Sex and Sexuality Sunita Arora HLFPPT, New Delhi
Let’s Play TabooRules• Make two teams• Pick up a card• Use words to describe the word, but you are not allowed to use the word itself
IntroductionWelcome to the Sex and Sexuality quick Module!The purpose of this module is :• Understanding sex & sexuality – link to HIV• Clarifying myths• Sexual acts & risk involved• a basic understanding of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) terminology
The property or quality by which organisms are classified as female or male on the basis of their reproductive organs and functionsFunctions of Sex:1. Reproduction2. Deriving pleasure3. Expression of love and intimacy and affection.
Being sexual can mean:• Feeling attractive and good about your body• feeling emotionally close to someone else• enjoying being touched and hugged• touching your own body• feeling attracted to another person• making up romantic stories in your head• having sexy thoughts or feelings
What does Sexuality Mean?Sexuality is complex. Its much more than simply your sexual feelings or having sexual intercourse.Sexuality includes:• your awareness and feelings about your own body and other people’s bodies;• your ability and need to be emotionally close to someone else;• your understanding of what it means to be female or male;• your feelings of sexual attraction to other people;• your physical capacity to reproduce. Sexuality is an important, joyful and natural part of being a person.
Why Should we discuss Sex andSexuality? In India, almost 9 out of 10 people with HIV were infected through the sexual route. So, if we want to talk about HIV / AIDS in the course of our work, we have to talk about sex. If we have to talk about sex and sexuality during the course of our work, we should be able to talk about these topics openly and comfortably.
• Ovaries – are the female organs where the eggs develop.• Fallopian tube – are the passages through which the mature egg travels to the uterus.• Uterus – is where the baby develops during pregnancy. It is a pear shaped organ located in the pelvic region. When a woman is not pregnant, its lining is shed every month in a process called menstruation.• Cervix – Is the opening to the Uterus.• Vagina – Is the canal extending from the uterus to the outside of the body. Externally it is seen as the opening located between the urethral and anal openings.• Labia – Consists of outer folds of skin on either side of the vagina.• Clitoris – is a small highly sensitive extension located above the urethral opening where the labia meet. It is the primary center of sexual sensation for the woman and has no purpose besides sexual pleasure.
• Testicles – are the round glands in the scrotum, which produce and store semen.• Vas – Is the tube through which the sperm passes to reach the penis• Penis – Is the primary center of sexual sensation for the man.• Anus – Is the opening to the rectum (digestive tract). The same nerves, which carry pleasurable sensations from the penis and clitoris, extend to this area. Via the anus, the prostrate gland (in men) can be directly stimulated which can result in orgasm.
Sexual Orientation• LGBTQ: refers to individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or queer• Homosexual: A person who is emotionally, physically and/or sexually attracted to a person of the same sex.• Gay: A common and acceptable term for male homosexuals, but also used when referring to both men and women.• Lesbian: A common and acceptable term for female homosexuals.• Bisexual: A person who is emotionally, physically, and/or sexually attracted to both men and women.• Transgender: An umbrella term for individuals who blur the lines of traditional gender expression. It sometimes refers to crossdressers and transsexuals. It also reflects recent scholarship which suggests gender to be socially constructed. Transgendered individuals recognize the social construction of their genders and thus do not fit neatly within societally-prescribed gender roles determined by biological sex.Also referred to as Hijra in India
Sexual OrientationWhat are the different types of Sexual Orientations?• Heterosexual – Sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex .• Homosexual – Sexually attracted to people of one’s own sex.• Bisexual – Sexually attracted to both men and women.
Different Types of sexual contact• Vaginal Sex – Insertion of the penis (or any other object) into the vagina.• Risk- This can be a “High risk” practice because the HIV infected semen can pass through the mucous membrane lining the vagina and enter the white blood cells of the woman. Conversely, if the woman is infected, The HIV in her vaginal secretions can enter the man via the mucous membrane of the head of the penis and access his white blood cells.• Anal Sex -is insertion of the penis into the rectum of a woman or a man.• Risk- This is risky in terms of HIV transmission for the recipient, because the lining of the rectum is thin and can tear exposing white blood cells directly to the semen. Even without tearing HIV can pass through the mucous membrane lining the rectum.• Oral sex -is stimulation of the genitals with the mouth.• Risk- HIV transmission is possible because of the chance of coming in contact with the vaginal fluid or semen.
Terminology• Homophobia: The irrational fear of homosexuals, homosexuality or any behavior, belief or attitude of self or others which does not conform to rigid sex and gender-role stereotypes. The extreme behavior of homophobia is violence against gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender persons.• Heterosexism: Evidenced by the assumption that everyone is heterosexual. The systematic oppression of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons that is directly linked to sexism.• Transgender: An individual who has both types of genital organs. In India such persons are referred to as Hijra.