Fall 2013 midterm review

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Fall 2013 midterm review

  1. 1. Nutrition HO-15 Midterm Review
  2. 2. Midterm • a mix of multiple choice, true false and matching. 56 questions • is worth 15% of your total grade 150 points • everyone takes a different exam. draws from a pool • you will have 100 minutes to take the exam is timed will be available for one week can only be accessed and submitted ONCE.
  3. 3. Nutrients Water Carbohydrates Fat Protein Vitamins Minerals
  4. 4. Nutrients - Organic . Carbohydrates Fat Protein Vitamins .
  5. 5. Nutrients – Energy Yielding . Carbohydrates - 4 calories/g Fat – 9 calories/g Protein - 4 calories/g . .
  6. 6. Nutrients – Energy Yielding
  7. 7. Nutrients • Nutrients - Energy Yielding Muffin 280 calories (45 g) • 15 g CHO 15X4 = 60 calories • 20 g fat 20X9 = 180 calories • 10 g protein 10X4 = 40 calories 280 calories
  8. 8. Recognizing a healthy diet Adequacy - getting enough Balance - proportionality Moderation - nothing in excess Variety - wide selection Calorie Control - not too much or too little
  9. 9. Research Case Study Laboratory Double blinded study Placebo controlled Interventional Epidemiologic
  10. 10. Research – Gold Standard Randomized Double Blinded Placebo Controlled interventional Trial
  11. 11. Research Designs A 55 year old female is given a supplement of Vitamin E and is observed over 3 month to evaluate the effects on her heart health? What type of study is this?
  12. 12. Research Designs A 55 year old female is given a supplement of Vitamin E and is observed over 3 month to evaluate the effects on her heart health? What type of study is this? Case Study
  13. 13. Research Designs 200,000 individuals had their LDL, HDL and cholesterol measured at baseline and again at 10 years. Diets were evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire. The number of heart attacks was the primary end point. At 10 years, correlations were made between diet, cholesterol and heart attacks. What type of study is this?
  14. 14. Research Designs 200,000 individuals had their LDL, HDL and cholesterol measured at baseline and again at 10 years. Diets were evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire. The number of heart attacks was the primary end point. At 10 years, correlations were made between diet, cholesterol and heart attacks. What type of study is this? Epidemiologic
  15. 15. Nutrient Density Muffin # 1 Muffin #2 280 calories 20 g fat (15 g saturated fat) 10 g sugar Less than 2% daily value: Fe, Ca, Vit. A & C 200 calories 15 g fat (2 g saturated fat) 4 g sugar (10 g whole grain CHO) 10-15% daily value: Fe, Ca Vit. A & C
  16. 16. Macronutrients Percent of Total Calories Carbohydrates 45-65% Fat 20-35% Protein 10-35% (10-15%)
  17. 17. Macronutrients Example: Carbohydrates 45% Fat 30% Protein 25% TOTAL 100%
  18. 18. Phytochemicals Biologically active substance in plants Phytonutrients May protect against chronic disease • Example: Soy, chocolate, flaxseed, tomatoes, garlic, wine, tea Anti-oxidants
  19. 19. Importance of Exercise
  20. 20. ACSM Guidelines • Or Do moderately intense cardio 30 minutes a day, 5 X week • And Do vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day, 3 X week 8 -10 strength-training exercises 8 - 12 repetitions of each exercise 2/week.
  21. 21. Benefits of Exercise more restful sleep improved bone density lower risks of chronic disease higher quality of life
  22. 22. Mouth Stomach Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Small Intestine Colon
  23. 23. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - Liver - Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon -
  24. 24. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon -
  25. 25. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon -
  26. 26. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon -
  27. 27. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes Small Intestine- Colon
  28. 28. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes Small Intestine- enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed Colon -
  29. 29. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes, secretes insulin & glucagon Small Intestine- enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed Colon - fluid and minerals absorption & some fiber fragments absorbed
  30. 30. Storage Organs – when we eat too much CHO Where? Where? Fat Where? Protein Where?
  31. 31. Storage Organs – when we eat too much CHO Muscle & Liver Fat Fat Where? Protein Where?
  32. 32. Storage Organs – when we eat too much CHO Glycogen Fat Fat Fat Protein Where?
  33. 33. Storage Organs – when we eat too much CHO Glycogen Fat Fat Fat Protein Fat N o t
  34. 34. Carbohydrates • Simple or Complex?
  35. 35. Carbohydrates • Simple or Complex? Simple!
  36. 36. Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides
  37. 37. Complex Carbohydrates fiber glycogen Starch Fiber Glycogen
  38. 38. Fiber
  39. 39. Which part of the wheat kernel Has fiber?
  40. 40. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch?
  41. 41. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein?
  42. 42. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible?
  43. 43. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible? Husk
  44. 44. List the appropriate sequence of events which happen after you eat a plain white bagel: I. Starch starts to breakdown into maltose in the mouth II. Maltose breaks down into glucose in the small intestines III. Glucose is absorbed from the small intestines into the bloodstream IV. The pancreas secretes insulin in response to high blood glucose V. Insulin transports glucose from the bloodstream into cells VI. Blood glucose decreases
  45. 45. Diabetes (Type I & II) Onset? • Type 1 • Type 2
  46. 46. Diabetes (Type I & II) Onset? • Type 1-typically childhood • Type 2-typically adulthood
  47. 47. Diabetes (Type I & II) Cause? • Type 1 • Type 2
  48. 48. Diabetes (Type I & II) Cause? • Type 1 - autoimmune disease • insulin secreting cells impaired • Type 2 - acquired • insulin resistance, obesity, genetics, diet
  49. 49. Diabetes (Type I & II) No Insulin Secretion? • Type 1 • Type 2
  50. 50. Diabetes (Type I & II) No Insulin Secretion? • Type 1 - no natural insulin • Type 2 - enough or too much insulin
  51. 51. Lipids P LIPIDS Triglycerides (TG) ≈95% of all lipids in foods and the human body Phospholipids For example, lecithin Sterols For example, cholesterol
  52. 52. Fats
  53. 53. Percent of Calories from Fat • Hamburger – 500 calories – 25 g saturated fat
  54. 54. Percent of Calories from Fat • Hamburger – 500 calories – 25 g saturated fat 25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories
  55. 55. Percent of Calories from Fat • Hamburger – 500 calories – 25 g saturated fat 25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 sf calories 225 sf calories / 500 calories = .45 = 45%
  56. 56. Percent of Calories from Fat • Hamburger – 500 calories – 25 g saturated fat 25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories 225 calories / 500 calories = .45 = 45% 45% of the calories in the burger are from saturated fat
  57. 57. LDL and HDL What is LDL? What is HDL?
  58. 58. LDL and HDL What is LDL? • Low density lipoprotein What is HDL? • High density lipoprotein NOT ACTUALLY CHOLESTEROL
  59. 59. LDL and HDL What is LDL? • Low density lipoprotein • Transports cholesterol to tissues • “bad” cholesterol What is HDL? • High density lipoprotein • Scavenges cholesterol • “good” cholesterol
  60. 60. LDL and HDL How do you lower LDL? How do you increase HDL?
  61. 61. LDL and HDL • Lower your intake of saturated fat and trans fat How do you lower LDL? • Exercise How do you increase HDL?
  62. 62. LDL Small dense More atherogenic Large bouyant Less atherogenic
  63. 63. LDL Small dense More atherogenic Carbohydrates Large bouyant Less atherogenic Saturated fat
  64. 64. Trans Fats
  65. 65. Essential Fatty Acids EFAs are which type of fatty acid? Saturated fatty acid? Monounsaturated fatty acid? Polyunsaturated fatty acid?
  66. 66. Essential Fatty Acids EFAs are which type of fatty acid? Saturated fatty acid? Monounsaturated fatty acid? Polyunsaturated fatty acid
  67. 67. Structure of Proteins Peptide Bond
  68. 68. Structure of Proteins
  69. 69. Roles of Proteins Enzymes Structural Hormones Precursors (neurotransmitters/vitamins) Antibodies Fluid Balance Buffers Blood Clotting Provide Energy
  70. 70. Protein digestibility Which types of proteins are best absorbed by the body?
  71. 71. Protein digestibility Which types of proteins are best absorbed by the body? • Animal sources: ≈ 90+% • Legumes: ≈ 80%-90% • Grains: ≈ 70%-90% • Moist heat increases digestibility • Dry heat decreases digestibility Digestion and absorption
  72. 72. Complementary Proteins Amino acids from one protein source complement the amino acids from another protein source to form a complete protein.
  73. 73. Wasting • When the amine group has been removed, it means the amino acid has been wasted
  74. 74. Protein Energy Malnutrition
  75. 75. Protein Energy Malnutrition Marasmus Chronic protein and energy deficiency Severe wasting Matchstick arms
  76. 76. Protein Energy Malnutrition
  77. 77. Protein Energy Malnutrition Kwashiorkor Protein malnutrition Acute onset (1-3 yr) Edema (legs/belly) Fatty liver
  78. 78. DRI Protein • DRI protein: example – 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female – 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg
  79. 79. DRI Protein • DRI protein: example – 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female – 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg – 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day
  80. 80. DRI Protein • DRI protein: example – 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female – 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg – 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day – 47g X 4 cal/g = 188 calories – 188 cal/1800 calories = 10 % total calories
  81. 81. DRI Protein • DRI protein: example – 130 lb sedentary 35 yr female – 130 lb X 1kg/2.2 lb = 59 kg – 59kg X 0.8g/kg = 47g protein/day – 47g X 4 cal/g = 188 calories – 188 cal/1800 calories = 10 % total calories – 10-15% of total calories from protein-most Americans – 10-35% of total calories
  82. 82. THE END

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