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Tb2386 gorenveld expert_one i_pv6_final

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  • 1. © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 2. ExpertOne: Introduction to IPv6Praveen BahethiJune 2012© Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 3. ObjectivesIdentify various types of IPv6 addresses and explain how devices obtain themConfigure IPv6 addresses on HP switchesCreate static IPv6 routes to enable routing in a simple IPv6 networkDeploy an OSPFv3 routing solution in a complex IPv6 networkTunnel IPv6 traffic through an IPv4 environment3 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 4. Discussion TopicsIPv6 backgroundEnhancements from IPv4Types of trafficAddress formatUnicast global prefixesUnicast link-local prefixMulticastIPv6 interface addressesNDPIPv6 static routesOSPFv3Other IPv6 features and protocolsTransitioning from IPv4 to IPv64 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 5. IPv6 OverviewBuilding on IPv4, IPv6 addresses contemporary networking needsFeature IPv4 IPv6Address length 32 bits 128 bits (four times as large)NAT Often necessary Not necessaryHeader size 20 bytes, many options 40 bytes (only twice as large) but extensibleConfiguration Manual, DHCPv4 Manual, stateful automatic (DHCPv6), stateless automatic, cryptographicTypes of addresses Broadcast, multicast, unicast Multicast, unicast, anycastAddresses per-interface Single MultipleNeighbor discovery, router A variety of separate protocols NDP (built in)discovery, Address resolution,NUD, redirects, etc.IPsec Optional IntegratedQoS5 Some Better © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 6. IPv6 Address Hexadecimal Notation 0000 0010 0100 0001 Which is correct? 1111 1111 0001 0101 0010 0100 0001 0000 FF15 :: 241 : 0 : 0 : 4C22 What bits do the double colons replace? 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0100 1100 0010 0010 Why is the double colon not used here?6 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 7. Types of IPv6 Traffic Unicast Multicast Anycast *The 2001:DB8::/16 prefix used throughout this module is for documentation purposes only7 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 8. IPv6 Unicast AddressesNetwork prefixVariable (between 3 and 64 bits for global)Defines scopes• Link-local• Site-specific (deprecated)• GlobalCan also define other types of trafficInterface IDFixed at 64 bits for link-local and globalBased on a token (typically, the MAC address)8 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 9. IPv6 Link-local Prefixes Link-local packets cannot cross Layer 3 subnet boundary FE80::23/109 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 10. IPv6 Global Prefixes Global traffic, in the 2000::/3 range, can be routed anywhere10 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 11. IPv6 Global Prefix DetailThe global prefix is built in a hierarchical manner 2 XXX:X XX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX IANA Local subnet RIR/NIR Always ISP/LIR (variable) Organization (EU) Interface ID 3 bits (variable) (variable)11 Globally assigned © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 12. IPv6 MulticastsThe multicast reaches all nodes in the multicast group12 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 13. IPv6 Multicast AddressesPrefix = FF00::/8 (1111 1111)Embed information • Type of multicast address (indicated by RPT flags) − Permanently assigned by IANA − Dynamically assigned (with or without extra information) • Scope P and RP flags indicate whether dynamic addresses embed extra T flag indicates whether information permanent (0) or dynamic (1)13 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 14. Multicast Scopes Multicast boundary associated with scope 4 C, and D are members of FF12::1, FF14::1, and FF1E:::114 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 15. Permanent Multicast AddressesPrefix = FF00:://12Fixed scopeThe scope is built in as part of the permanently assigned addressExamples:• FF02::1 = All-nodes on the link (like an IPv4 broadcast address)• FF02::2 = All-routers on the linkAll scopeThe defined address can operate within different scopesExample—FF0x::101/12 = NTP multicast address• FF02::101 = All NTP servers on a link (collision domain)• FF05::101 = All NTP servers at a site• FF0E::101 = All NTP servers on the Internet15 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 16. Unicast-prefix-based MulticastPrefix = FF30::/12 or FF70::/12Simplifies the dynamic assignment of multicast addresses: • Embeds the unicast prefix into the address to ensure automatically that it is globally unique • Can embed the RP address FF78:0730:2001:0DB8:0A0E:0000:4040:4040 Multicast RP ID Prefix Unicast Prefix Scope Group ID: Prefix Length Flags Permanent or dynamic 0RPT T is always 116 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 17. Discussion TopicsIPv6 backgroundIPv6 interface addresses Auto-configuration Manual configuration of the global prefix RA configurationNDPIPv6 static routesOSPFv3Other IPv6 features and protocolsTransitioning from IPv4 to IPv617 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 18. Methods for Obtaining an IPv6 AddressStateless auto-configuration*Manual*State-ful auto-configuration (DHCPv6)Cryptographic*Supported on HP switch interfaces18 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 19. Configure Stateless Auto-configurationOn an HP switch:• Enable IPv6• Access a VLAN interface and specify auto address configuration [Switch] ipv6 [Switch] interface vlan <ID> [Switch-Vlan-interface<ID>] ipv6 address auto19 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 20. Stateless Auto-configuration Step1Generate tentative link-local addressTentative, auto-configured link-local address:Network prefix = Link-local prefixInterface ID = EUI-64 format address 00 18 71 74 4F 00 IEEE 48-bit MAC address 00 18 71 FF FE 74 4F 00 Expand to EUI-64 00000000 Invert the Global Bit 00000010 02 18 71 FF FE 74 4F 00 Interface IDLink-local prefix FE80:: 0218:71FF:FE74:4F0020 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 21. Stateless Auto-configurationJoin all-nodes and solicited-nodes multicast groupsAll interfaces must join these multicast groups: All-nodes = FF02::1 Solicited-node for unicast addresses = FF02::1:FFXX-XXXX, in which Xs = last 24 bits of the unicast address Unicast addresses State Example Loopback — ::1/128 Link-local address Tentative (not assigned) FE80::218:71FF:FE74:4F00 Multicast addresses Example All-nodes FF02::1 Solicited-node for link-local address FF02::1:FF74:4F0021 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 22. Stateless Auto-configurationPerform DADThe interface sends an NS multicast to the solicited-node address for its tentativeaddress Ethernet Header • Destination MAC = 33-33-FF-74-4F-00 IPv6 Header Tentative IP: FE80::218:71FF:FE74:4F00 • Source Address = :: • Destination Address = FF02::1:FF74:4F00 • Hop limit = 255 Neighbor Solicitation Header • Target Address = FE80::218:71FF:FE74:4F0022 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 23. Stateless Auto-configurationResponse for an non-unique addressEthernet Header• Destination MAC = 33-33-00-00-00-01IPv6 Header• Source Address = FE80::218:71FF:FE74:4F00• Destination Address = FF02::1• Hop limit = 255 Tentative IP: FE80::218:71FF:FE74:4F00Neighbor Advertisement Header• Target Address = FE80::218:71FF:FE74:4F00Neighbor Discovery Option• Target Link-Layer Address = 00-18-71-74-4F-0023 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 24. Stateless Auto-configurationRequest information about the network (RS) Ethernet Header • Destination MAC = 33-33-00-00-00-02 IPv6 Header • Source Address = :: • Destination Address = FF02::2 • Hop limit = 255 Router Solicitation Header24 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 25. Stateless Auto-configurationReceive information (RA) Network information for each prefix: • M and O flags = 0 • Prefix • Preferred and valid lifetimes • MTU, hop limit, reachable time, retransmission timer, etc.25 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 26. Stateless Auto-configurationGlobal address configurationTentative global address configuration• Network prefix = Advertised prefix• Interface ID = same interface ID for link-local Unicast addresses State Example Loopback — ::1/128 Link-local Preferred FE80::218:71FF:FE74:4F00 Global Tentative 2001:DB8:0:1:218:71FF:FE74:4F00 Multicast addresses Example All-nodes FF02::1 Solicited-node for link-local and global address FF02::FF74:4F00 All-routers FF02::226 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 27. Stateless Auto-configurationPerform DAD for the global addressTo transition the global addresses to preferred addresses, the interface mustimplement DAD Ethernet Header • Destination MAC = 33-33-FF-74-4F-00 IPv6 Header Tentative IP: 2001:DB8:0:1:218:71FF:FE74:4F00 • Source Address = :: • Destination Address = FF02::1:FF74:4F00 • Hop limit = 255 Neighbor Solicitation Header • Target Address = 2001:DB8:0:1:218:71FF:FE74:4F0027 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 28. Stateless Auto-configurationSubnet router anycast Unicast addresses State ExampleSubnet-router Loopback — ::1/128 anycast required on routing Link-local address Preferred FE80::218:71FF:FE74:4F00/10 interfaces Global address Preferred 2001:DB8:0:1:218:71FF:FE74:4F00/64HP switches add Multicast addresses Example this anycast All-nodes FF02::1 address Solicited-node for link-local FF02::FF74:4F00 automatically and global address All-routers (link) FF02::2 Anycast addresses Example Subnet routers 2001:DB8:0:1::28 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 29. Stateless Auto-configuration on EndpointsSimilar process as on the switchesThese addresses are required Unicast addresses State Example Loopback — ::1/128 Link-local address Preferred FE80::218:12FF:FE81:2E75/10 Global address Preferred 2001:DB8:0:1:218:12FF:FE81:2E75/64 Multicast addresses Example All-nodes FF02::1 Solicited-node for link-local and FF02::FF81:2E75 global address29 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 30. Manual Configuration of the IPv6 Address• Enable IPv6• Configure the IPv6 prefix for an EUI-64 format address [Switch-Vlan-interface<ID>] ipv6 address <IPv6 prefix/prefix length> eui-64• Interface follows the same steps as for auto-configuration but uses the configured prefix instead of one in an RA Global Configured prefix + Interface ID Link-local Link-local prefix + Interface ID30 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 31. Enabling Routing Advertisements• Enable RA messages• The interface automatically advertises the prefix(es) for its global address(es) [Switch-Vlan-interface<ID>] undo ipv6 nd ra halt31 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 32. Need — Update the Network PrefixHow can you change the prefix in an efficient way?32 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 33. Solution — Seamless Update Using Auto-configurationand RAsUse RAs to transition seamlessly to the new address33 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 34. Need — other Configuration Settings for IPv6 Nodes34 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 35. Solution — Stateless (and Stateful) DHCPv6• Configure the managed and other flags in the routing switch’s RA messages• Configure DHCPv6 relay in VLAN 135 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 36. Discussion TopicsIPv6 backgroundIPv6 interface addressesNDPIPv6 static routesOSPFv3Other IPv6 features and protocolsTransitioning from IPv4 to IPv636 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 37. NDP  DAD  Router discovery  Prefix and parameter discovery  Stateless auto-configuration • Next-hop determination (neighbor and router discovery) • Address resolution • NUD • Router redirects Message Type Type Value RFC Router Solicitation/Router Advertisement 133/134 4861 Neighbor Solicitation/Neighbor Advertisement 135/136 4861 Redirect Message 137 486137 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 38. Next-hop DeterminationNDP enables IPv6 nodes to build up tables necessary for forwarding traffic Destination cache Neighbor cache Prefix list Default router list38 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 39. Address Resolution — NS Ethernet Header • Destination MAC = 33-33-FF-02-6E-A5 IPv6 Header • Source Address = FE80::210:5AFF:FEAA:20A2 • Destination Address = FF02::1:FF02:6EA5 • Hop limit = 255 Neighbor Solicitation Header • Target Address = FE80::260:97FF:FE02:6EA5 Neighbor Discovery Option • Source Link-Layer Address = 00-10-5A-AA-20-A2 MAC: 00-10-5A-AA-20-A2 IP: FE80::210:5AFF:FEAA:20A2 1 2 MAC: 00-60-97-02-6E-A5 IP: FE80::260:97FF:FE02:6EA539 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 40. Address Resolution — NA• Exchange of NS and NA messages resolves the neighbor’s link-layer address• Both hosts update neighbor caches• Unicast traffic can now be sent Ethernet Header • Destination MAC = 00-10-5A-AA-20-A2 IPv6 Header • Source Address = FE80::260:97FF:FE02:6EA5 • Destination Address = FE80::210:5AFF:FEAA:20A2 • Hop limit = 255 Neighbor Advertisement Header MAC: 00-10-5A-AA-20-A2 • Target Address = FE80::260:97FF:FE02:6EA5 IP: FE80::210:5AFF:FEAA:20A2 Neighbor Discovery Option • Target Link-Layer Address = 00-60-97-02-6E-A5 2 Send unicast Neighbor Advertisement MAC: 00-60-97-02-6E-A5 IP: FE80::260:97FF:FE02:6EA540 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 41. NUDA neighboring node and its forward path is reachable ifThere has been recent confirmation that IPv6 packets sent were received and processed by theneighboring nodeReachability is also determined byUpper layer protocol indicatorsReceipt of an NA message in response to a unicast NS messageThe NA Solicited flag must be set to 1Unsolicited messages confirm only the one-way path from the source to the destination nodeSolicited NA messages indicate that a path is working in both directions41 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 42. Lab Activity 8.142 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 43. Lab Activity 8.1 Debrief• What key insights did you have?• What challenges did you confront and how did you solve them?• What display commands helped you to assess and troubleshoot your configuration?43 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 44. Discussion TopicsIPv6 backgroundIPv6 interface addressesNDPIPv6 static routesOSPFv3Other IPv6 features and protocolsTransitioning from IPv4 to IPv644 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 45. IPv6 Static Routes– Similar options to IPv4 routes– Destination = IPv6 prefix + prefix length metric • Example: 2001:DB8:1100:: 40– Next hop • Next hop router’s global unicast address − Example: 2001:DB8:2222:43:0214:34FF:FEB7:09A4 − Next hop router’s link-local unicast address on the forwarding interface − Example: FE80::0214:34FF:FEB7:09A4 [Switch] ipv6 route-static 2001:DB8:1100:: 40 2001:DB8:2222:43:0214:34FF:FEB7:09A4 [Switch] ipv6 route-static :: 0 FE80::0223:1AFF:FEC8:12CD int vlan 10045 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 46. Configuring Hierarchical Static IPv6 Routes What static routes should you configure?46 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 47. Configuring Hierarchical Static IPv6 Routes (continued) These routes work You could also configure larger aggregations.47 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 48. Discussion TopicsIPv6 backgroundNDPIPv6 interface addressesIPv6 static routesOSPFv3Other IPv6 features and protocolsTransitioning from IPv4 to IPv648 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 49. OSPFv2 Versus OSPFv3 Feature v2 v3 Area Support X X Algorithm SPF SPF Packet Flooding X X Designated Router Election X X Master/Slave Relationships X X Instances per link 1 multiple Addressing semantics in Type 1 and 2 LSAs yes no Flooding scopes AS, area AS, Area, and Link-Local Interface ID IPv4 Address Link-Local Address Option handling Flexible More flexible LSAs 7 9 Authentication Provided IPv6 Header Router ID IPv4 Address 32-bit Address AllSPFRouters 224.0.0.5 FF02::549 AllDRouters 224.0.0.6 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. FF02::6
  • 50. OSPFv3 on HP Switches Enable OSPFv3 on routed interfaces (links) rather than on networks50 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 51. Changes to Router and Network LSAs No longer include router and link addressing information No longer include stub networks <RouterB> display ospfv3 lsdb router LS age : 30 LS Type : Router-LSA = Type 1 LSA Link State ID : 0.0.0.01 Originating Router: 10.1.255.4 = Advertising router ID . . . Link connected to : a Transit Network Metric : 1 Interface ID : 95551490 = Advertising interface ID Neighbor Interface ID: 254935042 = DR interface ID Neighbor Router ID : 10.1.255.1 = DR ID 2 2 . . . <RouterB> display ospfv3 lsdb network LS age : 4172 LS Type : Network-LSA = Type 2 LSA 1 Link State ID : 15.50.0.2 = DR interface ID 1 Originating Router: 10.1.255.1 = DR ID . . . Attached Router: 10.1.255.1 Attached Router: 10.1.255.2 Attached Router: 10.1.255.3 51 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. Attached Router: 10.1.255.4
  • 52. New Intra-Area Prefix LSAs (Type 9) Map network prefixes to links (by DR interface ID) Advertise stub networks (by router ID) <RouterB> display ospfv3 lsdb intra-prefix LS age : 504 LS Type : Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA Link State ID : 0.0.0.1 Originating Router: 10.1.255.1 . . . Referenced LS Type: 0x2002 = References Network LSA2 Referenced Link State ID: 15.50.0.2 = Maps this prefix 2 Referenced Originating Router: 10.1.255.1 the link to and DR ID Prefix : 2001:DB8:B:1::/64 = References by DR interface ID . . . LS age : 497 1 LS Type : Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA Link State ID : 0.0.0.1 Originating Router: 10.1.255.4 . . . Referenced LS Type: 0x2001 = References Router LSA1 Referenced Link State ID: 0.0.0.0 Referenced Originating Router: 10.1.255.4= References by router ID Prefix : 2001:DB8:B:14::/64 = Maps this prefix to the router 52 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 53. New Link LSAs (Type 8)• Flooded on the link only• Advertise each routing interface’s link-local address to be used for next-hops• Advertise prefixes and options for links <RouterB> display ospfv3 lsdb link LS age : 823 LS Type : Link-LSA1 Link State ID : 5.178.0.2 = References by router Originating Router: 10.1.255.4 interface ID and router ID . . . Link-Local Address: FE80::D1 Number of Prefixes: 1 Prefix : 2001:DB8:B:1::/64 1 . . .<RouterB> display ospfv3 routing-table*Destination: 2001:DB8:B:14::/64 Type: I Cost: 2 NextHop: FE80::D1 Interface: Vlan353 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 54. New Link LSAs (Type 8) (continued) In this topology, D • Does not learn any addresses for C’s interfaces • Still has all the information it needs to learn routes to links advertised by C<RouterD> display ospfv3 routing-table*Destination: 2001:DB8:B:13::/64 Type: I Cost: 3 NextHop: FE80::A2 Interface: Vlan3 54 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 55. Benefits of the New LSA Scheme• Decoupling link state information and addressing: • Increases protocol efficiency (fewer SPF recalculations) • Enables links to support multiple prefixes • Simplifies network readdressing Topology• Advertising link-local addresses for the next hop: unaffected • Minimizes information required in LSDB55 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 56. OSPFv3 Configuration Tasks56 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 57. Lab Activity 8.257 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 58. Lab activity 8.2 debriefWhat key insights did you have?What challenges did you confront and how did you solve them?What display commands helped you to assess and troubleshoot your configuration?58 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 59. Discussion TopicsIPv6 backgroundIPv6 interface addressesNDPIPv6 static routesOSPFv3Other IPv6 features and protocols Protocols related to IPv6 multicasting QoS for IPv6Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv659 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 60. IPv6 PIM PIM IPv6 PIM Provides routing for IPv4 multicasts IPv6 multicasts Routes used for RPF Any IPv4 unicast Any IPv6 unicast DM DM Modes SM SM Neighbor discovery Hellos Hellos Forwarding interface IGMP MLD discovery Manual Manual SM RP selection BSR BSR Embedded RP ASM ASM Source model SSM SSM Manually configured Based on scope bits (FFx3 – FFxD) Administrative scopes address ranges All routers in the global scope (FFxE)60 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. FF02::D AllPIMRouters 224.0.0.13
  • 61. MLDLike IGMP, MLD and MLD snooping work with PIM and minimize the flooding of multicastpackets Routing switch Multicast source MLD querier Switches MLD snooping61 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 62. IPv6 QoS 8-bit Traffic Class field is equivalent to IPv4’s ToS 20-bit Flow label: Unique to IPv6 Requests special treatment for a flow Can be processed without processing the packet Remains unencrypted when IPsec is employed Uses still being developed62 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 63. Discussion TopicsIPv6 backgroundIPv6 interface addressesNDPIPv6 static routesOSPFv3Other IPv6 features and protocolsTransitioning from IPv4 to IPv663 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 64. IPv6 Transition Mechanisms Dual Stack allows coexistence of both IPv6 and IPv4 on the same IPv6 IPv4 Network Network infrastructure Tunneling connects IPv6 sites over the IPv4 Internet IPv4 IPv6 IPv6 Network Network Network64 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 65. IPv4 and IPv6 Dual-stack Dual Stack SNMP, SSH, TimeP, SNTP, Telnet (6,Allows coexistence of both IPv6 and TFTP (6) IPv4 address IPv6 addressIPv4 on the same infrastructure OSPFv2 OSPFv3 DHCP relay (Stateless auto) IPv4 IPv6 Stack Stack VLAN 10 IPv4 Dual IPv6 IPv4 IPv4 Dual Stack Stack65 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 66. Dual-stack Considerations Advantages Disadvantages Greatest flexibility High memory and CPU demands • Two routing tables • Two routing protocols • Firewall rules for both protocols • Two network management configurations Gradual transition to IPv6 Increased complexity (same reasons) Network applications must distinguish between IPv6 and IPv4 peers66 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 67. IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels Quick and inexpensive Several options • At the border between IPv6 and IPv4, routing switches • 6in4 tunnel or relay tunnel support dual stack • IPv4-compatible IPv6 tunnel • Other devices use IPv6 or IPv4 as required • Manual tunnel • ISATAP tunnel IPv6/IPv4 Router IPv6/IPv4 Router v4 addr = B IPv6 Node v4 addr = A v6 addr = T IPv6 Node v6 addr = Q v6 addr = S v6 addr = X IPv4 Network IPv6 Network Router-to-Router Tunnel IPv6 Network V6 Source = Q V4 Source = A v4 Dest = B V6 Source = Q v6 Dest = X Protocol = 41 v6 Dest = X V6 Source = Q v6 Dest = X67 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 68. 6to4 Tunnels• 6to4 networks provide IPv6 prefixes to sites with an IPv4-only ISP• The 6to4 tunnel connects 6to4 sites IPv6/IPv4 6to 4 router IPv6/IPv4 6 to 4 router 192.0.2.1/24 203.0.113.1/24 2002:C000:201:1::1/64 2002:CD00:7101:B::2/64 IPv4 Network 6to4 6to4 Router-to-Router Tunnel network network 2002:C000:201:1::/64 2002:CD00:7101:B::/64 Source interface = 192.0.2.1/24 Source interface = 203.0.113.1/24 Tunnel interface = 2002:C000:201:0::1/64 Tunnel interface = 2002:CD00:7101:0::2/64 Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 6to4 Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 6to4 Static route = 2002:CD00:7101::/48 through tunnel Static route = 2002:C000:201::/48 through tunnel68 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 69. 6to4 Tunnel Relays6to4 relay tunnels connect 6to4 sites to normal IPv6 sites IPv6/IPv4 6to4 relay router IPv6/IPv4 6to4 router 203.0.113.1/24 192.0.2.1/24 2001:DB8:A:B::2/64 2002:C000:201:1::1/64 6to4 Network IPv6 Router-to-Router Tunnel network 2002:C000:201:1::/64 2001:DB8:A:B ::/64 Source interface = 192.0.2.1/24 Source interface = 203.0.113.1/24 Tunnel interface = 2002:C000:201:0::1/64 Tunnel interface = 2002:CD00:7101:0::2/64 Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 6to4 Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 6to4 Static route = 2002:CD00:7101::/48 through tunnel Static route = 2002:C000:201::/48 through tunnel Static route = 2001:DB8:A:B::/64 through 2002:CD00:7101:0::2 or BGP4+69 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 70. IPv4 Compatible IPv6 Tunnels• Connects groups of nodes with normal IPv6 addresses through an IPv4 network• Tunnel uses IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses IPv6/IPv4 Router IPv6/IPv4 Router 192.0.2.1/24 203.0.113.1/24 2001:DB8:1:2::1/64 2001:DB8:A:B::2/64 IPv4 Network IPv6 Router-to-Router Tunnel IPv6 Network Network 2001:DB8:1:2::/64 2001:DB8:A:B::/64 Source interface = 192.0. 2.1/24 Source interface = 203.0.113.1/24 Tunnel interface = ::192.0. 2.1/96 Tunnel interface = ::203.0.113.1/96 Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 auto Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 auto Static route = 2001:DB8:A:B::/64 Static route = 2001:DB8:1:2::/64 through ::203.0.113.1 through ::192.0.2.170 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 71. Manual IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels• Connects normal IPv6 networks through an IPv4 network• Used when the tunnel uses global IPv6 addresses IPv6/IPv4 Router IPv6/IPv4 Router 192.0.2.1/24 203.0.113.1/24 2001:DB8:1:2::1/64 2001:DB8:A:B::2/64 IPv4 Network IPv6 IPv6 Router-to-Router Tunnel Network Network 2001:DB8:1:2::/64 2001:DB8:A:B::/64 Source interface = 192.0.2.1/24 Source interface = 203.0.113.1/24 Destination interface = 10.2.2.1/24 Destination interface = 10.1.1.1/24 Tunnel interface = 3001::1/64 Tunnel interface = 3001::2 /64 Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 Static route = 2001:DB8:A:B::/64 through tunnel or Static route = 2001:DB8:1:2::/64 through tunnel dynamic routing protocol or dynamic routing protocol71 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 72. ISATAP Tunnels• ISATAP nodes tunnel IPv6 traffic to nodes on same ISATAP subnet (IPv4 and IPv6 mix)• ISATAP nodes tunnel traffic destined to IPv6 nodes in other subnets to the ISATAP router 10.1.1.2/24 IPv4 network IPv6/IPv4 Router 10.1.1.100/24 2001:DB8:1:2::1/64 2001::5EFE:A01:164/64 10.1.1.1/24 ISATAP Node-to-Router Tunnel IPv6 network 2001:DB8:A:B::/64 Source interface = 10.1.1.1/24 Tunnel interface = 2001::5EFE:A01:101/64 Protocol = IPv6-IPv4 ISATAP 10.1.1.10/24 2001::5EFE:A01:10A/6472 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 73. SummaryIPv6 interface addressesIPv6 static routesOSPFv3IPv6 PIMMLDQoS for IPv6IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels73 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 74. Learning Check© Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 75. Tunnel BrokersSemi-automated mechanism for building configured tunnels 1. Configuration requestEases scalability concerns somewhat 2. Tunnel Broker (TB) choosesTypically employed between nodes and routers • Tunnel Server (TS)Router-to-router also possible • IPv6 addresses 2 • Tunnel lifetime Tunnel 3. TB registers tunnel IPv6 Broker DNS addresses 3 4. Config info sent to TS 1 4 Tunnel Server 5. Config info sent to client Client 5 IPv4 Network • Tunnel parameters IPv6 Network IPv6-in-IPv4 Tunnel • DNS name 6 6. Tunnel enabled75 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 76. Teredo Routing Teredo Server Home Network ISP Network IPv4/IPv6 NAT Box IPv4 IPv6 Node Teredo Router Client Teredo IPv4/IPv6 Relay Internet Teredo Setup Teredo Packet UDP Tunnel to Relay and from Relay IPv6 Server IPv6 Packet to Server76 © Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  • 77. Thank you© Copyright 2012 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.

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