Chapter 9

240 views
163 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
240
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
22
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • By 2010 35.7% of American adults were obese and about 17% of children and adolescents were obese
  • Michael Jordan was 6’6” and 216 pounds and considered overweight
  • An athlete the same weight, but who is 5’10” and very muscular would have a BMI of 30, which is considered obese
  • > 35” waist is associated with increased risk
  • Factors contributing to metabolic rate include age, height and weight, gender, muscle mass, stress, illness, altitude, temperature, hormones
  • In a new study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Am J ClinNutr September 1, 2012 vol. 96 no. 3 492-497), researchers found that the 3 most common lifestyle factors driving people to eat are alcohol consumption, television and sleep deprivation. Reward saliency is a wanting, a desire for (in this case food) that induces motivational behavior to obtain food. As the wanting increases (as in drug seeking behavior) the “liking” decreases.
  • Jeffrey Friedman, MD PhD is a lead researcher in the field of obesity and his research led to the discovery of leptin. Leptin is a hormone which increases the desire to be physically active and at the same time suppress appetite. Leptin is released by adipose tissue, the more fat, the more leptin and the greater the suppression of appetite. But, tissues can develop a resistance to leptin, just as tissues can develop a resistance to insulin.
  • Examples of NEAT activities are fidgeting, toe tapping and pacing. The term NEAT was coined by Dr. James Levine
  • In July this year, 2013, the United Nations announced that Mexico was now the most populous obese nation, with nearly 70 percent of Mexican adults are overweight, and childhood obesity in the country has tripled within the past decade.
  • Chapter 9

    1. 1. Chapter 9 Energy Balance Nutrition HO-15
    2. 2. Obesity Prevalence
    3. 3. Obesity Prevalence
    4. 4. Dyslipidemia Hypertension Type 2 diabetes Stroke Coronary heart disease Gallbladder disease Osteoarthritis Sleep apnea Respiratory problems
    5. 5. Age-Adjusted Prevalence of Obesity and Diagnosed Diabetes Among U.S. Adults Aged 18 Years or older Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) 1994 No Data <14.0% 2010 2000 14.0-17.9% 18.0-21.9% 22.0-25.9% >26.0% Diabetes 1994 No Data 2010 2000 <4.5% 4.5-5.9% 6.0-7.4% 7.5-8.9% >9.0% CDC’s Division of Diabetes Translation. National Diabetes Surveillance System available at http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics
    6. 6. overweight obese 65% 30% overweight 35% obese
    7. 7. Body Mass Index BMI
    8. 8. 6’6” and 216 pounds = overweight
    9. 9. Determining Health Based on Weight BMI Waist Circumference Disease Profile Physical Activity (fitness level)
    10. 10. Determining Health Based on Weight BMI Waist Circumference Disease Profile Physical Activity (fitness level)
    11. 11. Determining Health Based on Weight BMI Waist Circumference Disease Profile Physical Activity
    12. 12. Determining Health Based on Weight BMI Waist Circumference Disease Profile Physical Activity
    13. 13. Determining Health Based on Weight BMI Waist Circumference Disease Profile Physical Activity (fitness level)
    14. 14. Low risk of morbidity / mortality BMI = 30 = obese range Waist Circumference = 32” Healthy/ No diseases/ Normal blood work Very active
    15. 15. Energy In • food • beverages Energy Out • TEF • BMR • activity
    16. 16. Calories In • food • beverages Calories Out • TEF • BMR • activity
    17. 17. What is a calorie?
    18. 18. What is a calorie? Unit of food energy
    19. 19. Energy Out Activity BMR TEF
    20. 20. Energy In Energy Out Weight Loss
    21. 21. Energy In Energy Out Weight Gain
    22. 22. Regulation of Appetite and Food Intake
    23. 23. Alcohol consumption Sleep deprivation Television Am J Clin Nutr September 1, 2012 vol. 96 no. 3 492-497
    24. 24. Hormonal Influences
    25. 25. Thrifty Gene favor fat accumulation • store energy increased tendency to be sedentary • conserve energy diminished ability to use dietary fats as fuel • save stored energy Increased capacity to store body fat • store energy
    26. 26. NEAT Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis (energy expenditure) Dr. James Levine
    27. 27. Obesity: Global Epidemic
    28. 28. World Health Organization 2008 World Health Organization 2008
    29. 29. Infections Heart Disease Respiratory Illness Diabetes Parasites Today Mortality in Mexico 1970
    30. 30. “We have not had a global collapse of willpower in the last 30 years”
    31. 31. environment types of food hormones genetics metabolism Obesity social economic
    32. 32. THE Chapter Nine END

    ×