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  • 1. WELCOME
    HR FLORIDA 2011
    PHR/SPHR CERTIFICATION
    PREP COURSE
    Sponsored by:
    August 28, 2011
  • 2. SESSION AGENDA
  • 3. THE EXAM:
    EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW
    • Where Do the Questions Come From?
    • 4. Cognitive Levels
    • 5. The Dilemma: PHR or SPHR?
    • 6. The Biggest Pieces
    • 7. Exam Questions: The 225 Breakdown
    • 8. Scoring the Test: Raw, Scaled & Equating
    • 9. What to Expect
    • 10. Test Taking Tips
    • 11. Sample Test Question
    • 12. Exam and Deadlines
  • HRCI Certification Handbook
    HR Certification Institute1800 Duke Street · Alexandria, Virginia 22314US Toll Free +1.866.898.4724HR Certification Institute is an affiliate of the Society for Human Resource Management
    www.hrci.org
  • 13. WHERE DO THE QUESTIONS COME FROM?
    Teams of Certified HR Professionals With Special Training in Item Development
    Every Question Passes 3 Levels of Review
    Every Question Pre-tested Before Being Used to Score the Exam
  • 14. THE DILEMMA:PHR/SPHR?
    Responsibility
    Reporting
    Breadth/Scope
    Impact
    Business Knowledge
    Credibility
  • 15. THE BIGGEST PIECES
    PHR Emphasis:
    Workforce Planning & Employment 26%
    Employee & Labor Relations 22% 48%
    SPHR Emphasis:
    Strategic Management 29%
    Employee & Labor Relations 18%
    47%
  • 16. EXAM QUESTIONS: THE 225 BREAKDOWN
  • 17. SCORING THE TESTSRAW, SCALED & EQUATING
    Raw Scores
    Number answered correctly (129-144)
    Scaled Scores
    Scores 100 – 700 (Minimum 500 is passing)
    Equating the Scores
    No two tests the same
    Ensures comparable proficiency
    Adjusts minimum raw score
    PHR – 67% to 56% pass
    SPHR – 60% to 50% pass
  • 18. WHAT TO EXPECT
    No Trick Questions
    No Trivia Questions
    No Dates
    No All of the Above
    No None of the Above
    Know Acronyms
  • 19. TEST TAKING TIPS
    Relax - Don’t Study the Night Before
    Won’t Know All of the Answers
    Arrive on Time
    Dress Comfortably - Bring Sweater
    No Extra Credit for Finishing Early
    1.07 Per Question
  • 20. TEST TAKING TIPS (cont)
    The Basics:
    Read each question carefully!
    The Answer is NOT always “C”
    Read All of the Choices
    Answer All Questions
    First Chosen Answers are Usually Correct
  • 21. TEST TAKING TIPS (cont)
    Fine Distinctions Between Correct and Nearly Correct Statements
    B
    A
    C
  • 26. Sample Test Question
    The owner of a growing authentic Japanese Steak house is looking to hire his 10th employee. The amount of applicants overwhelm him. In frustration, the owner suddenly announces that only Japanese applicants may apply. One Caucasian applicant remains. The applicant states that the owner has acted illegally and that he is going to report the owner to the EEOC. The owner _________
    A. Has nothing to fear from this EEOC complaint
    B. Should just hire the applicant to keep him quiet
    C. Must go ahead and interview this applicant
    D. Should interview the applicant and make a contingent offer
  • 27. EXAM & DEADLINES
  • 28. TOTAL REWARDS
    Presented by
    Don C. Works, III, JD, SPHR
    Jackson Lewis LLP
    Orlando
    407-246-8433
    worksd@jacksonlewis.com
  • 29. LAWS GOVERNING COMPENSATION
    Davis-Bacon Act, 1931
    Copeland "Anti-Kickback" Act, 1934
    Walsh-Healey Act, 1936
    Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 1938
    Equal Pay (EPA), 1963
  • 30. FLSA
    Establishes Minimum Wage
    Requires Overtime Pay - 1.5 hours over 40
    Establishes exemptions from overtime & minimum wage (“exempt” v. “non-exempt”)
    Limits employment of child labor
  • 31. FLSA EXEMPTIONS
    Exempt Employees Must Generally Meet Two Tests Requirements:
    Paid on a Salary Basis, With a Salary of At Least $455/week and Without Improper Deductions
    Perform Exempt Duties
  • 32. EXECUTIVE EXEMPTION
    Employee’s Primary Duty Must be the Management of an Enterprise or a Department or Subdivision and:
    – Direct the Work of at Least Two or More FTE’s
    (or Equivalent PTE’s)
    – Authority to Hire, Fire or Make Recommendations
    – Recommendations are Given Particular Weight
  • 33. ADMINISTRATIVE EXEMPTION
    Primary Duty – Office or Nonmanual Work Directly Related to the Management or General Business Operations of the Employer or the Employer’s Customers
    Requires Exercise of Discretion and Independent Judgment in
    Matters of Significance
  • 34. PROFESSIONAL EXEMPTIONS
    Learned Professionals:
    Requires Advanced Knowledge Acquired by Prolonged Instruction in a Field of Science or Learning
    Intellectual in Nature
    Requires Exercise of
    Discretion and Judgment
  • 35. PROFESSIONAL EXEMPTIONS
    Creative Professionals:
    • Have a Primary Duty Performing Work That Requires Invention, Imagination, Originality, or Talent
    • 36. Perform in a Recognized
    Field of Creative or
    Artistic Endeavor
  • 37. HIGHLY COMPENSATED EMPLOYEE EXEMPTION
    A Highly Compensated Employee Must:
    Minimum Compensation of at least $100,000.00 ($455/week of which must be paid on a salary basis)
    Perform One of the Job Duties of an Exempt Administrative, Executive, or Professional
  • 38. COMPUTER RELATED OCCUPATIONS
    Salary of $455 Per Week or $27.63 Per Hour
    Performs higher level computer work involving design, analysis and implementation of systems
    “Help desk” positions not exempt
  • 39. OUTSIDE SALES EXEMPTION
    An Employee Must:
    Have a Primary Duty Involving Making Sales or Obtaining Orders and Contracts
    Be Customarily and Regularly Engaged Away From the Employer’s Place of Business
    Note: No salary requirement
  • 40. PERMISSIBLE DEDUCTIONS FROM SALARY
    Full day absences due to sickness or disability if deductions under a bona fide plan, policy or practice of providing wage replacement benefits for these types of absences
    Good faith full day disciplinary suspensions for infractions of written workplace conduct rules
    First or last week of employment, as long as the employee is paid a proportionate share of salary for time actually worked
    Penalties imposed in good faith for violating safety rules of “major significance”
    FMLA leave including both partial and full day absences
    To offset amounts received as payment for jury fees, witness fees or military pay
  • 41. SAFE HARBOR
    “Salary Basis” will not be destroyed if:
    Employer Has a Clearly Communicated Policy Prohibiting Improper Pay Deductions
    Employees Are Reimbursed for Any Improper Deductions
    Employer Makes a Good-Faith Effort to Comply in the Future
  • 42. FLSA MINIMUM WAGE REQUIREMENTS
    $7.25 July 24, 2009
    $2.13 Per Hour Tip Credit Unchanged
    – Cash Wage Plus Tips = Minimum Wage
  • 43. FLSA BASIC OVERTIME REQUIREMENTS
    Sets Rate of Overtime Pay
    (1.5 X Regular Pay)
    Requires Overtime for “Hours Worked”
    Workweek Is Any Fixed, Recurring Period of 168 Hours (7 Days X 24 Hours)
  • 44. COMPENSATORY TIME
    Overtime Usually Must Be Paid in Cash
    Public-Sector Employers May Grant Compensatory Time Off
    Private-Sector Employers May Not Pay With “Comp” Time
  • 45. PORTAL-TO-PORTAL ACT
    Defines the Beginning and End of the Workday
    Provides Guidelines On:
    On-call/standby Time
    Preparatory/Concluding Activities
    Waiting Time
    Meals and Breaks
    Travel Time
    Training Time
  • 46. EQUAL PAY ACT
    Equal Pay for
    Equal Work:
    Effort
    Working
    conditions
    Responsibility
    Skills
  • 47. DIRECT VERSUS INDIRECT COMPENSATION
    Base Pay
    Differential Pay
    Incentive Pay
    Selected Employees
    Cash Recognition
    Legally Required Benefits
    Income Replacement
    STD/LTD
    Medical
    Deferred Pay
    Pay for Time Not Worked/Unpaid Leave
  • 48. ECONOMIC FACTORS THAT IMPACT COMPENSATION SYSTEM
    Inflation – COLA’s
    Salary Compression
    Interest Rates
    Foreign Competition
    Wage/Price Spiral
    Economic Growth
    Productivity/Labor Market Trends
  • 49. COMPENSATION SYSTEM OBJECTIVES
    Attract
    Motivate
    Retain
    Competitive
    Equitable
  • 50. MEASURES OF PAY EQUITY
    Internal
    Equal Work = Equal Pay
    Comparable Worth
    External
    Match, Lead, Lag
    Industry
    Occupation
    Geography
  • 51. COMPA-RATIOS
    Divide Employee Pay Level by the Midpoint
    Example:
    Pay Range $10 - $15/Hour
    Midpoint $12.50
    Employee Salary $11.00
    Compa-Ratio .88%
  • 52. LEAD VERSUS LAG STRATEGIES
    Compa-Ratios - Indicators How Actual Wages
    Lead, Lag or Match Market
    Compa-Ratio Below 1.0 Means Employee Wages are Less Than Midpoint (Lag)
    Compa-Ratio Above 1.0 Means Wages Exceed the Midpoint (Lead)
  • 53. JOB EVALUATION
    Used to Determine Relative Worth Of Jobs
    Derived from Job Analysis
    Non-Quantitative/Quantitative
  • 54. JOB EVALUATION METHODOLOGY
    Job Ranking
    Paired Comparison
    Point-Factor
    Factor Comparison
    Market Based
  • 55. SELECTED EMPLOYEES
  • 56. GLOBAL COMPENSATION APPROACHES
    Home Leaves
    Travel Allowances
    Educational Allowances for Children
    Tax Equalization
    COLA’s
    Housing & Utilities Allowance
    Relocation & Moving
    ForeignService & Hardship Premiums
  • 57. GLOBAL COMPENSATION APPROACHES
    Balance Sheet
    Global Market
    Tax Equalization Plan
  • 58. INDIRECT COMPENSATION
    Designed to:
    Reward Continued Employment
    Retain Good Employees
    Improve Productivity, Work Quality, Competitiveness
    Protect Employees’ Physical/Financial Well-Being
    Affordable for Employers
    Attractive to Employees
  • 59. Review Organizational Strategy
    Review Compensation Philosophy
    Review Employee Needs
    Review Current Benefits
    Conduct Gap Analysis
    BENEFIT NEEDS ASSESSMENT
  • 60. GAP ANALYSIS
    Revise Benefits That Are Not Meeting
    Employee or Organizational Needs
  • 61. LEGALLY MANDATED BENEFITS
    Social Security/Medicare
    Unemployment Insurance
    Workers’ Compensation
    COBRA
    FMLA
  • 62. WORKERS’ COMPENSATION
    StateInsurance Program Paid for by the
    Employer According to the State by Its Own State Law and by the Federal Government for Federal Workers
    Provides Income Continuation and
    Reimbursement of Accident Expenses for
    Employees Who Are Injured on the Job
  • 63. CATEGORIES OF WORKERS’ COMPENSATION BENEFITS
    1. Permanent and Total Disability
    2. Permanent and Temporary Partial Disability
    3. Survivor’s Benefits in Cases of Fatal Injuries
    4. Medical Expenses
    5. Rehabilitation
  • 64. EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (ERISA)
    Applies to Retirement Plans, Medical
    Plans, Group Life Insurance, Long Term Disabilities
    Basic Standards must be Met for Benefit
    Programs to Maintain their Tax-Favored Status
    Designed to Protect Employees in Private
    Sector
  • 65. ERISA (continued)
    Two minimum options for vesting:
    1. Cliff Vesting
    2. Graded
  • 66. ERISA (continued)
    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)– Guarantee of Payment (With Limits) to Employees Covered by Terminated Pension Plans
    Revenue Act Of 1978
    – Section 125 - Can Offer Favorable Tax Treatment on Benefits
    – Section 401k - Allow Tax Favored Pay Deferrals Toward Retirement
    Retirement Equity Act (REA), 1984- Legal Protection for Spousal Beneficiaries
  • 67. REQUIRED COMMUNICATION
    ERISA Requires:
    Summaries of the Plan Description, Annual Report, and Material Modifications
    Filing Form 5500 With the IRS
    Other Required Communications Include:
    Continuation of Benefits’ Notice
    Explanation of Stock Options (SEC Regulation)
    Posting of Workers’ Compensation Benefits (Required by States)
  • 68. Consolidated Omnibus BudgetReconciliation Act (COBRA)
    Employers Who Provide Health Care and
    Employ More Than 20 People Must Provide Continuation Benefits
    Exception: Employment Terminated Due to Gross Misconduct
  • 69. COBRA QUALIFYING EVENTS
    Voluntary Termination
    Involuntary Termination of Employment for any Reason Other Than Gross Misconduct
    Disability as Determined by the SSA
    Reduction in Hours Resulting in Loss of Benefits
    Divorce or Legal Separation From the Employee
    Employee Becomes Eligible for Medicare
    Dependent Ceases to Be a “Dependent Child” Under Plan Rules
    Death of the Employee
  • 70. CONTINUATION PERIODS
    (Months)
    Termination of Employment
    for Gross Misconduct 0
    Termination of Employment for any
    Reason other than Gross Misconduct 18
    Reduction in Hours 18
    Employee Is Disabled at the Time of
    Reduction in Hours or Termination 29
    Divorce or Death of the Employed Spouse 36
    Dependent Child Loses Eligibility Status 36
  • 71. WHEN DOES A COBRA COVERAGE END?
    Premium for Coverage Is Not Paid
    Employer Terminates Group Health
    Coverage
    Beneficiary Becomes Covered Under
    Another Group Health Plan
    Qualified Beneficiary Is Entitled to Medicare Benefits
  • 72. COBRA(continued)
    Four Notices Employers Must Provide:
    1. General Notice
    2. Election Notice
    3. Notice of Unavailability
    of Continuation Coverage
    4. Notice of Termination of Continuation
  • 73. FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA)
    Provides 12 Weeks of Unpaid Leave for: Serious Health Condition of Employee, Spouse, Parent or Child; Birth, Adoption or Placement & To Care for Child; A Qualifying Exigency; Being the Spouse, Child, Parent or Next of Kin of a Covered Service Member with a Serious Injury or Illness.
    Covered Employers - 50+ Employees
    Eligible Employees – 12 Months/1,250 Hours at Worksite with 50 or more employees within 75 miles
    a. Health Benefit Continuation
    b. Reinstatement Rights
    c. Intermittent Leave (right to transfer to accommodate)
  • 74. Uniformed Services Employment & Reemployment Rights Act “USERRA”
    Provides protected leave for up to 5 years of military service
    Guarantees reinstatement to job individual would have held but for leave (escalator principle)
    Must permit continuation of health care coverage for up to 24 months (can require payment of up to 102% of premiums)
     
  • 75. OLDER WORKERS BENEFITPROTECTION ACT (OWBPA) 1990
    Covers Compensation, Terms, Conditions and Privileges Provided Under Employee Benefit Plans
    Must Be Given 21 or 45 Days to Consider Any
    Agreement Under ADEA
    Group Terminations or Retirement Programs -Provide 7 Days to Revoke Agreement After Signing
    Eligible Employees Must Be Provided With
    Certain Demographic Information As a Part of
    Group Term Release or ADEA Claims
  • 76. OMNIBUS BUDGET RECONCILIATION ACT (OBRA)
    Reduces Compensation Limits in Qualified
    Retirement Programs
    Require That Health Plans Honor Qualified
    Medical Child Support Orders for Dependent
    Children of Employees When Issued by a Court
    Group Health Plans Must Provide Coverage for
    Dependent Adopted Children When Those Children Are Placed for Adoption in a Covered Employee’s Home
  • 77. Health Insurance Portability &Accountability Act (HIPAA)
    Limits Exclusion for Preexisting Conditions
    Ensures Availability of Coverage
    Guarantees Renewability
    Allows Employees to Change Jobs Without
    Concern of Losing Coverage
    Restricts "Actively at Work" Requirements to
    Health Plan Eligibility
    Established Anti-discrimination Rules for
    Plan Participants
  • 78. QUALIFIED DEFERREDCOMPENSATION PLANS
    Help to Recruit and Retain Employees
    Allow People to Retire, Creating New Employment Opportunities
    Provide Tax Deferrals for Owners and Highly Compensated Employees (HCEs)
  • 79. CHARACTERISTICS OFQUALIFIED PLANS
    Under ERISA, Plans Must:
    Be in Writing and Be Communicated to Employees
    Be Established for Exclusive Benefit of Employees/beneficiaries
    Satisfy Rules Concerning Eligibility, Vesting, and Funding
    Not Favor Officers, Shareholders, or HCEs
  • 80. DEFINED BENEFIT PLANS
    Flat-Dollar Formula
    Cash Balance Plan
    Career-Average Formula
    Final-Pay Formula
    • Benefit Amount - Based on a Formula
    • 81. Employer Funded
    • 82. Employer Bears the Risk
    • 83. Insured by the PBGC
  • DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS
    Profit-Sharing Plans
    Money Purchase Plans
    ESOPs and 401 (k) Plans
    Thrift Plans
    • Employees and Employers Pay a Specific Amount Per Person Into the Fund
    • 84. Fund Performance
    Determines Benefits
  • 85. CASH BALANCE PLAN
    Type of Defined Benefit Plan
    Defines Benefit in Terms of Stated Account Balance
    Employers Assume Investment Risks and Rewards
    Is Portable
    At Retirement Employees Receive:
    Lifetime Annuity
    Lump Sum
  • 86. NONQUALIFIED DEFERREDPLANS
    Provide Additional Benefits to Key Executives
    Employees Defer Reporting Income; Not Subject to the Limits Placed on Qualified Plans
    Employer Contributions Are Not Deductible
    Funds Are not protected by ERISA
  • 87. HEALTH-CARE PLANS
    Indemnity (Fee-for-service) Plans
    Full-choice Plan
    Employees Can Go to Any Qualified Physician
    Fees Are Generated When Services Are Used
    Managed Care Plans
    Prepaid Health-care Plans
    Physician Is Paid Per Capita (Per Head) Rather Than for Actual Treatment Provided
    Members Enroll and Pay a Set Monthly or Annual Fee
  • 88. TYPES OF MANAGED CARE PLANS
    Health Maintenance Organizations
    Group, Staff, and IPA Models
    Preferred Provider Organizations
    Point-of-service Organizations
    Exclusive Provider Organizations
    Physician Hospital Organizations
  • 89. OTHER HEALTH CARE OPTIONS
    Dental Plans
    Vision Care Plans
    Prescription Drug Plans
    Employee Assistance Programs
    Alternative health care
  • 90. INCOME REPLACEMENTPROTECTION
    Sick Leave
    Long-Term Disability
    Short-Term Disability
  • 91. CAFETERIA PLANS SECTION 125
    Premium-only Plans
    Employees Receive Favorable Tax Treatment on Benefits Already Offered
    Flexible Spending Accounts
    Pretax Dollars Are Set Aside to Pay for Dependent Care or Unreimbursed Expenses
    Must “Use It or Lose It”
    Full Cafeteria Plans
    Benefit Credits Are Used to Purchase Benefits
    Unused Credits Can Be Cashed Out
  • 92. CAFETERIA PLANS – ADVANTAGES
    Tailored to Employee’s Needs; Change as Employees’
    Lives Change
    Efficient Use of Benefits
    Employer Sensitivity to All Program Costs and Employee Cost Sharing
    Employee’s Awareness of Benefits and Cost
    Favorable Tax Treatment
    Employer’s Cost of Benefits Can Be Lowered Over Time
  • 93. CAFETERIA PLANS – DISADVANTAGES
    Inappropriate Benefits Chosen
    Complicated Record Keeping
    Adverse Selection (Benefits Selected Only by Employees Who Fully Utilize Those Benefits)
    NondiscriminationRequirementsIRSCode
  • 94. LIFE INSURANCE PROTECTION
    Salary Continuation
    Group-Term Life Insurance
    Excess Group-Term Life Insurance
    Dependent Group Life Insurance
    Split-Dollar Plans
  • 95. PAID LEAVE
    Paid Leave for Events:
    Holiday Pay
    Vacation Pay
    Community Service Pay
    Leave of Absence
    Bereavement Leave
    Paid-Time-Off Banks
    Lumped Into One Account
  • 96. BENEFITS &ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE CYCLE
  • 97. WORKFORCE PLANNING
    Presented by
    Don C. Works, III, JD, SPHR
    Jackson Lewis LLP
    Orlando
    407-246-8433
    worksd@jacksonlewis.com
  • 98. EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY
    Decisions Must Be
    Job and Business Related
    Hiring
    Work Assignments
    Compensation
    Promotions
    Terminations
  • 99. PURPOSE OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY INITIATIVES
    Prevent Employee Discrimination In The Workplace
    Take Remedial Action To Offset Past Employee Discrimination
  • 100. TWO TYPES OF DISCRIMINATION
    Disparate Treatment –
    Intentional Act
    Direct Discrimination
    Unequal Treatment
    Decision Based on Protected Characteristic
    Prejudiced Actions
    Different Standards For Different Groups
    Disparate Impact –
    Unintended or Intentional
    Indirect Discrimination
    Unequal Consequences Or Results
    Decision Not Based on Protected Characteristic
    Unintentional Discrimination
    Neutral Actions
    Same Standards But Different Consequences
  • 101. ADVERSE IMPACT
    Occurs When There Is A Substantially Different Rate Of Selection In Hiring, Promotion, or Other Employment Decisions Which Works To The Disadvantage Of Members Of Protected Groups
    4/5ths Rule – success rate of protected group less than 80% of other group
  • 102. 2007 EEO-1 REPORT OVERHAUL
    "Two or more races, not Hispanic or Latino";
    "Asians, not Hispanic or Latino";
    "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, not Hispanic or Latino";
    "Asian and Pacific Islanders" Category Deleted
  • 103. EEO-1 REPORT OVERHAUL
    "Officials and Managers" Divided Into Two Levels Based on Responsibility and Influence Within the Organization: (1) “Executive/Senior Level Officials and Managers” (2) “First/Mid-Level Official and Managers”
    Non-Managerial Business and Financial Occupations Moved From the "Officials and Managers" Category to the "Professionals" Category
  • 104. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    Prohibits discrimination against protected classes.
    Makes it unlawful to deny career advancements to protected classes.
    Prohibits discrimination because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related conditions.
  • 105. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    Provides equal opportunity for training.
    Prohibits sexual harassment.
    Prohibits compensation discrimination.
  • 106. Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    Age 40 and over
    Older Workers Benefit Protection Act
    Release language
    Group versus individual releases
  • 107. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    Protects qualified individuals with a disability
    Prohibits medical exams or inquiries about a disability, except in certain situations
    Requires reasonable accommodation that enables employees to perform essential functions as long as there is no undue hardship
  • 108. Who Is Protected By ADA?
    Individual with a physical/mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity
    Record of impairment
    Regarded as having an impairment
    Associated with a disabled person
    Can perform the essential functions of the job with or without reasonable accommodation
  • 109. Other Legislation Which Impacts Workforce Planning
    Pregnancy Discrimination Act
    Immigration Reform & Control Act
    Rehabilitation Act (contractors - $2,500+)
    Worker Adjustment & Retraining Notification Act (“WARN”)
    EPPA
    Fair Credit Reporting Act
  • 110. FORCES WHICH IMPACT PLANNING
    Organization’s Direction
    Internal Labor
    External Labor
    Business Change
  • 111. JAC FITZ-ENZ – P.E.R.M. MODEL
    Projections
    Evaluate - Key Group Review
    Recruitment Plan
    Measurement - ROI
  • 112. P.E.R.M. ROI – INDICATORS
    Planning - % of Jobs Filled Internally
    Evaluation – Past Source Performance & Tenure
    Recruitment – Future Source Cost, Time, Quality
    Measurement – Business KPI’s Affected
  • 113. ANALYSIS OF RECRUITMENT SOURCES
    Sourcing Media
    Advertising
    Agencies
    Referrals
    Events
    Selection Methods
    Screening
    Assessment
    Interviews
    Testing
  • 114. INCREASING INTERVIEWING ACCURACY
    All Voters Must Know Position
    Delay Yes/No Decision
    Multi-Factor Assessment
    Give Each Interviewer 2-3 Traits to Assess
    Panel Interviews
    Formal Debriefing
    ~ Lou Adler
  • 115. WORKFORCE PLANNING METRICS
    Cost Per Hire
    Time to Fill
    Yield Ratios – Used to evaluate recruiting sources
    Adverse Impact
  • 116. JOB ANALYSIS DEFINED
    Systematic study of a job to determine qualifications, responsibilities, conditions and relationship to other jobs
    Identify Tasks, Duties & Responsibilities
    Evaluate KSAs (Knowledge, Skills and Abilities)
  • 117. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL
    Organizational Development
    Function & Responsibilities
    Development of Organizational Divisions
  • 118. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL
    Classification & Compensation
    Creation of Job Families
    Pay Equity
  • 119. JOB LEVEL
    Recruitment & Selection
    Job Description
    Job Specifications - KSAs
  • 120. JOB LEVEL
    Training & Performance Management
    Job Relevant Goals
    Standards of Performance
  • 121. DISSECTING TASKS
    Job Category
    Responsibility
    Task Statement
    What Makes a Good Task Statement?
  • 122. TASK STATEMENT
    Behaviorally Based
    Action
    Target
    How
    Why
  • 123. TASK STATEMENT
    Analyzes jobs using various methodologies within federal, local, and professional standards in efforts to define levels of responsibility & specific tasks; as well as the level of specific KSAs, necessary for successful performance.
  • 124. KSAs vs. Competencies
    Knowledge – Specific
    Skill – Degree of Performance
    Ability – Mental or Physical Capacity
    Competencies: Groupings of KSAs that
    Relate to a Particular Purpose or Function
  • 125. METHODOLOGY
    5 PHASES OF JOB ANALYSIS
    Identification of Function & Responsibilities
    Task Statement Data Collection
    Task Statement Development & Refinement
    KSA Development & Refinement
    Documentation Report
  • 126. JOB ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY CLOSE UP
    PHASE I – ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL
    Purpose & Responsibilities of Job
    Place in Organizational Hierarchy
    Location & Work Environment
  • 127. JOB ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY CLOSE UP
    PHASE II – INITIAL TASK STATEMENT
    Collect Existing Task Statement Information
    Develop List of Tasks & Responsibilities
    – Strategic Tools: Surveys, Questionnaires,
    Round Tables, Workplace Shadowing
  • 128. Job Analysis MethodologyCLOSE UP
    PHASE III – TASK DEVELOPMENT &
    REFINEMENT
    Consolidate & Refine
    Frequency & Duration
    Importance Levels
  • 129. Job Analysis MethodologyCLOSE UP
    PHASE IV – KSA DEVELOPMENT &
    REFINEMENT
    Determine KSAs Needed to Effectively Perform Each Task
    Minimum Qualifications
    Competency Model Development
  • 130. Job Analysis MethodologyCLOSE UP
    PHASE V – DOCUMENTATION REPORT
    Statistically Analyze All Task & KSA Data
    Create Written Job Descriptions & Specs
    Determine Classification & Compensation
    Develop Plans for Selection & Performance Management
    Prepare Report Documenting Methodology & Results
  • 131. USES OF JOB ANALYSIS
    Recruiting
    Compensation
    Career Paths
    Succession Planning
    Training
    Organizational Design
    Performance Standards
    Performance Evaluations
    Time Management
    Compliance
    AAP
    Legal Defense
  • 132. JOB DESIGN
    Rational Approach – Frederick Taylor – work should be arranged so that employees can be efficient & output maximized
    Job Enrichment – Frederick Hertzberg – design work for employees’ personal enrichment
  • 133. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY
    Reliability is the Ability of an
    Instrument to Measure Consistently and with Relative Absence of Error
  • 134. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY
    Validity is the Ability of an Instrument to Measure What it is Intended to Measure
    Validation Answers Two Questions:
    What does the instrument measure?
    How well does the instrument measure it?
  • 135. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY
    A Reliable Item is Consistent
    May Not Be Valid
  • 136. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY
    Reliability Can Be Measured By :
    Parallel Forms – uses two forms with different items – scores correlated for each individual
    Test/Retest – measures degree to which scores are the same over time
    Internal Consistency – equivalent parts of test taken separately and results correlated
  • 137. RELIABILITY & VALIDITY
    Content Validity – Simplest
    Job Analysis Key
    Construct Validity – Most Complex Measures Theoretical Construct or Trait
    Criterion-Related Validity – (Preferred) Trait of Work Behavior that is Predicted by a Test
  • 138. CRITERION RELATED VALIDITY
    Concurrent Validity – Test is Given to
    Current Employees
    – Scores Correlated
    with Performance
    Ratings
    Predictive Validity
    – Before the Fact Measure
    – Test Results Correlated
    with Subsequent Job
    Performance Usually
    After 12 Months
    (Preferred by EEOC)
  • 139. RISK MANAGEMENT
    Presented by
    Don C. Works, III, JD, SPHR
    Jackson Lewis LLP
    Orlando
    407-246-8433
    worksd@jacksonlewis.com
  • 140. Definition
    Risk Management is the use of insurance and other strategies in an effort to prevent or minimize an organization's exposure to liability in the event a loss or injury occurs.
  • 141. Categories of Operational Risk
    Personnel Risk
    Physical Assets
    Technology
    Relationships
    External/Regulatory
  • 142. OSHA General Duty Clause
    Each employee has the right to “a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm.”
  • 143. Employee Responsibilities & Rights
    Comply with rules
    Right to safety & health
    Right to request inspection
    Right to file complaint
    Right to be informed of workplace hazards
    Right to request action to correct hazards
    Right to file a discrimination/retaliation complaint
    Right to receive training
  • 144. Best Known OSHA Standard
    Hazard Communication (also known as the Employee Right-to-Know Law) It requires:
    An inventory of hazardous chemicals
    An evaluation of chemical hazards
    Communication / Training
    MSDS
  • 145. OSHA Inspection Priorities
    Imminent danger
    Catastrophes & fatal accidents
    Employee complaints
    High-hazard industries
    Follow-up inspections
    Are they in order of priority?
  • 146. Purpose of Safety Programs
    Prevent work-related injuries, accidents or incidents
    Definitions:
    Incident – deviation from any acceptable standard
    Hazard – incident without adequate controls applied
  • 147. Classification of Incidents
    Unsafe Acts
    Failing to use protective equipment
    Removing safety devices
    Using equipment improperly
    Dressing improperly
    Operating equipment at unsafe speeds
    Performing unauthorized procedures
    Unsafe Conditions
    Defective equipment
    Hazardous process
    Noise, heat, dust
    Fumes, chemicals
    Poor ventilation
    Improper lighting
    Unsafe floor surfaces
    Unsafe stacking, storing
    Inadequate personal protection equipment
  • 148. Accident Investigation
    Purpose of investigations?
    Most important result of investigations?
    Priorities at the scene?
  • 149. Health
    Health Hazards
    Infectious Diseases
    Environmental Health Hazards
    Fetal Protection Policies
    Employee Assistance Programs
    Can you require EAP treatment?
    Employee Wellness & Fitness Programs
    Chemical Dependency
  • 150. Security
    Fire
    Industrial Sabotage
    Trespassing
    Employee Theft
    Natural Disasters
    Theft/Sabotage of Classified Information
    Violence
    Terrorism
  • 151. Theft and Fraud
    30% of employees admit stealing
    40% hits companies under 100 workers
    Technology has made it easier
    Goes up in a down economy
    Why some organizations make employees take 1 – 2 weeks off
  • 152. Security Risk Analysis
    Vulnerabilities are considered first
    Specific or generic
    Probability of occurrence
    Virtually certain
    Highly probable
    Moderately probable
    Improbable
    Assessment of impact or cost
    Level 1 (fatal to org.), 2, 3, or 4 (negligible)
  • 153. Business Continuity & Recovery
    Disaster Recovery Plan
    procedures to recover lost data in the event of a disaster
    Emergency Response/Preparedness Plan
    describes the action to be taken by all personnel to respond to natural or human disasters
  • 154. Can the Workplace Cause Stress & Violence?
    Harassment
    Poor management style
    Pressure for increased productivityunrealistic job expectations
    Mis-handled job terminations
    Untrained supervisors
    Lack of zero tolerance for inappropriate behavior
  • 155. Workplace Privacy
    Employer Privacy Concerns
    Protection of Propriety Information
    Identify what needs protecting
    Get confidentiality & nondisclosure agreements
    Technology Security Risks
    Employee Privacy Concerns
    Identify Theft
    Monitoring employees
  • 156. Employee & Labor Relations
  • 157. Impact of the Law on Employee Relations
    Employee Rights under the NLRA
    Can organize themselves
    Can discuss their salaries
    EEO Laws
    Common Law
    Employment-at-Will
    Public policy exceptions
    Implied contract
  • 158. Impact of the Law on Employee Relations (con’t)
    Common Law Tort Claims
    Negligent foursome
    Defamation
    Fraudulent misrepresentation
    Others
    Contract Issues
    Oral contracts
    Non-compete agreements
    Others
  • 159. Characteristics of Union-Free Organizations
    Fair and consistent treatment
    Access to career opportunities
    Feedback mechanisms
    Communication programs
    Problem-solving procedures
    Trained supervisors/ managers
    Rewards and recognition
  • 160. Employee Involvement Strategies
    Job Design
    Alternative Work Schedules
    Teams
    Employee Suggestion Systems
    Employee Surveys
    Focus Groups
  • 161. Problem-Solving Procedures
    Discipline Process
    Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
    Prevents escalation of issues
    Private forum
    Cost-effective
    An umbrella term for over 23 options
    Must have basic elements of due process
    Becomes a condition of employment
  • 162. The MOST beneficial outcome of an effective
    employee discipline process is:
    A structured method for addressing substandard performance.
    A productive workforce with high levels of personal accountability
    A reduction of legal challenges to termination decisions.
    Workforce compliance with rules and performance standards.
  • 163. Labor Relations Legislation
    National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)
    Pro-union
    Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)
    Established balance of power
    Union shops, right-to-work states
    Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA)
    Protect employees from corrupt unions
    Others
  • 164. Labor Relations Terms
  • 165. Union Organizing
    Initial contact may occur via:
    A union organizer contacting employees
    Management contacting a union
    Employees contacting a union
  • 166. Union Organizing Tactics
    Inside organizing
    Salting
    Leafleting
    Meetings
    Home visits
    Internet campaigns
    Others
  • 167. Picketing
    A form of free speech
    Organizational picketing
    Induce employees to accept the union
    Recognitional picketing
    Obtain the employer’s recognition of the union
    Informational picketing
    Advise the public
  • 168. Union Organizing Campaign
    Petition for
    Certification
    Authorization
    Cards
    Election
    Campaign
    Election
    Certification
    Of Results
    (no union elected)
    Certification
    of Representative
    (union elected)
    Contract
    Negotiation
    (collective bargaining)
  • 169. Managements Rights in a Campaign
    Take the initiative
    State an opinion
    Point out the consequences of a strike
    Communicate through supervisors & meetings
    State that improvements are notdependent on unionization
    Point out the financial costs of a union
  • 170. Employer Unfair Labor Practices (ULPs)
    Threaten
    Interrogate
    Promise
    Spy
    Known as “TIPS” or “SPIT”
    Don’t forget discrimination or retaliation
  • 171. Union Organizing Campaign
    Authorization Cards
    Primary method of employees showing interest
    Union must have 30% of eligible employees sign to proceed
    Usually will not petition for an election until more than one-half of employees sign
    Are legal documents
    Don’t touch the cards if presented
  • 172. Petition for Certification
    Election is most traditional route toward union recognition – 90%
    Authorization cards are primary example of supporting evidence
    Consent Election(waive pre-election hearing)
    Directed Election
    Voluntary recognition can occur, but happens infrequently
  • 173. NLRB Pre-Election Hearing
    After determining validity of signatures and sufficient interest, the following are issues are decided:
    Voter eligibility
    Determination of the bargaining unit
    Community of interests
    Geography
    Others
    Time, date or place of the election
  • 174. Election
    Excelsior List
    Names and addresses of all eligible bargaining unit employees
    Voter Eligibility
    On payroll for at least 3 payroll periods
    Campaign
    Not within 24 hours of election
  • 175. Election Process
    Looks like a general election
    No campaigning around polling area
    Both parties have representatives
    Either party may challenge voter eligibility
    NLRB counts unchallenged ballots
    Simple majority of voting employees wins
    50% plus one person
  • 176. Other Paths to Unionization
    Employer volunteers recognition
    Union convinces the employer to grant recognition
    Union convinces the employer to witness its majority status
    Counting the authorization cards
    ULPs
  • 177. Unfair Labor Practices by the Employer
    TIPS
    Employee committees
    Electromation Case
    Crown Cork and Seal Company Case
    No negotiating or proposing
    Discouraging union membership illegally
    Retaliation
    Refusal to bargain
  • 178. Unfair Labor Practices by the Union
    Restraints and coercion
    Failure to provide fair representation
    Discrimination against non-members
    Excessive membership fees
    Featherbedding
    Refusal to bargain
  • 179. Collective Bargaining
    Definition – the process by which management and union representatives negotiate the employment conditions for a particular bargaining unit
    Must be done in good faith
    Results in (ideally) – a collective bargaining agreement (CBA)
  • 180. Collective Bargaining Subjects
    Mandatory Subjects
    Issues identified specifically by labor laws or court decisions as subject to bargaining
    Wages, benefits, working conditions, overtime, etc.
    Can only strike legally over mandatory subjects
    Permissive Subjects
    Those that may be bargained but are not obligatory
    Benefits for retirees, settlement of ULPs, etc.
    Illegal subjects
    Those that are unlawful by statute
  • 181. Collective Bargaining – Public Sector
    Subjects are limited – why?
    No mandatory subjects
    Public sector employees generally not permitted to strike
    No negotiation over wage rates
    States may differ
  • 182. Collective Bargaining Patterns
    Pattern (parallel) Bargaining
    Union focuses on one employer and then negotiates similar contracts with competitors
    Auto industry
    Coalition (multiple employer) Bargaining
    More than one employer negotiates with union
    Trucking industry / coal mining industry
    Coordinated Bargaining
    Employer bargains with two or unions simultaneously
    Airline industry
  • 183. Contract Clauses
    Union security clauses
    Union shop
    Agency shop
    Management rights
    Bumping
    Strikes and lockouts
    Zipper clause
  • 184. Enforcement Provisions
    Grievance procedure
    Specific steps
    Weingarten rights
    Arbitration
    Voluntary
    Compulsory
    Binding
  • 185. Protected Concerted Activities
    Lockout
    When management shuts down operations
    Strikes
    A refusal by employees to work
    Economic strikes (can replace strikers)
    Unfair labor practices strikes (must reinstate strikers)
    Wildcat strikes (unprotected)
    Sympathy strikes
  • 186. Protected Concerted Activities (con’t)
    Picketing
    Informational
    Common situs picketing
    Consumer picketing
    Secondary Boycotts
    Generally illegal
    Exceptions:
    Ally doctrine
    Double breasting
    Others
  • 187. Decertification
    Very similar to election process
    30% of employees sign a petition
    Majority of voting employees decide
    Reasons:
    Inability to negotiate the first contract
    Fair treatment of employees by employers
    Poor job of unions providing service
    Others
  • 188. Questions?
  • 189. Human Resource Development
  • 190. Legislation Affecting HRD
    Copyright Act
    Public domain
    Who owns copyrights?
    Fair use
    U.S. Patent Act
    Trademark Act
    Title VII, Civil Rights Act
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    American with Disability Act
  • 191. Functions of HRD
    Provides employees with the skills to meet current & future job demands
    Aligns & links HRD learning objectives, activities, and outcomes with organization’s goals & business needs
    Includes:
    Organizational Development
    Training & Development
    Career Development
  • 192. The Learning Organization
    Learning is tied to business objectives
    Change is embraced
    Assumptions are always questioned
    Learning is both a part of work & a part of everyone's job description
    Failures become opportunities to learn
    Employees take responsibility for their own learning
  • 193. Knowledge Management
    The process of creating, acquiring, sharing and managing knowledge to augment individual & organizational performance
    Facilitates information exchange & transfer between employees
    Taps expertise of those leaving the organization
  • 194. Global Issues for HRD
    Organization change and knowledge management become more complex
    Western motivation models and leadership theories may not apply
    Demand for multilingual/multicultural training is increasing
    Cultural issues have a greater influence on the selection of appropriate training
  • 195. Competency Models
    A set of behaviors encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes
    May be defined on an organizational or individual basis
    Core competencies differentiate an organization from its competition and provides for a competitive advantage
  • 196. Organizational Development
    Enhances the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members
    Occurs on both a large & small scale
    Is change management
    Primary roles for HR professionals:
    Serve as change agents
    Conduct evaluations of OD interventions
  • 197. OD Intervention Strategies
    Interpersonal strategies
    Deal with work relationships
    Technological strategies
    Focus on processes
    Include job design & work flow analysis
    Structural strategies
    Look at how the structure of the organization is helping or hindering the organization
  • 198. Quality InitiativesISO 9000+ / Six Sigma / LeanQuality Tools
    Process-flow analysis
    Control chart
    Cause-and-effect diagram
    Scatter diagram
    Histogram
    Check sheet
    Pareto chart
  • 199. Training & Development
    The ADDIE Model
    Assessment or Analysis
    Design
    Development
    Implementation
    Evaluation
  • 200. Types of Training Programs
    Orientation and on-boarding
    Skill development
    Supervisory/managerial
    Defense in lawsuits
    Corporate responsibility
    Other
  • 201. Evaluation of Training Programs
    Don Kirkpatrick’s Model
    Level One – did you like it?
    Reaction
    Level Two – did you learn anything?
    Measuring learning
    Level Three – did anything change?
    Measuring behavior
    Level Four – any affect on organization?
    Measuring results
  • 202. Learning and Motivation
    Assumptions about adult learning
    Obstacles
    Learning styles
    Auditory
    Visual
    Kinesthetic
    Learning levels
    Intrinsic vs. extrinsic factors
  • 203. Which of the following intrinsic factors affect an
    employee’s willingness to do the job?
    Opportunities for recognition and relationships with co-workers
    Opportunities for personal growth and achievement
    Working conditions and job security
    Job environment and pay
  • 204. Motivational Theories
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
    Skinner’s Behavioral Reinforcement Theory
    Equity Theory
    McClelland’s Theory
    Theory X and Theory Y
  • 205. A first-line supervisor desires a management position.
    However, only college graduates seem to be promoted.
    The employee decides not to enroll in college since
    balancing work and school would be too hard. According
    to Vroom, the employee
    Does not believe that a college degree will lead to a management job.
    Does not want a management position badly enough.
    Does not trust company management.
    Lacks confidence in himself.
  • 206. Career Development
    Career Planning
    Focus on the individual
    Career Management
    Focus on the organization
    Talent Management
    Integration of HR processes that attract, develop & retain employees that will meet current & future business needs
  • 207. Career Development Programs
    Employee self-assessment tools
    Coaching
    Mentoring
    Continuing education
    Committee/team participation
    Apprenticeship
    Job rotation, enlargement and enrichment
    Fast-track programs
  • 208. Career Development Programs (con’t)
    Internal mobility
    Promotions
    Relocations
    Transfers
    Demotions ???
    Dual ladder programs
    Succession planning / replacement planning
    Expatriation and repatriation
  • 209. Leadership & Management
    Which is more important?
    Are leaders born or made?
    How are leaders developed?
    Can leadership be taught and learned?
    What are some obstacles to developing leaders?
  • 210. Leadership Theories
    Trait Theories
    Behavioral Theories
    Situation Leadership Theory
    Hersey-Blanchard’s Theory
    Behavioral Leadership Theories
    Blake-Mouton’s Theory
    Contingency Theories
    Fiedler’s Theory
    Transformational/Transactional Leaders
  • 211. Issues Affecting Leadership
    Gender differences
    Generational characteristics
    Cross-cultural differences
    Emotional intelligence
  • 212. Performance Management
    Organizational values and goals
    Provide a sense of purpose and priorities
    Performance standards
    Set expectations
    Identify and measure behaviors
    Provide a direct relationship between job description, job competencies and performance goals and objectives
    Point out important aspects of the job
  • 213. Measurement & Feedback
    Performance appraisals
    Provide feedback and counseling
    Help in allocating rewards and opportunities
    Help in determining employees’ aspirations and planning developmental needs
    Should be formal and informal
    Should be conducted continuously, not as an annual event
    Should never be a surprise
  • 214. Appraisal Methods
    Category rating methods
    Graphic scale
    Checklist
    Forced choice
    Comparative methods
    Ranking
    Paired comparison
    Forced distribution
  • 215. Appraisal Methods (con’t)
    Narrative methods
    Essay
    Critical incidents
    Field review
    Special methods
    Management by objectives
    Behaviorally anchored rating scale
  • 216. Errors in Performance Appraisal
    Halo/horn effect
    Recency
    Primacy
    Bias
    Strictness
    Leniency
    Central tendency
    Contrast
  • 217. Other Considerations in PerformanceManagement
    Legal ramifications
    The appraisal meeting
    Trained supervisors
    Documentation
  • 218. Questions?
  • 219. Strategic Management
  • 220. The Evolving Role of HRM
    HR Models
    Advice / Service / Control
    Strategic / Operational / Administrative
    Dimensions of Change
    Workplace environment
    Globalization
    Offshoring vs. outsourcing
    Ethics
    Mergers & acquisitions
  • 221. Management Functions by Fayol
    Planning
    Organizing
    Directing
    Controlling
  • 222. Critical Management Skills
    Managing Projects
    Interpersonal responsibilities
    Informational responsibilities
    Decisional responsibilities
    Project planning tools
    Managing Change
    Managing Third-Party Contractors
    Managing Technology
  • 223. Transformational change differs from change
    initiatives in that it:
    affects qualitative processes and their results.
    challenges deeply held values, beliefs, and assumptions.
    permits individual modification of some elements.
    stems from market branding strategies.
  • 224. Strategic Planning
  • 225. Strategic Planning
    Phase 1
    Mission
    Vision
    Values
    Phase 2
    SWOT Analysis
    Environment Scanning
    Long Term Objectives
    Strategy Identification
  • 226. Strategic Planning(con’t)
    Phase 3
    Short-term objectives
    Action plans
    Allocation of resources
    Employee engagement
    Phase 4
    Review strategies
    Measure performance
    Take corrective action
  • 227. Which of the following activities best
    prepares HR to participate in the strategic
    planning process?
    Evaluating a new HRIS system
    Restructuring HR’s recruiting system
    Training line managers on interviewing techniques
    Reviewing the company’s key financial data
  • 228. Internal Business Partners
    Finance and Accounting
    Marketing and Sales
    The 4 P’s
    Operations
    Information Technology
    Employees
    Human Capital vs. Human Resources
  • 229. The Evolution of Organizations
  • 230. Competitive Advantage Strategies
    Cost Leadership (operational excellence)
    Differentiation
    Focus
    Human Capital Advantage
    Customer Intimacy
  • 231. Organizational Structures
    Functional
    Divisional
    Matrix
    • Most common?
    • 232. In which do “silos” frequently appear?
  • Other Organizational Structural Issues
    Span of Control
    Centralization of decision-making
    Economies of scale
    Decentralization of decision-making
    Quicker responses to problems
    • Which do employees usually like better?
  • Environmental Scanning
    Demographic Factors
    Economic Factors
    Employment Factors
    International Factors
    Political Factors
    Social Factors
    Technological Factors
  • 233. Measuring HR’s Contributions
    Financial Measures
    Cost-benefit analysis
    Break-even analysis
    Performance Measures
    Balanced scorecard
    Performance audits
    Other Indicators
    Key organizational metrics
    Turnover
    Others
  • 234. Research
    Primary Research
    Experimental
    Pilot projects
    Surveys/questionnaires
    Interviews (exit, individual, and panel)
    Focus groups
    Direct observation
    Testing
    Secondary Research
    Historical data
    Benchmarking/best practices
    Purchased data
    Professional journals, books and other media
    Secondhand reports (e.g., grapevine reports)
  • 235. Quantitative Analysis
    Charts and graphs
    Measures of central tendency
    Mean
    Mode
    Median
    Measures of variation
    Measures of association
    Inferential statistics
  • 236. Qualitative Analysis
    Individual or panel interviews
    Surveys and questionnaires
    Focus groups
    SWOT analysis
    Small groups
  • 237. How valid and reliable is the data?
    Reliability: the ability of an instrument to measure consistently
    Test/retest
    Rater agreement
    Others
    Validity: the ability of an instrument to measure what it is intended to measure
    Content
    Construct
    Concurrent
  • 238. Ethics
    Not synonymous with legality
    Must begin at top of organization
    HR plays important role
    Organizational culture influences
    Must walk the talk
    Training is important
  • 239. Ethical Issues
    Privacy
    Drug testing
    Surveillance
    Technology
    Whistleblowing
    Conflict of interests
    Insider trading
    Bribes, payoffs and kickbacks
    Cultural clashes
    Copyrights
  • 240. Corporate Citizenship Programs
  • 241. Questions?