Final review spring_2013

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  • One group being studied is given a sham treatment , either the group being studied or the investigator does not know who is taking the sham treatment,
  • One group being studied is given a sham treatment , either the group being studied or the investigator does not know who is taking the sham treatment,
  • % DV is the percentage of the nutrient for a 2000 calorie diet. Student may need a 1300 calorie diet or a 3000 calorie diet, so using this percentage to determine individual nutrient intake is not appropriate
  • Soluble fibers attract water and form a gel, which slows down digestion – think of oatmeal Insoluble fibers don’t dissolve in water, have a laxative effect and add bulk to the diet, helping prevent constipation – seeds, nuts, barely
  • EFAs can help prevent chronic disease when consumed in amounts recommended by the DRI
  • Not made by the body, increase LDL, hydrogenated unsaturated fats, prolong shelf life
  • we don ’t want to use proteins for energy
  • Final review spring_2013

    1. 1. FINAL REVIEWIntro to Nutrition98 questions, 220 pointsMultiple choice true / false & matching2.75 hours to take the exam
    2. 2. EssentialA necessary nutrient that can beobtained only from the diet
    3. 3. Nutrient DensityA high proportion of micronutrientsand fiber with a low proportion ofcalories, saturated fat and sugar
    4. 4. Organic - contains carbonfatmineralvitamin carbohydrateprotein
    5. 5. Energy Yielding Nutrients
    6. 6. Energy Yielding Nutrients
    7. 7. Malnutrition
    8. 8. Nutritious Diet
    9. 9. DRI
    10. 10. Research Designs
    11. 11. Research Designs
    12. 12. Leading Causes of Death
    13. 13. RDA
    14. 14. RDA vs AI
    15. 15. EER: Energy RequirementEnergy Requirement
    16. 16. Food Groups
    17. 17. Phytochemicals
    18. 18. Fruit vs Vegetable
    19. 19. Fruit or Vegetable?
    20. 20. Fruit or Vegetable?Fruit!
    21. 21. IllusionsDr. Wansink tested Nutrition Expertsby giving them big bowls and bigscoops or small bowls and smallscoops.These experts scooped 53% more icecream with big bowls andbig scoops!
    22. 22. Daily Values• Great for comparingproducts• Not a good tool forrecommendations forindividuals•Same on every label
    23. 23. ACSM Exercise Guidelines
    24. 24. Digestion and Absorption
    25. 25. Most Important Digestive Organ?
    26. 26. Most Important Digestive Organ?
    27. 27. How does thestomach avoidgetting burned bystomach acid?Secrete mucus whichprotects the cells from theacidic contents of thestomachStomach & Acid
    28. 28. Digestion:Breakdown ofnutrientsAbsorption:passage ofnutrients from thedigestive tract tothe bloodstreamDigestion & Absorption
    29. 29. Heartburn Recommendations• Smaller, morefrequent meals• Drink beforeand after meals,not during• minimize fiber• Don’t lie down immediately after meals• Wear loose clothing
    30. 30. Storage Systems
    31. 31. Storage Systems
    32. 32. Alcohol
    33. 33. Simple Carbohydratesmonosaccharidesdisaccharides
    34. 34. CarbohydratesfiberSimple CarbohydratesComplex Carbohydratesglycogen
    35. 35. Fiber
    36. 36. Blood SugarBlood sugar :results in insulinsecretion by thepancreasBlood sugar :results in glucagonsecretion by thepancreas
    37. 37. Wheat Kernel
    38. 38. Wheat KernelA: Husk - removedB: Bran - most of fiberC: Endosperm - starchD: Germ - nutrients/protein
    39. 39. Diabetes
    40. 40. DiabetesType I Diabetes Autoimmune disease Cells of the pancreas do not secrete insulin Typical onset is childhoodType II Diabetes Insulin resistance Pancreas secretes enough or too muchinsulin Typically adult-onset, now seen in children
    41. 41. LipidsThree classes of lipids Triglycerides (TG)≈95% of all lipids in foods and the human body. TG = FAT PhospholipidsFor example, lecithinemulsifiers SterolsFor example, cholesterol* Know functions of lipids
    42. 42. Lipids
    43. 43. Fatty AcidsEssential FattyAcids• Omega - 6• Omega - 3
    44. 44. LipoproteinsLDLTransport cholesteroland other lipids to bodytissuesHDLCarry cholesterol frombody cells to the liver fordisposal (scavengescholesterol)
    45. 45. Trans Fatty AcidsTrans fats are a byproduct of hydrogenation
    46. 46. Cholesterol
    47. 47. Proteins1. Genes determinethe sequence2. String of aminoacids3. Peptide bond4. Not a straightchain5. Shape determinesfunction.
    48. 48. Proteins: Multiple Functions
    49. 49. Using Proteins for EnergyNitrogen is wasted when protein isused for energy
    50. 50. DigestibilityDry heat  digestibility: BBQMoist heat  digestibility Crock pot / stewMeat - better digestibilityGrain - lower digestibility
    51. 51. Denaturing ProteinUncoiling and unfolding protein• acid (stomach acid)• heavy metals (ie:mercury)• base• heat (cooking)• alcohol
    52. 52. PEM•KWASHIOKOR•Older infants ( 1-3 yr)Rapid onset•Inadequate proteinintake•Some weight loss andmuscle wasting (notsevere)•Edema (belly)•Belly often bulges witha fatty liver•MARASMUS•6 - 18 months of age•Protein and energy deprivation•Develops slowly•Severe wasting•No edema•Looks like a Little Old Man/matchstickarms•Can go to point of no return
    53. 53. Vegetarian/Vegan Diet• A healthy vegetarian diet is associated witha lower risk of chronic disease• Both a vegetarian diet and a meat eater’sdiet should include a wide variety of fruits andvegetables and whole grains• A vegan diet needs to be supplemented withVitamin B12• Mutual supplementation is the combining ofplant foods to form complete proteins
    54. 54. VitaminsWater Soluble Vitamins Dissolve in water Easily absorbed and transported Not stored extensively Rarely toxic from foodFat soluble Vitamins Does not dissolve in water Needs fat to be absorbed Stored in the body Can be toxic from food sources
    55. 55. Vitamin A
    56. 56. Beta - carotene
    57. 57. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
    58. 58. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
    59. 59. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
    60. 60. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
    61. 61. Other Fat Soluble Vitamins
    62. 62. Water Soluble: Vitamin C
    63. 63. Water Soluble: B Vitamins
    64. 64. Water Soluble; B Vitamins
    65. 65. Neural Tube DefectsSpina bifidaAnencephaly Folate
    66. 66. Pernicious Anemia
    67. 67. Supplements
    68. 68. Sodium and Potassium
    69. 69. IronIron absorption•Heme (23%)•Non- heme (2-20%)Increase absorption (non-heme)•Vitamin C•MFPInhibit absorption (non-heme)•Tannins, phytates•Calcium, phosphorusIronhemehemoglobin
    70. 70. Iron Deficiency• Iron deficiency can lead to anemia• Women in their childbearing yearsare most at risk
    71. 71. Calcium
    72. 72. Calcium - Osteoporosis• Loss of bone mineral density• Not achieving peak bone mass increasesthe risk of developing osteoporosisCa & Vit D intake,gender, genetics,physical activitycontribute to risk
    73. 73. Iodine
    74. 74. PhosphorusP
    75. 75. Overweight & Obese• 65% of Americans areoverweight•30% of Americans areobese
    76. 76. Central Obesity
    77. 77. BMI: Body Mass IndexRisk for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, strokeDetermine risk: BMI, Waist, Disease Profile, Activity LevelCan be overweight and healthy!
    78. 78. Hunger & SatietyHunger: physiologic need for food/energyAppetite: psychological desire forfoodSatiety: feeling of fullnessHunger is a greater drive than satietyStretch receptors in the stomach send asignal to the brain  satiety
    79. 79. Caloriea unit of measurement for the energyin food
    80. 80. Energy ExpenditureEnergy In:Food + beveragesEnergy Out:Physical Activity + BMR + TEF
    81. 81. Thrifty Gene
    82. 82. Female Athlete Triad1. Disordered Eating2. Amenorrhea3. Osteoporosis
    83. 83. Risk Factors and Disease
    84. 84. Heart Disease & SmokingSmoking is a powerful riskfactor for heart disease Direct damage to the heart Increases blood pressure
    85. 85. Atherosclerosis most common cause ofcardiovascular disease characterized byplaques hardening of the arteries complexinflammatoryresponse to tissuedamage
    86. 86. Atherogenic Diet
    87. 87. Hypertension
    88. 88. HypertensionDASH diet lowers BP more thandecreasing sodium intake alone
    89. 89. Cancer developmentDamageto DNA CellsmultiplyPromotersenhance metastasis
    90. 90. Cancer development• Free radicals cause damage to DNA,protein and lipid membranes• Antioxidants quench free - radicals andprevent damage• Antioxidants are Vitamins C, E,Selenium and phytochemicals
    91. 91. Infant Birthweight
    92. 92. Iron: During pregnancy
    93. 93. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    94. 94. Nutritional Deficiency in Pregnancy
    95. 95. Nutritional Deficiency in Pregnancy
    96. 96. Benefits of Breastfeeding
    97. 97. Nutrients for Toddlers
    98. 98. Allergy, aversion, intolerance
    99. 99. TeenagersWhat are the 2 most importantnutrients for teenagers?
    100. 100. TeenagersWhat are the 2 most importantnutrients for teenagers? Calcium Iron
    101. 101. Physical Changes with Aging
    102. 102. Vitamin A and D with aging
    103. 103. Physical Activity in Elderly
    104. 104. Food Poisoning
    105. 105. Food Safety
    106. 106. Food Safety: Foodborne illness
    107. 107. Preserving Foods
    108. 108. Natural & Artificial Flavors
    109. 109. Pesticides
    110. 110. Organic Foods
    111. 111. Genetic Engineering of Food
    112. 112. Genetic Engineering of Food
    113. 113. Exam Format
    114. 114. THE END

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