Salt does not cause high blood pressure. Eating too much sodium does not cause hypertension, it is one contributing factor. Causation, infection with mycobacteriumtuberculiresults in tuberculosis
Cardiovascular disease refers to diseases of the heart and the blood vessels. When we refer to heart disease, typically we are referring to atherosclerosis, the most common form of heart disease. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the buildup of plaque along the walls of the arteries.
As the heart pushes blood into the circulation, it is forced into large arteries, which then turn to smaller arteries and capillaries. More blood pushing with more force, will increase the pressure. Narrow blood vessels (or those which cannot expand due to hardening of the arteries – eg: arteriosclerosis) will increase the pressure. Increased volume in the circulation; eg: more sodium = more water = more volume = more pressure. The kidneys maintain fluid volume.
The top number is the systolic pressure. This means the pressure when the heart is contracting. As the heart relaxes, the pressure lowers, and this is the bottom number called diastole. This is when the heart is at rest.
Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension: Research has shown that following the DASH diet (increased fruits and vegetables, decreased red meat, increased legumes in addition to lowering sodium intake) decreases blood pressure in hypertension more than just reducing salt alone.
Tobacco is an example of a carcinogen that may initiate the event causing damage to the DNA. The mutated cells multiple and environmental factors (including diet) called promoters enhance the development of these cells. These cells are then considered malignant and they invade surrounding tissues and organs and release into the bloodstream. This is called metastasis.
Body’s defense mechanism to free radical damage (carcinogens)
Obesity is associated with greater cancer risk - up to 50% greater risk of death from cancer in one study) Regular alcohol intake is associated with head and neck cancer
Meats cooked to that crispy well done stage have been associated with colon cancer (BBQed or pan-fried). The browning reaction in meat forms heterocyclic amines, carcinogens. The meat drippings on the coals generate carcinogens in the smoke, which stick to the meat. The black char on the meat is carcinogenic.
Carbohydrate rich foods (like potatoes) which are cooked at high temperatures (eg: deep frying) will develop acrylamide, a carcinogenic byproduct. The health effects are still under investigation.
Nutrigenomics – how food and metabolites of food products impact gene expression
Commander genes are not influenced by environmental factors, for example eye and hair color. Peer pressure genes are subject to the surrounding environment.
characterized by degeneration of the organs
many contributing factors
Correlation = association
• A correlation between a risk factor and a disease
does not mean the risk factor causes the disease
Causation = produces an effect
• An act or agent which results in an effect
Correlation does NOT equal Causation
Associated with increased disease risk
Characterized by plaque
Complex inflammatory process!