Particle Characterization of Trona

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Ian Treviranus from HORIBA Scientific discusses the important role particle size and surface area have with trona's sorbent performance. This talk will be useful for anyone in the power or mining industries and will reference laser diffraction and flowing gas surface area technologies. The information will be suitable for any instrument from any manufacturer of these technologies.

Topics covered include:

* What is trona?
* Why are power plants using trona?
* Impact of particle size and surface area
* Interpreting particle size results
* Setting particle size specifications

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Particle Characterization of Trona

  1. 1. © 2013HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Particle Characterization of TronaIan Treviranusian.treviranus@horiba.comwww.horiba.com/us/particle
  2. 2. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.More Information Best Practices/Training Setting Attainable Size Specifications TR007 Understanding Laser Diffraction PSA Results TR008 Troubleshooting Laser Diffraction Data TR010 Help! How Can I Trust My Size Results? TR015 Refractive index selection, sampling, dispersion, systemverification, method development and more Technology BET Flowing Gas Surface Area TE005 Find the Best Analyzer for Your Application TE006 Intro to Laser Diffraction TE010
  3. 3. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.What is trona?Why are power plants using trona?Impact of size and surface areaFeatured technologiesInterpreting particle size resultsQ&A
  4. 4. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.What is trona?Google says…
  5. 5. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.What is trona?Naturally formedsodium sesquicarbonateNa2CO3 * NaHCO3 * 2H2O
  6. 6. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.What is trona?Why are power plants using trona?Impact of size and surface areaFeatured technologiesInterpreting particle size resultsQ&A
  7. 7. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Why is trona useful?EPA regulates SOX emissionsMultiple strategies to remove SOXDry Sorbent Injection attractive optionTronaCapital cost low relative trad. scrubbersOperational cost proportional to sorbentcostSOX removal proportional to reactivity– Reactivity directly proportional to surface area– Surface area directly prop. to particle size
  8. 8. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Balance SOX removal vs. cost Unmilled tronaCoarser PSD  Smaller SSANeed to inject more sorbent to hit removaltarget Milled tronaFiner PSD  Larger SSANeed to inject less sorbent to hit removaltarget– Added cost  either material cost or on-site milling– Finer powders typically bring flow and handlingchallenges
  9. 9. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.What is trona?Why are power plants using trona?Impact of size and surface areaFeatured technologiesInterpreting particle size resultsQ&A
  10. 10. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Calcination aids removalTrona has low natural SSATrona injected into flue gas undergoescalcination and produces sodiumcarbonate with higher SSA2(Na2CO3*NaHCO3*2H2O) + heat 3Na2CO3 + 5H2O + CO2Evolution of water and CO2 createsmicropores  higher SSA
  11. 11. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Effect of CalcinationMeasure surface area to screen incoming material
  12. 12. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Unmilled tronaMeasure particle size to screen incoming material
  13. 13. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Milled tronaMeasure particle size to screen incoming materialand monitor milling end point, efficiency, etc.
  14. 14. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Unmilled vs. milled trona
  15. 15. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.What is trona?Why are power plants using trona?Impact of size and surface areaFeatured technologiesInterpreting particle size resultsQ&A
  16. 16. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Featured technologiesLA-950 & LA-300Laser DiffractionSZ-100Dynamic Light Scattering & Zeta PotentialCAMSIZER & CAMSIZER XTDynamic Image AnalysisPSA300Static Image AnalysisSA-9600Flowing Gas BET Surface Area
  17. 17. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.OPTICAL MICROSCOPY / IMAGE ANALYSISELECTROFORMED MESH SIEVESCENTRIFUGAL SEDIMENTATIONELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITYDYNAMIC LIGHT SCATTERINGACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPYLIGHT OBSCURATION / ELECTRICAL SENSING ZONELASER DIFFRACTION10 nm 100 nm 1 µm 10 µm 100 µm 1 mmSize Range by Technique
  18. 18. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Laser Diffraction•Converts scattered light toparticle size distribution•Quick, repeatable•Powders, suspensions•Most common technique
  19. 19. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.LA-950: Laser DiffractionLowest total cost of ownershipMeasures in less than 60 secondsOne-button operationWet and dry measurementUltra durableNinth generation10 nanometer – 3 mm
  20. 20. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.LA-300: Laser DiffractionUnique portable designShippable in Pelican caseUltra durableOne-button operationWet measurement100 nm – 600 µm
  21. 21. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.SA-9600 Surface Area Analyzer0.1 - >2000 m2/gSingle or multi-point analysisOne or three station systemsSingle point: up to 30 analysesper hourHigh value route to quick andeasy surface area analysis
  22. 22. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.What is trona?Why are power plants using trona?Impact of size and surface areaFeatured technologiesInterpreting particle size resultsQ&A
  23. 23. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Size TerminologyThe most common designation is micrometers ormicrons. When very small, in colloid region,measured in nanometers, with electronmicroscopes or by dynamic light scattering.10-10 10-810-9 10-610-7 10-410-5 10-210-3 10-1 10-0meternanometerAngstrom(Å)micrometer millimeterMicron or µm mnm mm0.1µm 1.0µm 10µm 100µm100 nm
  24. 24. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.The BasicsWhich is the most meaningful size?differentsize definitionsdifferentresults
  25. 25. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.The BasicsWhat sizes can be measured?
  26. 26. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.The BasicsParticle Particle Distribution
  27. 27. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.The BasicsParticle Size Particle Size Distribution4 µm
  28. 28. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.The BasicsLaser DiffractionAssumes hard, spherical shape modelq% = amountof each sizeby volume
  29. 29. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.ModeMedianMeanD[4,3]SizeRemember: D[4,3] is sensitive to large particlesCentral ValuesMeanWeighted AverageCenter of GravityMedian50% PointModePeak of the distributionMost common value
  30. 30. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.15%differenceClassic example:CMP slurriesMean vs. Median
  31. 31. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.D(v,0.9)D(v,0.1)Size µmD(4,3) sensitive to large particlesD(3,2)D(v,0.5)medianD(v,1.0)Never usethe D100!sensitive to small particles10% of the particles liebelow this diameter90% of the particles liebelow this diameterhalf are larger than this diameterhalf are smaller than this diameterMost Common Statistics
  32. 32. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Bimodal DistributionWhich numbers to use for specifications?D50 still an option, but some prefer finer details
  33. 33. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Multimodal Report
  34. 34. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Automate COV CalculationCoefficient of Variation indicatesprecision of multiple measurementsISO 13320 makes recommendationsusing COV
  35. 35. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Result Verification
  36. 36. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Specification on X or Y Axis1.00.90.80.70.60.50.40.30.20.110020 40 60 80 120 14095 105160Size error of +/- 5%Undersize error of 20%Size in m% UnderErrors on X & Y axis not the same50% below 100 µm75% below 120 µm100% below 140 µm
  37. 37. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Specification with Errorhttp://www.spcpress.com/pdf/Manufacturing_Specification.pdf, By David WheelerMust tighten internal spec by lab error %Then product always within performance specification
  38. 38. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.Specification with ErrorMust tighten internal spec by lab errorTherefore minimize lab error makes lifeeasierHow to minimize error?Get sampling rightStructured method developmentEye on the goal: reproducibility
  39. 39. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.What is trona?Why are power plants using trona?Impact of size and surface areaFeatured technologiesInterpreting particle size resultsQ&A
  40. 40. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.DankeGraciasБольшое спасибоGrazie‫ر‬ْ‫ك‬ُ‫ش‬‫ا‬Σας ευχαριστούμε감사합니다ObrigadoTacka dig谢谢ขอบคุณครับありがとうございましたधन्यवादநன்ற
  41. 41. © 2013 HORIBA, Ltd. All rights reserved.www.horiba.com/particleReceive news of updatesView application &technical notes (170+),webinars (60+), whitepapers.Talk to us, ask questionslabinfo@horiba.comIan TreviranusProduct Line Managerian.treviranus@horiba.com

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