS ;k MkaV l fgalk ds tfj, vius xqLls dks tkfgj djus ij vc vki dSlk eglwl djrs@djrh gSa l D;k vkius dHkh fgald O;ogkj fd;k gS l fdl rjhds ls vkiesa fgalk çdV gqbZ gS ¼ekufld] Hkkoqd] 'kkjhfjd] ;k ;kSfud½ l vkius bl lacaèk esa dSlk eglwl fd;k l vkius fgald O;ogkj D;ksa fd;k l D;k dksbZ ,slk O;fä tks vkidk utnhdh gks] dHkh vkids çfr fgald gqvk gS l fdlh vtuch dh fgalk] ?kjsyw lnL;ksa ;k ikVZuj dh fgalk ls fdl rjg fHkUu gS l iq#kksa ds eqdkcys efgyk,a fdl rjg fgalk djrh gSa l iq#kksa ds eqdkcys efgyk,a fdl rjg fgalk ls eqdkcyk djrh gSa l fdlh fLFkfr fo'ksk esa vkØked gksus ;k fgald gksus ds fy, iq#k fdl rjg ds ncko eglwl djrk gS l vki ,sls iq#kksa ds ckjs esa D;k lksprs@lksprh gSa tks yM+kbZ NksM+ dj Hkkx tkrs gksa l D;k vkidks yxrk gS fd dHkhdHkh fgalk dh t:jr iM+rh gS l vki ml le; dSlk eglwl djrs@djrh gSa tc vius ls cM+s O;fä ds lkFk vki cgl esa iM+ tkrs@tkrh gSa l D;k dHkh vkius fdlh dks èkedk;k gS ;k fdlh dh èkkSal lquh gS vkius dSlk eglwl fd;k l fp+kus ;k NsM+us dks ysdj vkidh D;k jk; gS D;k ,slk vkius dHkh fd;k gS l ,slk D;ksa gksrk gS l vius vfèkdkjksa ds çfr eq[kj jgus okyh efgykvksa ds ckjs esa vki D;k utfj;k j[krs@j[krh gSa l 'kkjhfjd :i ls vius ls vfèkd etcwr efgyk dks ysdj vki D;k lksprs@lksprh gSa l vius O;ogkj esa vkØkedfgald jgus okyh efgyk ls tc vki ckrphr dj jgs gksrs@gksrh gSa] rc vki dSlk eglwl djrs@djrh gSa l vxj fdlh efgyk dks mldk ifr FkIiM+ ekjrk gS rks D;k tokc l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 36
  35. 35. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk esa mls Hkh FkIiM+ jlhn djuk pkfg, 9- laj{kd laj{kd dk vFkZ vkids fy, D;k gS fdls vkSj fdl rjhds ls vkils lqj{kk pkfg, l vki D;ksa ,slk eglwl djrs@djrh gSa fd vkidks nwljksa dh lqj{kk djuh pkfg, l D;k nwljksa dh lqj{kk djus ds fy, vki ij dksbZ ncko gS vxj ,slk gS rks vki muds ckjs esa D;k lksprs@lksprh gSa l D;k nwljksa dh lqj{kk ds fy, vkius dHkh fgalk dh t:jr eglwl dh gS l D;k vkius dHkh eglwl fd;k fd vkidks lqj{kk dh t:jr gS vki fdl rjg ls viuh lqj{kk pkgsaxs@pkgsaxh l D;k vkius dHkh nwljs dh lqj{kk djus ds dke dk cks eglwl fd;k gS l vki ,sls vkneh ds ckjs esa D;k eglwl djrs gSa tks fdlh {kfr ls viuh vkSj vius ifjokj dh lqj{kk djus esa v{ke gks l D;k vkidks yxrk gS fd efgykvksa dh lqj{kk dh tkuh pkfg, vxj ,slk gS rks D;ksa l fdl rjg dh lqj{kk dh t:jr vkids fglkc ls efgykvksa dks gS l fdl rjg dh lqj{kk dh t:jr vkids fglkc ls iq#kksa dks gS l vius ifjokj] ifriRuh] ikVZuj dh lqj{kk dh lcls vfèkd t:jr vki dc eglwl djrs@djrh gSa l og D;k gS ftlls vki mldks ;k mudks lqjf{kr djus dh dksf'k'k djrs@djrh gSa l vkidks mudh lqj{kk dh t:jr D;ksa eglwl gksrh gS l og D;k gS] tks vkidks eglwl djkrk@djkrh gS fd vkidks efgykvksa] vius ifjokj vkSj vius cPpksa dh lqj{kk djuh pkfg, l l 10- ;kSfudrk@vkuan ;kSfudrk dks ifjHkkfkr djsa vkSj crk, fd ;g vkids fy, D;k vFkZ j[krk gS l vkuan dks ifjHkkfkr dhft, vkSj crkb, fd ;g vkids fy, D;k vFkZ j[krh gS l viuh ;kSfudrk dks igysigy dc vkSj dSls vkius tkuk l vki viuh ;kSfudrk ds ckjs esa vPNk eglwl djrs gSa vFkok cqjk D;ksa l D;k vkius viuh ;kSfudrk dks ldkjkRedudkjkRed rjhds ls vuqHko fd;k gS dSls l yM+fd;ksaefgykvksa dh rqyuk esa yM+dsiq#k viuh ;kSfudrk dks dSls eglwl djrs gSa l vius 'kjhj ds fdl fgLls dks vki ilan vFkok ukilan djrs gSa ¼ukd] cky] iSj] yackbZ vkfn½ l efgykvksa ds eqdkcys iq#k viuh 'kkjhfjd fn[kkoV dks fdl rjg egRo nsrs gSa l efgykvksa ds fy, vkdkZ.k ds ladsrd D;kD;k gSa l iq#kksa ds fy, vkdkZ.k ds ladsrd D;kD;k gSa l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 37
  36. 36. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl D;k mi;qZä ckrsa vkids lkFk Hkh ykxw gksrh gSa efgykvksa ij 'kkjhfjd :i ls vkdkZd fn[kus ds fy, fdl rjg ds ncko gksrs gSa l iq#kksa ij 'kkjhfjd :i ls vkdkZd fn[kus ds fy, fdl rjg ds ncko gksrs gSa l D;ksa 'kjhj ij mxs cky iq#kksa ds fy, Lohdk;Z gksrs gSa vkSj efgykvksa ds fy, vLohdk;Z l D;ksa 'kjhj ij de cky gksuk ;k cky ugha gksuk iq#kksa ds fy, Lohdk;Z ugha gksrk gS l vkids fglkc ls iq#k dh ,d laiw.kZ Nfo D;k gS ¼igys iq#kksa ls iwNsa fQj efgykvksa ls½ l vkius ml Nfo dks fdl rjg eglwl fd;k l *ukenZ* 'kCn lquus ds lkFk gh vkids fnekx esa D;k dkSaèkrk gS l 'kkjhfjd :i ls iq#k ls ,d efgyk D;k pkgrh gS l 'kkjhfjd :i ls efgyk ls ,d iq#k D;k pkgrk gS l D;ksa vius ;kSu lacaèkksa ds ckjs esa iq#k 'ks[kh c?kkjrk jgrk gS] tcfd lkekU; rkSj ij efgyk,a ,slk ugha djrh gSa l D;k dHkh vkius vius ;kSu lacaèkksa dks vkReç'kalk ds fy, c+kp+k dj is'k fd;k gS vxj ,slk gS rks fQj vki blls eqä dSls gq, l ;kSu vuqHko ysus esa fdl rjg dk ncko iq#k eglwl djrs gSa l 'kknh ls igys dkSek;Z cuk;s j[kus ds fy, yM+fd;ka fdl rjg dk ncko eglwl djrh gSa l fookg ls igys ;kSu lacaèk j[kus okys iq#kksa ds ckjs esa vki D;k lksprs@lksprh gSa l fookg ls igys ;kSu lacaèk j[kus okyh efgykvksa ds ckjs esa vki D;k lksprs@lksprh gSa l vki ,sls iq#kksa ds ckjs esa D;k lksprs@lksprh gSa tks fookg ds ckn Hkh nwljksa ds lkFk ;kSu lacaèk cukus dh laHkkouk ryk'krs jgrs gSa ,slh gh efgykvksa ds ckjs esa vki D;k lksprs@lksprh gSa l iq#k fdl rjg [kqn dks ;kSu :i ls vlqjf{kr eglwl dj ldrk gS l lsDl dh igy iq#k@efgyk djrk@djrh gS vkSj D;ksa djrk@ djrh gS iq#kksa ij lsDl ds fy, igy djus dks ysdj fdl rjg ds ncko gksrs gSa l D;k gksxk ;fn nwljk bls 'kq: djs l efgykvksa dh rqyuk esa iq#k fdu rjhdksa ls ;kSu bPNk dk vuqHko djrs gSa l l var%dj.k esa kaduk (tkjh---) dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 38
  37. 37. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl iq#kRo vkSj L=khRo y{; iq#kRo vkSj L=khRo dh voèkkj.kkvksa rFkk bls nks foijhr fyaxksa ds yksx dSls ns[krs gSa] bldks leuk i¼fr tksM+h vkSj lewg ifjppkZ çfØ;k 1- lewg dks tksM+ksa esa ckaV ysa] lqfoèkkuqlkj leku fyaxksa ds tksM+ksa esaA mUgsa çR;sd L=h ds fy, dfork i+us ds fy, nsaA ¼uksV% xSjfganhHkkkh lewg vkSj fefJr lewg ds fy, ,d vuqoknd eqgS;k djk,a vFkok dfork dk vuqokn dj ysaA½ 2- tksM+ksa ls ppkZ djsa fd os dfork ds ckjs esa D;k eglwl dj jgs gSaA 3- çR;sd O;fä dks vius tksM+hnkj ls lkk dj fuEufyf[kr ç'uksa ds mÙkj nsus ds fy, dgsa% l L=hRo vkids fy, D;k vFkZ j[krk gS l iq#kRo vkids fy, D;k vFkZ j[krk gS 4- nl feuV ds ckn] yksxksa dks viusvius lewg esa 'kkfey gksus dks dgsa vkSj muls fuEu ckrksa ds bnZfxnZ laf{kIr ifjppkZ djsa% iq#k lnL;ksa ls L=hRo ij viuh jk; lkk djus dks dgsaA l D;k lewg dh efgyk lnL; L=hRo ds eryc ij vius iq#k lkFkh ls lgefr j[krh gS l lkexzh gSaMvkmV3% çR;sd L=kh ds fy, liQsn cksMZ vkSj jaxhu ekdZj isu le; 75 feuV lgefr vkSj vlefr ds {ks= D;kD;k gSa l efgyk lnL;ksa ls iq#kRo ij viuh jk; lkk djus dks dgsaA l D;k lewg ds iq#k lnL; L=hRo vkSj iq#kRo ds eryc ij viuh efgyk lkFkh ls lgefr j[krk gS l lgefr vkSj vlgefr ds {ks= D;kD;k gSa QSflfyVsVj fuEu ç'uksa ds lgkjs dqN vkSj Hkh gkfly dj ldrs gSa% l dkSu ;g r; djrk gS fd iq#kksfpr D;k gS vkSj fL=;ksfpr D;k gS ;g D;ksa ifjHkkfkr fd;k tkrk gS vkSj bls dkSu çksRlkfgr djrk gS l D;k iq#kRo vkSj L=hRo dh ifjHkkkk le; ds lkFk cnyh gS dSls l D;k fL=;ksa esa rFkkdfFkr iq#kksfpr xq.k ;k fo'kskrk,a ikbZ tkrh gSa ¼tSls fd] eksVh vkokt] flj ds NksVs cky vkSj vkØked ç—fr½ D;k ;g fdlh Hkh rjhds ls mUgsa uhpk djrh gS] vFkok mUgsa laokjrh gS l D;k iq#kksa esa rFkkdfFkr fL=;ksfpr xq.k ;k fo'kskrk,a ikbZ tkrh gSa vxj os ,slk djrs gSa rks D;k ;g fdlh Hkh rjhds ls mUgsa uhpk djrh gaS] vFkok mUgsa laokjrh gSa l lekt] ,sls iq#kksa ds lkFk ftUgsa vfèkd fL=;ksfpr xq.k okyk lek tkrk gS vkSj ,slh fL=;ksa ds lkFk ftUgsa vfèkd iq#kksfpr xq.k okyk lek tkrk gS] fdl rjg dk O;ogkj fn[kkrk gS l lekt] èkeZ] laL—fr vkSj ehfM;k fdl rjg iq#kRo vkSj L=hRo ij gekjh le vkSj vuqHko dks çHkkfor djrs gSa l vkidks D;k yxrk gSa fd iq#k] fL=;ksa dks ugha lers gSa l vkidks D;k yxrk gS fd fL=;ka] iq#kksa dks ugha lerh gSa l D;k tsaMj dh Hkwfedkvksa dks vkil esa cnyk tk ldrk gS vxj gka] rks dSls l iq#kRo vkSj L=hRo ds Hkko fdl rjg gesa Hkkoqd] 'kkjhfjd] lkekftd vkSj ekufld rkSj ij lhfer djrs gSa l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 39
  38. 38. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl iq#kRo vkSj L=khRo (tkjh---) 5- fuEu fcanqvksa dks m)`r djrs gq, l= dks fudkZ rd ys tk,a% l iq#kRo vkSj L=hRo ,d rjhdk gS ftlls gekjs Hkhrj dk tsaMj [kqn eq[kj gks tkrk gSA budh fufeZfr vkSj var% 'kksk.k cpiu ls gh gksrk gS u rks ;s lgt gS vkSj u gh tSfod ¼ck;ksy‚ftdy½A l bu fufeZfr;ksa ls ckgj tkus dk eryc gS lkekftd :i ls vLohdk;Z gks tkuk tSls fd fgtM+s] L=S.k iq#k] enkZuk efgyk,a] iq#k leySafxd] efgyk leySafxd] VªkaltsaMj] VªkallsDlqvYl vkfnA l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 40
  39. 39. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk gSaMvkmV3 çR;sd L=kh ds fy, uSUlh vkj- fLeFk çR;sd ml L=kh ds fy, tks detksj yxus ds cks ls Åc pqdh gS] ;g tkuus ds ckn fd og etcwr gS] ,d iq#k gS tks Lo;a dks detksj eglwl djus ds ckotwn viuh etcwrh fn[kkus ls Åc pqdk gSA çR;sd ml L=kh ds fy, tks de tkuus dk vfHku; djus ls Åc pqdh gS] ,d iq#k gS tks ^lc dqN* tkuus ds lrr Hkkj ls nck tk jgk gSA çR;sd ml L=kh ds fy, tks vius dks ^,d Hkkoqd L=kh* iqdkjs tkus ls Åc pqdh gS] ,d iq#k gS tks jks Hkh ugha ldrk vkSj lkFk gh 'kkyhu cus jgus dks etcwj gSA çR;sd ml L=kh ds fy, tks vius dks cPpksa ds lkFk ^cka/ nh x;h* eglwl djrh gS] ,d iq#k gS ftls firk gksus dh Hkjiwj [kq'kh gkfly ugha gSA çR;sd ml L=kh ds fy, ftls vFkZiw.kZ jkstxkj vkSj leku osru ugha feyrk gS] ,d iq#k gS ftl ij nwljksa ds vkfFkZd cks dks vo'; ogu djuk gSA çR;sd ml L=kh ds fy, ftls vkWVkseksckby okgu dh tfVyrk dks ugha fl[kk;k x;k gS] ,d iq#k gS ftls [kkuk cukus esa feyus okyh larqfV dh tkudkjh ugha gSA çR;sd ml L=kh ds fy, tks viuh vktknh dh vksj ,d dne vkxs c+ tkrh gS] ,d iq#k gS ftls tku iM+rk gS fd vktknh dk jkLrk dqN gh vklku cuk gSA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 41
  40. 40. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl 'kfDr] HksnHkko vkSj mRihM+u y{; 'kfDr] HksnHkko esa bldh Hkwfedk vkSj mRihM+u ds Hkko dks leuk i¼fr vH;kl djkuk] O;fDrxr varn'kZu] eaFku lkexzh gSaMvkmV4% mRihM+u ^ckgj fudkyus dk pØ*] çfrHkkfx;ksa ds ukeksa dh lwph] fcafn;ksa ds iSdsV (nks jax] felky ds rkSj ij ukjaxh vkSj dkyk)] gSaMvkmV5% HksnHkko] gSaMvkmV6% 'kfDr le; 90 feuV çfØ;k 1- lewg dks nks mi lewgkasa esa ckaV ysaA lewg ds 70 Qhln yksxksa dks *ikojMkmu* mi lewg esa j[ksa vkSj cps gq, 30 Qhln dks *ikoj vi* xzqi esa j[ksaA ;fn laHko gks rks bl vH;kl ls igys ;g r; dj ys fd dkSu dkSu çfrHkkxh *ikojvi* lewg ds fy, mi;qä gksaxs tSls] cfgeqZ[kh vkSj vkØked rsoj ds çfrHkkfx;ksa dks ikojvi lewg esa j[kuk fnypLi gksxk rkfd vH;kl çHkkodkjh gks ldsA *ikojvi* lewg dks NksVs mi lewg ds :i esa pquus ds ihNs dkj.k ;g gS fd çfrHkkfx;ksa dk cM+k rcdk 'kfäghu'kksfkr gksus] ihfM+r gksus vkSj vius lkFk HksnHkko fd, tkus ds vieku vkSj voeku dks eglwl dj ldsA 2- *ikojMkmu* lewg dks ukjaxh fcanh vkSj *ikoj vi* lewg dks dkyh fcanh yxkus dks nsaA 3- nks QSflfyVsVj lwpuk çkIr djus ds fy, çR;sd lewg ds lkFk gks ysaA uhps nh x;h lwpukvksa dk bLrseky djrs gq, QSflfyVsVj] lewg ds lnL;ksa ls ckr djrs le; ukVdh; ax ls mls çLrqr djsaA QSflfyVsVj çfrHkkfx;ksa dks LokHkkfod rkSj ij çfrfØ;k tkfgj djus nsa] mUgsa ;g crkdj fd ;s lc vH;kl dk fgLlk gSA iwjs 15 feuV rd mi lewg dks mlds 'kfä'kkyh vkSj 'kfäghu fLFkfr;ksa dks Bhd ls eglwl djus nsaA fo}sk vkSj vlarksk ;k vius dks egÙoiw.kZ leus ds cksèk vkSj egkurk tSls Hkkoksa dks çfrHkkfx;ksa] tks *ikojvi* mi lewg ds gSa] esa c+us nsaA vH;kl lpeqp gksus okyh fØ;k tSlk gksuk pkfg,A ikojvi xzqi ¼dkyh fcanh½ ikojMkmu xzqi ¼ukjaxh fcanh½ muds ikl dgha vfèkd lQyrk dh laHkkouk,a gSa l os yksx tUetkr 'kkld gSa l muds ikl 'kfä'kkyh O;fäRo gSa l os tgka Hkh tkrs gSa ogka os Nki NksM+ tkrs gSa l os yksx cgqr feyulkj vkSj lkekftd gSa l os yksx tks Hkh djrs gSa mlesa os vfuok;Z :i ls lQy jgrs gSa l cgqr de ç;kl ls gh os iwath vkSj LFkku dk ykHk gkfly dj ysrs gSa l mudh xfr'khyrk vkSj lQyrk,a lqfuf'pr djk jgh gSa fd os Åaph txgksa ij tk,axs vkSj sjksa iSls rFkk bTtr dek,axs l mudh izR;qÙkjefr Åaps Lrj dh cqf)erk] laosnu'khyrk vkSj çoh.krk dks n'kkZrh gS l l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk os Hk;kud Hkwy djrs gSa l os cgqr csdkj gSa l os lsok djus ds fy, gh tUes gSa l mudk O;fäRo bruk ean gS fd os thou ds lkFk cgqr yack lQj djus esa v{ke gSa l mUgsa pkgr ds lkFk ;kn ugha fd;k tk,xk l gj dksbZ mudh laxr esa vkus ls cpuk pkgrk gS l os ges'kk gkjs gq, gh jgsaxs ;k fQj thou esa vfèkd ls vfèkd ,d vkSlr O;fä cu ik,axs l os csgn dfBu ifjJe ds ckn cgqr de çkIr djus okys gSa l mudh lQyrk dk nj U;wure jgus okyk gS l os yksx ean xfr ls lh[kus okys vkSj laosnughu gSa n 42
  41. 41. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk 4- bl fcanq ij pk; ds fy, czsd dh ;kstuk jf[k,A 5- pk; czsd ds nkSjku ;g è;ku nsa fd mi lewg ,dnwljs ds lkFk fefJr gks ldsaA ftl rjg os lksp jgs gSa] mlh vuq:i mUgsa ,dnwljs ds lkFk feyus fn;k tk,A 6- 10 feuV ds ckn mi lewgksa dks okil çf'k{k.k d{k esa cqyk ysa vkSj muls ,dnwljs ds ckjs esa çfrfØ;k] Hkko] mÙkj ds lacaèk esa iwNasA l *ikojvi* mi lewg dks tc mldh ^egkurk* ds ckjs esa crk;k x;k rks mlds lnL; D;k eglwl dj jgs FksA *ikojMkmu* mi lewg ds yksxksa dks dSlk eglwl gqvk tc mUgsa yxkrkj uhpk j[kk x;k vkSj mUgsa nck;k x;kA 7- pk; czsd ds nkSjku nksuksa lewg ds yksxksa ds vkil esa feyutqyus ds rkSjrjhdksa ij ,d ifjppkZ vk;ksftr dhft,A mUgsa mu fooj.kksa dks crkus nhft, fd mUgksaus D;ksa vkSj D;k eglwl fd;kA ,d lQsn iê ¼cksMZ½ ij mu çfrfØ;kvksa dks uksV dhft,A 8- vc ;g crkb, fd ;g egt vH;kl Fkk vkSj okLro esa 'kfä dh O;oLFkk ds vanj lekt ,sls gh dke djrk gSA 9- çfrHkkfx;ksa ls ml thou fLFkfr;ksa ds ckjs esa lkspus dks dfg,] tks mUgksaus *ikojvi* vkSj ikojMkmu* mi lewgksa esa viuh Hkwfedk fuHkkus ds le; eglwl fd;k FkkA 10- ;g LiV djsa fd vH;kl esa fdlh Hkh mi lewg dks ,dnwljs ds çfr HksnHkko viukus vkSj mls nfer djus dks ugha dgk x;k FkkA mi lewg us viuh 'kfä;ksa dks n'kkZuk] HksnHkko fn[kkuk vkSj nfer djuk [kqn vius ls lh[kkA vH;kl ds nkSjku os O;ogkj fudy dj ckgj vk x,A 11- mi lewg dks crk,a fd tks ckrsa mUgsa crkbZ xbZ Fkha] os lp ugha gaS vkSj os lc dfYir dFkkud Hkj FkhaA QSflfyVsVj ds ukrs ;g lqfuf'pr djsa fd muds chp dksbZ dVq Hkkouk u iSnk gqbZ gks rFkk mUgsa bl pqukSrhiw.kZ vH;kl esa fgLlsnkjh djus ds fy, çksRlkfgr djsaA l 'kfä 12- lek,a fd 'kfä fofHkUu Lrjksa ij ekStwn jgrh gSA bldk lgh ;k xyr bLrseky fd;k tk ldrk gSA 'kfä;ksa ds fofHkUu çdkj gSa% l 'kfDr Åij ;k uhps% fdlh ij ;k fdlh dh 'kfä% lacaèk] opZLo vkSj ekrgrh esa l djus dh 'kfä% jpukRed vkSj Loh—fr yk;d] O;fäxr l'kfädj.k ds lRo l fdlh ds lkFk 'kfä% lkewfgd 'kfä] laxfBr 'kfä l var%'kfä% LoLohdk;Zrk vkSj vkRelEeku ds vkèkkj ij] nwljksa dk vknj djus vkSj leku :i ls mUgsa Lohdkj djus rd esa l{ke 13- lewg ls bl ij fopkj djus dks dfg, fd 'kfä ds ;s fofHkUu rjhds fdl rjg ls thou esa dke djrs gSa vkSj tc os ihfM+r Nksj ij gksrs gSa rks mUgsa dSlk yxrk gSA lewg ls Bhd mUgha dh rjg HksnHkko vkSj mRihM+u lgus okys lewgksa dh igpku djus dks dfg,A 14- D;k lewg ds lnL; ekurs gSa fd 'kfä dk vH;kl djus ds ckn tc os bldk bLrseky djsaxs rks nqckjk bl ij lkspsaxs dkuwu ykxw djus okyh ,tsafl;ksa dks bl lewph 'kfä] ifj–'; esa fdl rjg dh Hkwfedk vnk djuh pkfg,A 15- dSls 'kfä dks ykxw vkSj fu;af=r djus esa tsaMj O;oLFkk dk bLrseky fd;k tkrk gS bldks lkj la{ksi esa lesVsaA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 43
  42. 42. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk gSaMvkmV4 mRihM+u@viotZu dk pØ ge buesa tUes gSa% O;fäxr xfrfofèk;ka cukrh gSa vkSj dk;e j[krh gSa opZLo'kkyh oSpkfjdh ij vkèkkfjr O;ofLFkr vkSj lajpukxr mRihM+u% tUe ds lkFk gh ge ftu lHkh laLFkkvksa ds laidZ esa vkrs gSa] ge ij mudh oSpkfjdh vlj Mkyrh gS o;Ld% o;Ld gksus ij ge lkekU;h—r fo'oklksa dk iqfyank cukrs gSa vkSj bu O;k[;kvksa ij vkèkkfjr fo'oklksa dh ifjfLFkfr esa tc ge O;ogkj djrs gSa rks HksnHkko djus yxrs gSa ckY;koLFkk% cpiu esa ge lewph nqfu;k dks bu laLFkkvksa ds utfj, ls lers gSa gekjh O;fäxr futh lenkjh :f+c) èkkj.kkvksa ¼LVhfj;ksVkbIl½ dks vkSj c+krh gS ;qokoLFkk% ;qok O;fDr ds rkSj ij ge vius pkjksa rjQ cgqr lkjh phtsa ns[krs gSa tks gekjs vc rd ds O;fäxr vuqHkoksa dk çfrcac gksrh gSaA blls iwokZxzg vkSj vfèkd c+ tkrs gaS dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 44
  43. 43. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk gSaMvkmV5 iwokZxzg dk çn'kZu iwokZxzg ;g D;k gS 1- yf{kr lewg ds çfr ekSf[kd fojksèk vkSj lkekU; rkSj ij migkl mM+kus] mUgsa NksVk leus ;k mudh vkykspuk djus ds tfj, ;g vfHkO;ä gksrk gSA 2- ukilan djus okys lewg ds çfr tku cwdj fd, x, ç;kl ds ekè;e ls muds lnL;ksa ls laidZ ugha djuk iwokZxzg esa fufgr gSA 3- HksnHkko laHkor% iwokZxzg çnf'kZr djus dk lcls vke rjhdk gSA blesa] ,d [kkl lewg ds yksxksa ds lkFk vU;k;iw.kZ O;ogkj gksrk gSA felky ds rkSj ij Hkkjr esa efgykvksa ds lkFk vU;k;iw.kZ O;ogkj gksrk gS vkSj mUgsa dqN ,slh lqfoèkkvksa ls oafpr fd;k tkrk gS ftudk iq#k bLrseky djrs gSaA 4- vius Hkhk.k :i esa iwokZxzg] ukilan fd, tkus okys lewg ds yksxksa ij 'kkjhfjd geyksa ds :i esa vfHkO;ä gksrk gSA 5- fuewZyu ¼lagkj dj nsuk½] iwokZxzg dk lcls Hkhk.k çn'kZu gS] ftlesa ukilan fd, tkus okys lewg ds yksxksa dk lhèks lhèks lQk;k ;k [kkRek dj fn, tkus dk ç;kl gksrk gSA 6- çHkkfor lewg dk 'kksk.k fd;k tkuk vafre gksrk gS tks fuf'pr rkSj ij de ugha gSaA 'kksk.k iwokZxzg ds çn'kZu dk ,d dkj.k ;k rjhdk gks ldrk gSA 1- iwokZxzg ,d joS;k gSA 2- ;g ,d lewg ds vanj dh fof'kV ifj?kVuk gSA ;g vius esa :f+c) èkkj.kkvksa vkSj iwoZfu.kZ;ksa dks lesVs gksrk gSA 3- blesa udkjkRed mUeq[krk gksrh gSA 4- iwokZxzg èkkj.k djus okys O;fä ij fuHkZj djrk gSA ;g ges'kk çHkkfor O;fä ds lkFk mlds lgh lacaèkksa dks ugha n'kkZrk gSA 5- iwokZxzg vfr lkekU;hdj.k ij vkèkkfjr gksrk gSA 6- ,d ckj eu esa iwokZxzg iSB x;k rks blls tYnh futkr ugha feyrkA iwokZxzg ds ?kVd laKkukRed ?kVd% iwokZxzg vius esa nkskiw.kZ vkSj vfM+;y vocksèk] fo'okl] iwoZfu.kZ;ksa vkSj :f+c) èkkj.kkvksa dks lesVs gksrk gS] tks yf{kr lewg dks ysdj iwokZxzgh O;fä ds eu esa ekStwn jgrk gSA l çHkkfor ?kVd% iwokZxzg u flQZ xyr QSlyksa ;k :f+c) èkkj.kkvksa cfYd yf{kr lewg ds ckjs esa udkjkRed Hkkoksa esa Hkh 'kkfey jgrk gSA l l laKkukRed ?kVd ;k dk;Zfofèk ?kVd% çHkkfor lewg ds lkFk dSlk O;ogkj fd;k tkuk pkfg,] iwokZxzg bldh ç—fr vkSj blds rsoj dks vfHkçsfjr djrk gSA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 45
  44. 44. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk HksnHkko vfèkdkjksa dk cjkcjh ds lkFk mi;ksx djus dh ikcanh dks HksnHkko ds :i esa ifjHkkfkr fd;k tk ldrk gS1A t:jh ugha gS fd ;g tkucw dj fd;k x;k gksA ;g ,slh dk;Zfofèk;ksa vkSj uhfr;ksa dks lekfgr djrk gS ftuesa HksnHkko ds çHkko ekStwn gksrs gSaA rhu rjg ds HksnHkko dks lkekU; rkSj ij fpfàr fd;k x;k gSA ;gka fn, mnkgj.k ySafxd HksnHkko ij dsafær gSaA çR;{k HksnHkko ,slh fLFkfr;ksa esa efgykvksa dks flQZ efgyk gksus dh otg ls ;k fL=;ksfpr2 xq.kksa ds lkFk ;k fQj L=hlqyHk fo'kskrkvksa3 dh otg ls de ykHk ;k de çksRlkgu feyrk gSA lqO;ofLFkr HksnHkko ;g HksnHkko tsaMj vkèkkfjr ekU;rkvksa vkSj fo'oklksa ds lewps foLrkj dks bafxr djrk gS tks lkekthdj.k vkSj 'kS{kf.kd çfØ;kvksa dk fgLlk gksrs gaSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] gks ldrk gS fd yM+fd;ka tsaMj ds vuqdwy jgus okys fok;ksa vkSj is'kksa dk vuqdj.k djsa] pwafd iRuh vkSj eka dh mudh Hkwfedkvksa ds eqdkcys mUgsa viuk dSjh;j f} rh;d yx ldrk gSA bl lqO;ofLFkr HksnHkko dk eryc gS fd efgykvksa dks nks;e ntsZ ds Je cktkj dk fgLlk ekuk tkrk gS ckotwn blds fd ikVZVkbe vkSj dStqvy ukSdfj;ka m udh ikfjokfjd ftEesnkfj;ksa ds vuq:i ekuh tkrh gSaA ;g varjoS;fäd dq'kyrk lfgr efgykvksa ds dke djus dh dq'kyrk dks derj vkadus rFkk efgykvksa ds dke dks de ewY; ds dke ds lkFk tksM+ nsus dks n'kkZrk gS] tSls cPpksa dh ftEesnkfj;ka mBkukA vçR;{k HksnHkko ;g rc tkfgj gksrk gS] tc uhfr;ka vkSj O;ogkj fyax ds vkèkkj ij fui{k gksus dk Hkku nsa] ysfdu okLro esa efgykvksa ds lkFk ,sls HksnHkko dks lkeus j[ks vkSj ftUgsa O;olk; dh t:jr ds fygkt ls drbZ mfpr ugha Bgjk;k tk ldrkA yxkrkj dke djus dks inksUufr ds fy, vko';d 'krZ cukuk ,d ,slk mnkgj.k gS ftldk Bhd izHkko ugha gksrk gS] D;ksafd efgyk,a vDlj fujarjrk ds lkFk ukSdjh de gh dj ikrh gSaA 1- ;g HksnHkko fyax] uLy] /keZ] jktuhfrd /kkj.kk] tkfr] lkekftd oxZ] fodykaxrk] mez vFkok ;kSfud #ku] vFkok bu lcds dkj.k 2- cPps tuus esa l{kerk 3- dSjh;j dh miyfC/k;ksa ls T;knk egRo ewY; vk/kkfjr fj'rksa dks nsuk dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 46
  45. 45. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk gSaMvkmV6 'kfDr vke èkkj.kk ds eqrkfcd] 'kfä fdlh O;fä dks gkfly og {kerk gksrh gS ftlds cwrs og fdlh nwljs O;fä ls mldh bPNk ds fo#) dksbZ dke djok nsA 'kfä dh voèkkj.kk lalkèku rd igqap vkSj fu;a=.k ls lacafèkr gSA ,sls dbZ rjg ds lalkèku gSa ftudk 'kfä ls lacaèk gS] buesa lokZfèkd Kkr gSa% vkfFkZd 'kfä% ;g og 'kfä gS ftldks dksbZ O;fä fdlh pht rd igqap ds vkèkkj ij gkfly djrk gSA elyu èku rd igqap] mRiknu ds lkèkuksa rFkk vk; rd igqapA l fLFkfrxr 'kfä% nwljh rjQ fLFkfrxr 'kfä] fdlh O;fä dks dkedkth txg ij vfèk—r fLFkfr ls gkfly gksrh gSA tSls] ,d eSustj] ukSdjhis'kk O;fä ;k fdlh ?kj esa ?kj dk eqf[k;kA ;g çkfèkdkj ¼vFk‚fjVh½ ls lacafèkr gksrk gS vkSj 'kks/k ;g n'kkZrk gS fd efgyk ds eqdkcys iq#k dks bl rjg dh 'kfä;ka vfèkd gkfly gSaA l lkadsfrd 'kfä% ;g ml rjg dh 'kfä dks n'kkZrh gS ftlesa dksbZ O;fä fdlh fLFkfr esa viuh ifjHkkkkvksa] vFkksaZ] ewY;ksa vkSj fu;eksa dks vkjksfir djrk gSA l ;kSfud 'kfä% bldk çek.k dkedkth txgksa ij iq#kksa }kjk efgykvksa ds ;kSu 'kksk.k esa feyrk gSA l lkewfgd 'kfä% lkewfgd lalkèkuksa dks bdëk djus esa rFkk NksVsNksVs lewgksa dks tqVkus esa ;k vfèkd fo'kskh—r fgrksa dks çksRlkfgr djus okys usVodZ cukus ;k fdlh O;fä dks nwljs 'kfä lalkèku rd igqap cukus esa enn djus esa Hkh ;g 'kkfey jg ldrh gSA l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 47
  46. 46. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk vH;kl çfØ;k ^lkekU;* vkSj ^vyx* dh voèkkj.kkvksa dks ij[kuk 1- f¶yi pkVZ ij Mk;eaM e‚My [khapas vkSj çfrHkkfx;ksa dks gSaMvkmV7 lkSaisA 2- çfrHkkfx;ksa dks *lkekU;* ds uhps okys fcanqvksa dks ns[kus dks dgsaA lkjs çfrHkkxh *lkekU;* 'khkZd ds vanj vk ldus okys lkekftd lewgksa dh igpku dj ysa rFkk mldh ,d lwph cuk ysaA bl fo'ysk.k Øe esa lewgksa dks mudh lkekftd igpku ds vkèkkj ij fpfàr fd;k tk,A bldk eryc gS fd ftu fo'kskrkvksa dks muds lkekftd igpku dk fgLlk ekurs gq, lekt mUgsa ns[krk gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] fyax] Ropk dk jax] uLy] Hkkkk] mez] fodykaxrk vkfnA lwph dqN bl rjg ls fn[kuh pkfg,% l iq#k l xksjs yksx l 'kkjhfjd :i ls leFkZ yksx l fHkUu fyax ds yksx y{; bls leuk fd dSls ^lkekU;* dh voèkkj.kk i`Fkd lewg ij vlj Mkyrh gS i¼fr vkilh ifjppkZ lkexzh gSaMvkmV7 Mk;eaM ekWMy] fÝyi pkVZ le; 40 feuV mPp oxZ l o;Ld l èkuh yksx l vaxzsth Hkkkh yksx l ;qok] lqanj fn[kus okys yksx l fookfgr efgyk,a 3- vc mUgsa *vyx* ds vanj vkus okys fcanqvksa ij utj nkSM+kus dks dgsaA lkjs çfrHkkxh bl 'khkZd ds vanj vk ldus okys lkekftd lewgksa dh igpku dj ysa rFkk mldh ,d lwph cuk ysaA bl fo'ysk.k Øe esa lewgksa dks mudh lkekftd igpku ds vkèkkj ij fpfàr fd;k tk,A ftu fo'kskrkvksa dks muds lkekftd igpku dk fgLlk ekurs gq, lekt mUgsa ns[krk gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] fyax] Ropk dk jax] uLy] Hkkkk] mez] viaxrk vkfnA lwph dqN bl rjg ls fn[kuh pkfg,% l efgyk,a l vfookfgr efgyk,a ¼rykd'kqnk] foèkok] efgyk leySafxd½ l cPps l dkyh Ropk okys yksx l fuEu oxZ ds yksx l xjhc yksx l 'kkjhfjd vkSj ekufld :i ls fodykax yksx l nfyr l leySafxd iq#k l xSj vaxzsth Hkkkh yksx 4- lek,a fd okLro esa gekjh igpku cgqLrjh; rFkk tfVy gS] ysfdu lekt igpku ds cgqr lhfer vocksèku ds vkèkkj ij yksxksa dks oxhZ—r djus ds fy, mUeq[k jgrk gS] tks T;knkrj ekSdksa ij :f+c) l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 48
  47. 47. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk 5- 6- 7- 8- 9- èkkj.kkvksa ds lkgp;Z esa fodflr gqvk jgrk gSA blh rjg Lrj dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, cqtqxksaZ vkSj ekufld :i ls vleFkZ yksxksa ds ckjs esa ;g :f+c) èkkj.kk gS fd os fdlh O;fä dh tfVy vkSj foLr`r ç—fr dks Bhd ls ugha le ldrsA Mk;eaM e‚My ij okil tk,a vkSj bu lewgksa ds chp fofHkUu 'kfä lacaèkksa dks ij[ksa% efgykvksa ds eqdkcys iq#k] leySafxdksa ds eqdkcys fokeySafxd] dkys ds eqdkcys xksjs] cPpksa ds eqdkcys o;LdA *lkekU;* dh voèkkj.kk lkoZHkkSfed rjhds ls O;kIr opZLo'kkyh oSpkfjdh ls fudy dj vkrh gSA ;g opZLo'kkyh oSpkfjdh gh gS ftls ge vfèkdrj le; lkekU;] vke èkkj.kk ;k ekuo ç—fr dgrs gSaA yksx *lkekU;* lewg dks Lohdk;Z ekuus vkSj *vyx* lewg dks vLohdk;Z ekuus dks rS;kj jgrs gSaA ;g 'kfä vlarqyu dks tUe nsrh gS] tgka dbZ Lrjksa ij HksnHkko gksrk gSA ;g Hkh lek, fd lewgksa ds chp esa 'kfälacaèk lanHkZ ij Hkh fuHkZj djrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] vxj vki oSf'od lanHkZ dks ysa rks ,slk yxrk gS fd rFkkdfFkr igyh nqfu;k esa jgus okys yksxksa vkSj rFkkdfFkr rhljh nqfu;k esa jgus okys yksxksa ds chp fojksèkkHkkl gSA blfy,] mnkgj.k ds fy, igyh nqfu;k dh dksbZ efgyk tc rhljh nqfu;k esa ?kweus vkrh gSa] rc vkfFkZd :i ls 'kfä'kkyh gksus dh otg ls og vfèkd Åaph fLFkfr esa Hkh fn[krh gS] ysfdu efgyk gksus dh otg ls mlds lkFk tsaMj dk 'kfä lacaèk Hkh dke djrk jgrk gSA lek,a fd] blfy, Mk;eaM esa Åapk LFkku j[kus okys lewgksa ds ikl lkekU; rkSj ij HksnHkko fn[kkus dh vfèkd 'kfä rFkk uhps ds vkèks fgLls esa jgus okyksa ds ikl HksnHkko lgus ds vfèkd volj ekStwn gksrs gSaA vyx fcanq ftl ij bl vH;kl esa è;ku vkdfkZr djus dh t:jr gS] og ;g gS fd blh uhps ds vkèks fgLls dks ges'kk *leL;k* ds crkSj ns[kk tkrk gSA ;s os yksx gksrs gSa ftudks Mk;eaM esa Åij ds vkèks fgLls ij cSBs yksxksa }kjk i+k tkrk gS] mu ij 'kksèk fd;k tkrk gS] mUgsa *enn* nh tkrh gS] mudks *Åij mBk;k* tkrk gS ;k mudk *l'kfädj.k* fd;k tkrk gSA uhps ds vkèks fgLls esa jgus okys yksxksa dks *leL;k* ds rkSj ij ns[kus ds Øe esa bl rF; ls è;ku gV tkrk gS fd Åij ds vkèks fgLls esa jgus okys yksxksa ds ikl 'kfä gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] D;k vkius dHkh fokeySafxdrk ¼gsVsjks lsDlqvfyVh½ dh t:jrksa dks is'k djrs le; leL;kvksa dh igpku dh gS blh rjg vleFkksaZ ds chp y{; djds n[ky nsus dh ctk, D;k vkius dHkh bl rjQ è;ku fn;k gS fd vleFkZ o;Ldksa vkSj cPpksa dks vyx djus okyh uhfr;ksa vkSj O;ogkjksa esa leL;k fNih gks ldrh gS tc Åij dk vkèkk fgLlk *vPNk djus okys* vkSj *ennxkj* dh Hkwfedk esa gksrk gS rks og 'kfä;ksa dks larqfyr djus dh ctk, 'kfä dks vius gkFk esa gh j[krk gSA vr% 'kfä dk LFkkukarj.k dHkh Hkh ugha gks ldrkA mRihM+u pØ dh vksj okil ys tkrs vkSj ;g lekrs gq, fd pØ *lkekU;* dh voèkkj.kk vkSj opZLo'kkyh oSpkfjdh dh mifLFkfr ls 'kq: gksrk gS] bl vH;kl dks lesVsaA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 49
  48. 48. vè;k;2% tsaMj vFkkZr lkekftd fyax vo/kj.kk gSaMvkmV7 n Mk;eaM ekWMy ^lkekU;* l lokZfèkd 'kfä@ lalkèku okyk lewg Åaph çksQkby okyk lewg l os yksx tks QSlys ysrs gksa l dkj.k leL;kxzLrrk çHkko ^vyx* HksnHkko lgus okyk lewg l vn`'; jgus okyk lewg l de 'kfä vkSj de lalkèku okyk lewg l vioftZr lewg l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 50
  49. 49. vè;k; 3 dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk
  50. 50. vè;k;3% dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk vH;kl ;kSfudrk dh voèkkj.kk y{; ;g leuk fd ge lcds fy, ;kSfudrk D;k ek;us j[krh gS i¼fr eaFku@lewg ifjppkZ lkexzh fÝyi pkVZ] jaxhu ekdZj isu le; 45 feuV çfØ;k 1- lewg ds lkFk eqä vH;kl djsaA lewg ds çR;sd lnL; ls ;g iwNsa fd os ;kSfudrk 'kCn ls D;k lers gSa çfrfØ;kvksa dks iê ¼cksMZ½ ij fy[ksaA lewg vxj bl 'kCn ;k fopkj dks le ikus esa vleFkZ gks rks ifjppkZ vk;ksftr djsa ftlesa bu fcanqvksa ds ckjs esa iwNk tk, fd ;s muds fy, D;k vFkZ j[krs gSa% ;kSu mUeq[krk] tsaMj dh Hkwfedk] varjaxrk] dkeqd gjdr] 'kkjhfjd mÙkstuk] Hkkoqdrk] Le`fr] 'kjhj] fopkj] QSaVslht ¼vfrdYiuk½] vFkZ bR;kfnA 2- fuEufyf[kr fcanqvksa ds bnZfxnZ ifjppkZ djsaA çR;sd fcanq ij lewg dks ifjppkZ djus dks dfg, vkSj ;g iwfN, fd os lger gSa vFkok vlgerA ¼bu fcanqvksa dks ;k rks vks,pih ij n'kkZ;k tk, ;k fQj bls cksMZ ij fy[k nsa½% l lHkh yksx ;kSfud ¼lsDlqvy½ gksrs gSa] pkgs os ;kSfud xfrfofèk ;k O;ogkj esa 'kkfey gksa vFkok u gkasA l l yksx viuh ;kSfudrk dks ldkjkRed rFkk udkjkRed nksuksa rjhdksa ds utfj, vkSj O;ogkj ls tkfgj djrs gSaA lgefriw.kZ] ijLij vknj;qä vkSj lqjf{kr ¼mfpr½ lacaèkks ds tfj, ldkjkRed :i ls vfHkO;ä ;kSfudrk ranq#Lrh] LokLF; vkSj thou ds xq.kksa dks laokjrh gSA fgalk] mRihM+u] 'kksk.k] xkyh xykSt ds tfj, udkjkRed :i ls vfHkO;ä ;kSfudrk O;fä dh xfjek vkSj vkRexq.kksa dks yacs le; ds fy, çHkkfor djrh gSA l ;kSfud gksus dk eryc flQZ ;kSu xfrfofèk;ka vkSj O;ogkj djuk gh ugha gS cfYd blesa lksp] utfj;k vkSj Hkko Hkh 'kkfey gSaA l ;kSu vkuan fofoèk rjhdksa ls vfHkO;ä gksrk gS ftlesa Hkkoqd vkSj tSfod ¼ck;ksy‚ftdy½ çfrfØ;k,a 'kkfey gSaA l ;kSfudrk dks vkSj [kkldj fL=;ksa dh ;kSfudrk dks fofHkUu lkekftd e;kZnk] ewY;ksa vkSj fu;eksa ds ek/;e ls lekt etcwrh ls fu;af=r djrk gSA l ;kSfudrk dks flQZ iq#kksa ds vuqHkoksa vkSj t:jrksa ds fglkc ls lek tkrk gS vkSj fL=;ksa dh t:jrksa rFkk vuqHkoksa dks blesa utjvankt fd;k tkrk gS] ;k derj djds vkadk tkrk gSA l dbZ yksx ;kSu xfrfofèk;ksa dk vkjaHk xkyh] tcjnLrh] vkSj fgalk ds tfj, udkjkRed rjhds ls djrs gSaA l fdlh dh ;kSfudrk LFkkbZ ugha gksrh gSA ;g xfr'khy vkSj cgqvk;keh gksrh gSA cnyrs vuqHkoksa] fo'oklksa] ifjfLFkfr;ksa] okrkoj.k vkSj fLFkfr;ksa ds lkFk rYyhurk ¼Qksdl½ ifjofrZr gks ldrh gS vkSj çcyrk rFkk egÙo de ;k vfèkd gks ldrk gSA l ;kSfudrk O;fäxr rkSj ij vuwBh gksrh gSA efgykvksa dh ;kSu larqfV ds utfj, vkSj vuqHko dkQh foLr`r gksrs gSaA fHkUu nks efgykvksa dks vkuan dh fHkUu vuqHkwfr gksrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] ;g fdlh ds fy, 'kkjhfjd dkeksRlxZ ¼v‚xSZTe½ gks ldrk gS] nwljs ds fy, Hkkoqd caèku] fdlh vkSj ds fy, vkè;kfRed tqM+ko rFkk fdlh ds fy, ;s rhuksaA l lsDl dks fofHkUu lanHkksaZ esa eglwl fd;k tk ldrk gS vkuan] l dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 52
  51. 51. vè;k;3% dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk 3- 4- 5- 6- dk;Z] drZO;] izse] Hk;] çtuu vkSj eqfäA l udkjkRed ;kSu vuqHko fofHkUu dkjdksa ij fuHkZj djrk gSaA tSls tksM+hnkj dh vlaosnu'khyrk] iqjkus t[e ¼,C;wt½] gkseksQksfc;k ¼yxHkx leySafxdrk½] lhfer djus okys fopkj] elyu ;g èkkfeZd lans'k fd lsDl flQZ l`tu ds fy, gh gksuk pkfg,] Ýk;Moknh èkkj.kk fd laHkksx gh mi;qä lsDl ¼çkWij lsDl½ gS vkSj DykbVksjy míhiu vifjiDork gSA gekjh ;kSfudrk dks cnyus esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk vnk djus okys dkjdksa dks lekus ds fy, eaFku dks tkjh jf[k,A dqN ,sls {ks= ftUgsa [kaxkyuk pkfg, os gSa vk;q] izxfr] LokLF;] 'kfDr] g‚eksZu vlarqyu] ruko] ekufld vk?kkr] ikVZuj dk tsaMj] ikVZuj lekuqHkwfr] çse esa gksuk] 'kkjhfjd míhiu] Le`fr] lqj{kk] vkfFkZd lqj{kk bR;kfnA lewg dks bl ç'u ij çfrfØ;k tkfgj djus dks dfg,% ;kSu mRihM+u ij dke djrs le; ;kSfudrk ds eqís dks leuk D;ksa t:jh gS çfrfØ;kvksa dh lwph cuk,aA lek,a fd ;kSu mRihM+u ;kSu ç—fr dk mYya?ku gSA tc ,d O;fä ;kSu :i ls mRihM+u djrk gS rks og nwljs dks nckus ;k {kfr igqapkus ds fy, lsDl dks 'kfä ds ,d vkStkj ds rkSj ij bLrseky dj jgk@ jgh gksrk@gksrh gSA çfrHkkfx;ksa dks nqckjk è;ku fnykb, fd çR;sd euq; ,d ;kSu çk.kh ¼lsDlqvy chbax½ gS vkSj ge esa ls çR;sd ds ikl ;kSfudrk gksrh gSA vr% ge dg ldrs gSa fd ;kSu mRihM+u dh leL;k ds lkFk ;kSfudrk xgjs rd iScLr gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd ;kSu mRihM+u dh tfVyrkvksa dks leus ds nkSjku gesa ;kSfudrk] tsaMj vkSj 'kjhj dks leus dh vko';drk gSA dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 53
  52. 52. vè;k;3% dk;ZLFky ij ;kSfudrk vH;kl çfØ;k 'kjhj dk ekufp=k.k 1- bl vH;kl ds nkSjku bl ckr dk è;ku j[ksa fd dqN yksxksa dks bl fok;oLrq ds lkFk vlgtrk gks ldrh gS vkSj ;g dqN yksxksa ds fy, laosnu'khy fok; gks ldrk gSA 2- 'kjhj ds nks js[kkfp=ksa dks Q'kZ ij cukuk 'kq: djsaA y{; iq#k vkSj L=kh 'kjhj ds futh vkSj lkoZtfud vaxksa ds çfr fofHkUu utfj;ksa dks [kaxkyuk i¼fr lewg ifjppkZ lkexzh fÝyi pkVZ] jaxhu ekdZj isu vkSj iq#k rFkk efgyk 'kjhj (vkxs vkSj ihNs nksuksa rjiQ ls) dk cM+k ckgjh js[kkfp=k le; 60 feuV 3- nksuksa js[kkfp=ksa dks lanHkZ fcanq ds rkSj ij bLrseky djrs gq, lewg ds lnL;ksa ls fuEu ç'uksa ds lacaèk esa mudh çfrfØ;kvksa ds tfj, jk; ysa% l 'kjhj dk dkSudkSu lk fgLlk futh gS l 'kjhj ds fdu vaxksa dks dksbZ vtuch Nw ldrk gS l 'kjhj ds fdu vaxksa dh rjQ dksbZ vtuch ns[k ldrk gS l 'kjhj ds fdu vaxksa dks os yksx Nw ldrs gSa tks vkids utnhdh gksa l 'kjhj ds fdu vaxksa dks vki lkoZtfud txg ij Nw ldrs gSa l 'kjhj ds fdu vaxksa dks lgdehZ ;k lhfu;j Nw ldrs gSa l D;k blls fiNys ç'u dk mÙkj rc cny tk,xk ;fn lgdehZ ;k c‚l foijhr fyax dk gks 4- Ø‚ljs[kkvksa dk bLrseky djrs gq,] iq#k vkSj L=h 'kjhj ds fofHkUu futh vkSj ckgjh fgLlksa dh rLohj mdsjsA 5- è;ku nsa fd bu vk;keksa esa ls dqN ds Åij iq#kksa vkSj efgykvksa ds chp ,dne ukVdh; varj gks ldrk gSA dbZ yksxksa dk ekuuk gks ldrk gS fd lkoZtfud txg ij iq#k] vius 'kjhj ds lHkh fgLlksa dks Nw ldrk gS] tuukaxksa dks Hkh] ftUgsa efgyk,a ugha Nw ldrhaA çfrHkkfx;ksa dks bl ifjppkZ ds fy, çksRlkfgr djsa fd os ,slk D;ksa lksprs gSa vkSj dSls ;g fdlh O;fä dks mlds@mldh vius 'kjhj ds lkFk lacaèk dks çHkkfor djrk gS 6- fuEu ç'uksa ds bnZfxnZ ifjppkZ dks lesVas% ge dSlk vuqHko djrs gSa tc dksbZ O;fä gekjs Þfufk) ekus tkusß ¼vkmV v‚Q c‚maM~l½ vaxksa dks Nwrk@Nwrh gSA l dksbZ O;fä vkidks dgka vkSj dSls Nq,] bl ckr ij vkidk fdruk fu;a=.k gS l dksbZ O;fä vkidks dgka vkSj dSls ns[ks] bl ij vkidk fdruk fu;a=.k gS l 7- bl ckr ij tksj nsrs gq, fudkZ dh rjQ csa fd iq#kksa vkSj efgykvksa ds vuqHko esa vius 'kjhj ds futh vkSj lkoZtfud fgLlksa dks ysdj dkQh varj gSA ¼ukt+ QkmaMs'ku ds lsDlqvfyVh eSuqvy ds vk/kkj ij rS;kj lkexzh½ dk;ZLFky ij ;kSu mRihM+u ds fo#¼ tkx:drk% izf'k{k.k iqfLrdk n 54
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