health

Chapter 11

Diet

Diet

Health

Health

Diet
chronic
mostly irreversible
characterized by degeneration of the organs
many contributing factors
•
•
•
•

food choices
sm...
Correlation = association
• A correlation between a risk factor and a disease
does not mean the risk factor causes the dis...
Variables

Associated with increased disease risk

Correlational

Not causal
Heart Disease
Atherosclerosis
Characterized by plaque
Complex inflammatory process!
Atherosclerosis
Damage to
artery wall

• Smoking
• Aging
• Hyperlipidemia

Fatty
streak

• Body responds
• Inflammation
• ...
Increasing age

Male gender

Age
Family History

Gender
Genetics
Tobacco

High blood pressure

Hypertension

Diabetes
Lack of exercise

Abnormal blood lipids

dyslipidemia

Smoking

Insul...
Atherogenic Diet: modifiable risk factor
High in saturated fat
High in trans fat
High in cholesterol
Low in fruits
Low in ...
Hypertension: High Blood Pressure

Heart pumping blood

Size of the arteries

Volume of fluid in vessels
Image from Sizer Whitney, 2012
Blood Pressure
Normal: 120/80

High: > 130/85
Hypertension Risk Factors
Atherosclerosis
Obesity
Insulin resistance
Age
Genetics
Lower Blood Pressure
Lower sodium intake
Lose weight
Alcohol in moderation
Increase intake of fresh fruit and vegetables
R...
DASH Diet

Increase calcium
Increase
potassium

Increase
magnesium
Increase Vitamin C
Lifestyle
choices
Viral
infections

Genetics

Environmental
factors

Cancer

Nutrition
carcinogens

cell damage

cancer
development
Cancer Development

smoke

Carcinogen

.

.

Promoters

DNA
Damage

.

.

Metastasis

Cells
multiply
Exposed to carcinogens daily

Not all carcinogens cause damage
Anti-oxidants quench free radicals
Body can repair cell dam...
Healthy
weight

physical
activity

low in sat
fat (?)
Limit red
meats

Limit
processed
meats

Low in
calories

Limit
alcoh...
BBQ

Meat
drippings

Browning
reaction

Carcinogens
(smoke)

Heterocyclic
amines

Carcinogenic

Stick to the
meat

Image f...
Carbohydrate
rich food

Cooked at
high temps

Acrylamide

Image from Wikipedia

Carcinogenic
Nutrigenomics
•Impact of food on
gene expression
Commander
Genes

Peer Pressure
Genes
Diet

The

End
Health
Ch 11 diet and health
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  • Salt does not cause high blood pressure. Eating too much sodium does not cause hypertension, it is one contributing factor. Causation, infection with mycobacteriumtuberculiresults in tuberculosis
  • Cardiovascular disease refers to diseases of the heart and the blood vessels. When we refer to heart disease, typically we are referring to atherosclerosis, the most common form of heart disease. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the buildup of plaque along the walls of the arteries.
  • As the heart pushes blood into the circulation, it is forced into large arteries, which then turn to smaller arteries and capillaries. More blood pushing with more force, will increase the pressure. Narrow blood vessels (or those which cannot expand due to hardening of the arteries – eg: arteriosclerosis) will increase the pressure. Increased volume in the circulation; eg: more sodium = more water = more volume = more pressure. The kidneys maintain fluid volume.
  • The top number is the systolic pressure. This means the pressure when the heart is contracting. As the heart relaxes, the pressure lowers, and this is the bottom number called diastole. This is when the heart is at rest.
  • Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension: Research has shown that following the DASH diet (increased fruits and vegetables, decreased red meat, increased legumes in addition to lowering sodium intake) decreases blood pressure in hypertension more than just reducing salt alone.
  • Tobacco is an example of a carcinogen that may initiate the event causing damage to the DNA. The mutated cells multiple and environmental factors (including diet) called promoters enhance the development of these cells. These cells are then considered malignant and they invade surrounding tissues and organs and release into the bloodstream. This is called metastasis.
  • Body’s defense mechanism to free radical damage (carcinogens)
  • Obesity is associated with greater cancer risk - up to 50% greater risk of death from cancer in one study) Regular alcohol intake is associated with head and neck cancer
  • Meats cooked to that crispy well done stage have been associated with colon cancer (BBQed or pan-fried). The browning reaction in meat forms heterocyclic amines, carcinogens. The meat drippings on the coals generate carcinogens in the smoke, which stick to the meat. The black char on the meat is carcinogenic.
  • Carbohydrate rich foods (like potatoes) which are cooked at high temperatures (eg: deep frying) will develop acrylamide, a carcinogenic byproduct. The health effects are still under investigation.
  • Nutrigenomics – how food and metabolites of food products impact gene expression
  • Commander genes are not influenced by environmental factors, for example eye and hair color. Peer pressure genes are subject to the surrounding environment.
  • Ch 11 diet and health

    1. 1. health Chapter 11 Diet Diet Health Health Diet
    2. 2. chronic mostly irreversible characterized by degeneration of the organs many contributing factors • • • • food choices smoking physical activity alcohol use
    3. 3. Correlation = association • A correlation between a risk factor and a disease does not mean the risk factor causes the disease Causation = produces an effect • An act or agent which results in an effect Correlation does NOT equal Causation
    4. 4. Variables Associated with increased disease risk Correlational Not causal
    5. 5. Heart Disease Atherosclerosis Characterized by plaque Complex inflammatory process!
    6. 6. Atherosclerosis Damage to artery wall • Smoking • Aging • Hyperlipidemia Fatty streak • Body responds • Inflammation • LDL oxidation Plaque • Smooth muscle • macrophages • Lipoproteins
    7. 7. Increasing age Male gender Age Family History Gender Genetics
    8. 8. Tobacco High blood pressure Hypertension Diabetes Lack of exercise Abnormal blood lipids dyslipidemia Smoking Insulin resistance Increasing weight Obesity Physical inactivity
    9. 9. Atherogenic Diet: modifiable risk factor High in saturated fat High in trans fat High in cholesterol Low in fruits Low in vegetables Low in whole grains
    10. 10. Hypertension: High Blood Pressure Heart pumping blood Size of the arteries Volume of fluid in vessels
    11. 11. Image from Sizer Whitney, 2012
    12. 12. Blood Pressure Normal: 120/80 High: > 130/85
    13. 13. Hypertension Risk Factors Atherosclerosis Obesity Insulin resistance Age Genetics
    14. 14. Lower Blood Pressure Lower sodium intake Lose weight Alcohol in moderation Increase intake of fresh fruit and vegetables Reduce intake of fat Increase calcium, potassium and magnesium Increase physical activity
    15. 15. DASH Diet Increase calcium Increase potassium Increase magnesium Increase Vitamin C
    16. 16. Lifestyle choices Viral infections Genetics Environmental factors Cancer Nutrition
    17. 17. carcinogens cell damage cancer development
    18. 18. Cancer Development smoke Carcinogen . . Promoters DNA Damage . . Metastasis Cells multiply
    19. 19. Exposed to carcinogens daily Not all carcinogens cause damage Anti-oxidants quench free radicals Body can repair cell damage Damage not repaired -> cell selfdestructs
    20. 20. Healthy weight physical activity low in sat fat (?) Limit red meats Limit processed meats Low in calories Limit alcohol intake Whole grains fruits & veggies Reduce Cancer Risk Avoid tobacco
    21. 21. BBQ Meat drippings Browning reaction Carcinogens (smoke) Heterocyclic amines Carcinogenic Stick to the meat Image from Wikipedia
    22. 22. Carbohydrate rich food Cooked at high temps Acrylamide Image from Wikipedia Carcinogenic
    23. 23. Nutrigenomics •Impact of food on gene expression
    24. 24. Commander Genes Peer Pressure Genes
    25. 25. Diet The End Health
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