CHAPTER 13&14
Lifecycle Nutrition
Mother is
Underweight

Infant is
Underweight

Poor Future
Health
Mother is
Underweight

Infant is
Underweight

Poor Future
Health
Low Birth Weight

Lower IQ
Short Stature

40X more likely to
die 1st year
High Birth Weight

Larger size
2X more likely to
have NTD
Folate
deficiency

Abnormal
spinal cord
development

Neural Tube
Defect
Anencephaly

Spinal Bifida

Spinal Bifida

Abnormal spinal cord development

Neural Tube Defect
Calcium Absorption

Doubles

During Pregnancy
Fetus needs a store of iron for
the first 3-6 months of life
Fetus needs a store of iron for
the first 3-6 months of life

Supplementation is
recommended
FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME
Irreversible brain damage
Growth retardation
Mental retardation
Facial abnormalities
Vision abnorma...
Moderate
Alcohol

Pregnancy

British Medical Journal, June 2013
Got Breast Milk?
Carbohydrate

Lipids

Protein

Lactose

Main energy
source

Easily
digested

Easy to
digest

EFAs

Lactoferrin iron

Enhan...
Vitamins

Minerals

Vitamin C
High

Ca highly
absorbable

Vitamin D

Low in
sodium

Low

High in zinc
and iron
Vitamin D

Supplementation
recommended
Breast Milk

Infant Stores

Supplements?

Iron

At 4-6 months, an
exclusively breast fed
infant is at risk of iron
deficie...
Immune Factors
Anti-viral agents
Anti-bacterial agents

Less prone to GI disorders
Colostrum contains antibodies
Protein

Minerals

Carbs

Toddler
Nutrient
Needs
Vitamins

Fiber

Fatty
acids
Limit sat
fat

Not a Low
Fat Diet

Iron
Deficiency

Behavior
problems
Food
Allergy

Food
Intolerance

Food
Aversion

Recognized
as foreign

Not an
allergy

Intense
dislike

Immune
response

Un...
ADHD

3-5% of school
children
Inability to pay
attention

Poor impulse
control
Sugar?
Food
dyes?

ADHD
Oils?

Salt?
ADHD or ?

sugar

lack of sleep
poor diet
lack of exercise
Too Little

Too much
Protein

• Recommendation stays the same

Fiber
• Same: adequate amounts are important!

Fat
• AHA diet
Vitamin A
• Recomm...
THE
END
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Ch13&14

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  • Single most potent indicator of infant’s future health
  • A study in the British Medical Journal in June of 2013 found the maternal iron supplementation decreased risk for low birth weight.
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Researchers assessed 7,000 10-year-olds on their balancing abilities, which reflects fetal neurodevelopment. There was no association between moderate (3-7 drinks a week) alcohol intake and impacts on neurodevelopment. June 2013 British Medical Journal
  • Breast Milk. Lactoferrin is an iron-gathering protein
  • Vitamin C from cow’s milk is a poor source. Supplementation with Vitamin D is recommended
  • Supplementation with Vitamin D is recommended
  • Infants have a store of iron for 4-6 months. Breast Milk provides an ample source. At 4-6 months, an exclusively breast fed infant is at risk of iron deficiency.
  • Infants have a store of iron for 4-6 months. Breast Milk provides an ample source in conjunction with the infant stores. At 4-6 months, an exclusively breast fed infant is at risk of iron deficiency.
  • One USDA food study found that 30% of American children eat at least one meal or fast food snack on a typical day.
  • The diet changes more in life between 12-24 months than in any more period in life.
  • Protein needs are covered by a regular diet, need for carbohydrates is the same as an adult. To figure out fiber, use age + 5 grams. For example, a 3 year old needs 8 grams of fiber. A 1-3 year old needs 30-40% of their diet from fat. Not a low fat diet!
  • Example of food intolerance is lactose intolerance.
  • Genetics have a significant effect on the development of ADHD
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A 2007 study published in The Lancet found someartificial food colors plus the preservative sodium benzoate aggravated hyperactivity in children without ADHD. Difficult to study the association between food dye and ADHD because most foods have additives and some candies have up to 10 food dyes. No conclusive evidence linking sugar or dyes, but reasonable to eliminate dyes from a diet of a child with ADHD.
  • No food dyes in whole foods
  • Iron is particularly important for women as they begin menstruation. Iron deficiency is prevalent among adolescent girls. Peak bone mass develops by age 18 so it’s important to have adequate calcium intake.
  • Too much iron or other heavy metal minerals, iron, zinc, copper, may be associated with memory impairment
  • Too much iron or other heavy metal minerals, iron, zinc, copper, may be associated with memory impairment
  • Too much iron or other heavy metal minerals, iron, zinc, copper, may be associated with memory impairment
  • Ch13&14

    1. 1. CHAPTER 13&14 Lifecycle Nutrition
    2. 2. Mother is Underweight Infant is Underweight Poor Future Health
    3. 3. Mother is Underweight Infant is Underweight Poor Future Health
    4. 4. Low Birth Weight Lower IQ Short Stature 40X more likely to die 1st year
    5. 5. High Birth Weight Larger size 2X more likely to have NTD
    6. 6. Folate deficiency Abnormal spinal cord development Neural Tube Defect
    7. 7. Anencephaly Spinal Bifida Spinal Bifida Abnormal spinal cord development Neural Tube Defect
    8. 8. Calcium Absorption Doubles During Pregnancy
    9. 9. Fetus needs a store of iron for the first 3-6 months of life
    10. 10. Fetus needs a store of iron for the first 3-6 months of life Supplementation is recommended
    11. 11. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME Irreversible brain damage Growth retardation Mental retardation Facial abnormalities Vision abnormalities
    12. 12. Moderate Alcohol Pregnancy British Medical Journal, June 2013
    13. 13. Got Breast Milk?
    14. 14. Carbohydrate Lipids Protein Lactose Main energy source Easily digested Easy to digest EFAs Lactoferrin iron Enhance Ca absorption
    15. 15. Vitamins Minerals Vitamin C High Ca highly absorbable Vitamin D Low in sodium Low High in zinc and iron
    16. 16. Vitamin D Supplementation recommended
    17. 17. Breast Milk Infant Stores Supplements? Iron At 4-6 months, an exclusively breast fed infant is at risk of iron deficiency.
    18. 18. Immune Factors Anti-viral agents Anti-bacterial agents Less prone to GI disorders Colostrum contains antibodies
    19. 19. Protein Minerals Carbs Toddler Nutrient Needs Vitamins Fiber Fatty acids
    20. 20. Limit sat fat Not a Low Fat Diet Iron Deficiency Behavior problems
    21. 21. Food Allergy Food Intolerance Food Aversion Recognized as foreign Not an allergy Intense dislike Immune response Unpleasant symptom Grow out
    22. 22. ADHD 3-5% of school children Inability to pay attention Poor impulse control
    23. 23. Sugar? Food dyes? ADHD Oils? Salt?
    24. 24. ADHD or ? sugar lack of sleep poor diet lack of exercise
    25. 25. Too Little Too much
    26. 26. Protein • Recommendation stays the same Fiber • Same: adequate amounts are important! Fat • AHA diet Vitamin A • Recommendation decreases Vitamin D • Recommendation increases Water • Same: adequate hydration important! Iron • Recommendation decreases – iron status improves. Calcium • Recommendation increases – absorption decreases
    27. 27. THE END
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