Final review spring_2013
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Final review spring_2013






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  • One group being studied is given a sham treatment , either the group being studied or the investigator does not know who is taking the sham treatment,
  • One group being studied is given a sham treatment , either the group being studied or the investigator does not know who is taking the sham treatment,
  • % DV is the percentage of the nutrient for a 2000 calorie diet. Student may need a 1300 calorie diet or a 3000 calorie diet, so using this percentage to determine individual nutrient intake is not appropriate
  • Soluble fibers attract water and form a gel, which slows down digestion – think of oatmeal Insoluble fibers don’t dissolve in water, have a laxative effect and add bulk to the diet, helping prevent constipation – seeds, nuts, barely
  • EFAs can help prevent chronic disease when consumed in amounts recommended by the DRI
  • Not made by the body, increase LDL, hydrogenated unsaturated fats, prolong shelf life
  • we don ’t want to use proteins for energy

Final review spring_2013 Final review spring_2013 Presentation Transcript

  • FINAL REVIEWIntro to Nutrition98 questions, 220 pointsMultiple choice true / false & matching2.75 hours to take the exam
  • EssentialA necessary nutrient that can beobtained only from the diet
  • Nutrient DensityA high proportion of micronutrientsand fiber with a low proportion ofcalories, saturated fat and sugar
  • Organic - contains carbonfatmineralvitamin carbohydrateprotein
  • Energy Yielding Nutrients
  • Energy Yielding Nutrients
  • Malnutrition
  • Nutritious Diet
  • DRI
  • Research Designs
  • Research Designs
  • Leading Causes of Death
  • RDA
  • RDA vs AI
  • EER: Energy RequirementEnergy Requirement
  • Food Groups
  • Phytochemicals
  • Fruit vs Vegetable
  • Fruit or Vegetable?
  • Fruit or Vegetable?Fruit!
  • IllusionsDr. Wansink tested Nutrition Expertsby giving them big bowls and bigscoops or small bowls and smallscoops.These experts scooped 53% more icecream with big bowls andbig scoops!
  • Daily Values• Great for comparingproducts• Not a good tool forrecommendations forindividuals•Same on every label
  • ACSM Exercise Guidelines
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Most Important Digestive Organ?
  • Most Important Digestive Organ?
  • How does thestomach avoidgetting burned bystomach acid?Secrete mucus whichprotects the cells from theacidic contents of thestomachStomach & Acid
  • Digestion:Breakdown ofnutrientsAbsorption:passage ofnutrients from thedigestive tract tothe bloodstreamDigestion & Absorption
  • Heartburn Recommendations• Smaller, morefrequent meals• Drink beforeand after meals,not during• minimize fiber• Don’t lie down immediately after meals• Wear loose clothing
  • Storage Systems
  • Storage Systems
  • Alcohol
  • Simple Carbohydratesmonosaccharidesdisaccharides
  • CarbohydratesfiberSimple CarbohydratesComplex Carbohydratesglycogen
  • Fiber
  • Blood SugarBlood sugar :results in insulinsecretion by thepancreasBlood sugar :results in glucagonsecretion by thepancreas
  • Wheat Kernel
  • Wheat KernelA: Husk - removedB: Bran - most of fiberC: Endosperm - starchD: Germ - nutrients/protein
  • Diabetes
  • DiabetesType I Diabetes Autoimmune disease Cells of the pancreas do not secrete insulin Typical onset is childhoodType II Diabetes Insulin resistance Pancreas secretes enough or too muchinsulin Typically adult-onset, now seen in children
  • LipidsThree classes of lipids Triglycerides (TG)≈95% of all lipids in foods and the human body. TG = FAT PhospholipidsFor example, lecithinemulsifiers SterolsFor example, cholesterol* Know functions of lipids
  • Lipids
  • Fatty AcidsEssential FattyAcids• Omega - 6• Omega - 3
  • LipoproteinsLDLTransport cholesteroland other lipids to bodytissuesHDLCarry cholesterol frombody cells to the liver fordisposal (scavengescholesterol)
  • Trans Fatty AcidsTrans fats are a byproduct of hydrogenation
  • Cholesterol
  • Proteins1. Genes determinethe sequence2. String of aminoacids3. Peptide bond4. Not a straightchain5. Shape determinesfunction.
  • Proteins: Multiple Functions
  • Using Proteins for EnergyNitrogen is wasted when protein isused for energy
  • DigestibilityDry heat  digestibility: BBQMoist heat  digestibility Crock pot / stewMeat - better digestibilityGrain - lower digestibility
  • Denaturing ProteinUncoiling and unfolding protein• acid (stomach acid)• heavy metals (ie:mercury)• base• heat (cooking)• alcohol
  • PEM•KWASHIOKOR•Older infants ( 1-3 yr)Rapid onset•Inadequate proteinintake•Some weight loss andmuscle wasting (notsevere)•Edema (belly)•Belly often bulges witha fatty liver•MARASMUS•6 - 18 months of age•Protein and energy deprivation•Develops slowly•Severe wasting•No edema•Looks like a Little Old Man/matchstickarms•Can go to point of no return
  • Vegetarian/Vegan Diet• A healthy vegetarian diet is associated witha lower risk of chronic disease• Both a vegetarian diet and a meat eater’sdiet should include a wide variety of fruits andvegetables and whole grains• A vegan diet needs to be supplemented withVitamin B12• Mutual supplementation is the combining ofplant foods to form complete proteins
  • VitaminsWater Soluble Vitamins Dissolve in water Easily absorbed and transported Not stored extensively Rarely toxic from foodFat soluble Vitamins Does not dissolve in water Needs fat to be absorbed Stored in the body Can be toxic from food sources
  • Vitamin A
  • Beta - carotene
  • Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Water Soluble: Vitamin C
  • Water Soluble: B Vitamins
  • Water Soluble; B Vitamins
  • Neural Tube DefectsSpina bifidaAnencephaly Folate
  • Pernicious Anemia
  • Supplements
  • Sodium and Potassium
  • IronIron absorption•Heme (23%)•Non- heme (2-20%)Increase absorption (non-heme)•Vitamin C•MFPInhibit absorption (non-heme)•Tannins, phytates•Calcium, phosphorusIronhemehemoglobin
  • Iron Deficiency• Iron deficiency can lead to anemia• Women in their childbearing yearsare most at risk
  • Calcium
  • Calcium - Osteoporosis• Loss of bone mineral density• Not achieving peak bone mass increasesthe risk of developing osteoporosisCa & Vit D intake,gender, genetics,physical activitycontribute to risk
  • Iodine
  • PhosphorusP
  • Overweight & Obese• 65% of Americans areoverweight•30% of Americans areobese
  • Central Obesity
  • BMI: Body Mass IndexRisk for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, strokeDetermine risk: BMI, Waist, Disease Profile, Activity LevelCan be overweight and healthy!
  • Hunger & SatietyHunger: physiologic need for food/energyAppetite: psychological desire forfoodSatiety: feeling of fullnessHunger is a greater drive than satietyStretch receptors in the stomach send asignal to the brain  satiety
  • Caloriea unit of measurement for the energyin food
  • Energy ExpenditureEnergy In:Food + beveragesEnergy Out:Physical Activity + BMR + TEF
  • Thrifty Gene
  • Female Athlete Triad1. Disordered Eating2. Amenorrhea3. Osteoporosis
  • Risk Factors and Disease
  • Heart Disease & SmokingSmoking is a powerful riskfactor for heart disease Direct damage to the heart Increases blood pressure
  • Atherosclerosis most common cause ofcardiovascular disease characterized byplaques hardening of the arteries complexinflammatoryresponse to tissuedamage
  • Atherogenic Diet
  • Hypertension
  • HypertensionDASH diet lowers BP more thandecreasing sodium intake alone
  • Cancer developmentDamageto DNA CellsmultiplyPromotersenhance metastasis
  • Cancer development• Free radicals cause damage to DNA,protein and lipid membranes• Antioxidants quench free - radicals andprevent damage• Antioxidants are Vitamins C, E,Selenium and phytochemicals
  • Infant Birthweight
  • Iron: During pregnancy
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Nutritional Deficiency in Pregnancy
  • Nutritional Deficiency in Pregnancy
  • Benefits of Breastfeeding
  • Nutrients for Toddlers
  • Allergy, aversion, intolerance
  • TeenagersWhat are the 2 most importantnutrients for teenagers?
  • TeenagersWhat are the 2 most importantnutrients for teenagers? Calcium Iron
  • Physical Changes with Aging
  • Vitamin A and D with aging
  • Physical Activity in Elderly
  • Food Poisoning
  • Food Safety
  • Food Safety: Foodborne illness
  • Preserving Foods
  • Natural & Artificial Flavors
  • Pesticides
  • Organic Foods
  • Genetic Engineering of Food
  • Genetic Engineering of Food
  • Exam Format