Communication session for Diarrhea management programme
Session 4Understanding Communication asa programme management tool forDiarrhea Control and Management
Learning ObjectivesAfter the session, the participants will be able to:• Understand the role and importance of Communication with the community.• How people perceive the worker as positive and importance of positive imagery/community.• Define communication process.• Understand the steps to behavior change.• Understand communication barriers for diarrhea.• Understand key messages and key channels of communication.
1. What is Communication?Communication is a critical component in getting the project/program objectives achieved.
CommunicationCommunication Model• Talking with one another or reaching out to the other person with one’s view through any means is communication.• It happens as a matter of routine in our lives. e.g. a child, if hungry, cries for her mother and the mother, upon hearing her cries, feeds her.
There are five links to makecommunication effective:1. Sender2. Receiver3. Message4. Medium5. Reaction/The objective of communication is fulfilled.
Two-way communicationTwo way communication is more effectivebecause one person listens when spoken to byother person and then speaks to let him knowthat his message has been understood. Allowlisteners to ask questions, watch their expressionand then take forward the communication.The role of health service provider is to informparents effectively about diarrhea, and answerproperly after listening to theirquestions, concerns, thoughts and changebehavior. This is known as IPC or counseling.
Behavior ChangeBefore we go to behavior change, let usfirst understand what we mean by theword “behavior’.Thinking , Views, Concept , Conduct,Mood, Habit, Opinion , Understanding ,Visualisation, Method, Attitude, Routine,behavior, Perception , Prejudice,Assumptions
All these behaviors are not enough; theseeither try to restrict our work or help infacilitating our work. But ultimately thechange we want is Action.KNOWING DOING Behavior change is not complete until the ACTION is taken.
Knowing, believing, thinking and understandingare processes that help to reach that expectedACTION (behavior). If everything stops here anddoes not lead to ACTION, then it can be calledchange, but not behavior change.Our ultimate aim is to bring about behavioralchange. Then, and then only it can be called behavior change.
Behavior• The enabling environment- Behaviour change spiral is not dependent just on their own desires. The changes they make occur within the broader setting in which they live. Each setting, or ‘environment’ has a range of influential features including: – Social – Cultural – Legal – Political – Resources.
Before a person undertakes a new behaviour, person usually needs to• Perceive a reason to do it• Know what to do• Know how to do it• Not have too many negative beliefs./expectations.• Have the means. (Time, money etc)• Be confident that s/he can do it.• Expect that beliefs will outweigh obstacles.• Expect social approval or at least not expect any disapproval.
To expect the person to repeat the behavior s/he usually needs to:• Have a positive experience first time.• Perceive sufficient benefit for her/himself and significant others.• See a personal reason/urge/need to do the action.
Key Messages Communication is a two way process. Learn to see things from others perspective. Behavior means Action, we should aim tohelp change the action by understanding why isit not happening and then facilitating themother caregiver move towards that action. Barriers keep action from happening,benefits facilitate behavior change.
Behavior change happens through slowsteps and stages.We have various media channels for effectivecommunication of our messages to generateawareness and facilitate behavior change.One of the most important communicationtools is interpersonal communication(IPC).
Interpersonal Session 5 CommunicationInterpersonal Communication (IPC) Skills (IPC) Skills
Learning Objectives•Describe why IPC is good and its use.• Define IPC and its importance in compliance and adherence of diarrhea program.• Learn to see things from others perspective foreffective IPC.• Learn to internalize and practice the specific IPC skillsappropriate for the diarrhea program
What is Interpersonal Communication?One of the most basic tenets of good IPC isthe ability to see things from othersperspective . There is a general tendency onfunctionaries part to “imagine” that “weknow” what people think. But this may notbe the case.
Interpersonal Communication (IPC) Skills “Effective IPC between health care provider and client is one of the most important elements for improving client satisfaction, compliance and health outcomes.
Interpersonal Communication (IPC) SkillsLISTENING AND LEARNING NON VERBAL SKILLSSKILLS• Use helpful non-verbal skills •Pay attention• Ask open questions •Keep your head level• Use responses and gestures which •Remove barriers•show interest •Take time• Reflect back what the mother says •Touch appropriately• Empathize: show that you• understand how she feels• Avoid words which sound judging
Learning Objectives• Understand the importance and utility of correct and appropriate use of IPC materials.• Use IPC material in different settings and situations.• Learn relative advantage of use of various IPC materials.• Understand the opening and closing of an IPC session using IPC materials.
What are IPC materials?• IPC materials need to be used appropriately and in a manner that they become easy to relate to.• One should know what is the material and what is it trying to convey– Is it a story format that need to be adopted, are there any generic elements that can be a good identifier and some that may be alien or out of context.
• The design of the material, the visual elements, the textual elements, the flip elements, and technique of holding and turning the pages and other elements to be practiced so that one is comfortable in a real session, have to be worked on .• If there is a user guide, make sure you read it out before hand. Sometimes there are instructions on how to use on the inside of the flip book or in audio or video tape.
• It is sometimes very useful to involve the community members in the process and that further strengthens the bond and rapport. Storing the IPC material appropriately• It is also important so that they have a long life and can be used multiple times.• We also get to know the existing opportunities and entry points for communication interventions, and the issues and challenges .
IPC/IEC Material and Health Promotion• Health promotion and health education activities rely on a variety of well designed and effective IEC materials to help ensure success.• Every brochure, poster, video tape or other piece of IEC material is the product of a decision, supported by research, to deal with a specific health concern, and to be well received and persuasive among a specific audience.
• To facilitate dialogue and problem solvingBest used by a health worker during home visitswith an individual family member or members.• Community demonstrations, dramas, festivals, large flip charts, and scheduled radio programs can stimulate interest,• but the key to stimulating changes in practice is to take advantage of that interest by leading good discussions about real problems and possible solutions.
• To remind Reminder materials are especially important for behaviors that should be repeated many times each day, such as many of the diarrhea prevention behaviors.• To motivate Motivation is best done person-to-person, but the right poster, To motivate Motivation is best done person-to-person, but the right poster, film, radio spot, or program can also engage people emotionally.
• To teach Again this is often done best person-to- person (or by group demonstrations), but posters or pamphlets showing something step-by-step can be supportive.• To provide information Posters can work fine to inform people of some special occasion, e.g., a community meeting, but they do not have a long life span in most community settings.
How to use specially developed IPC materials for diarrhea Management• Flip Book This flip book should be used for IPC with mothers and caregivers of children from two months to five years of age.• This can be used for one-to-one communication during home visits• It can also be used with small groups (not more than 10).
• The flip book has simple direct messages on diarrhea control and management.• One side of the leaf has messages and the other side has visual depicting some of• the messages. They have been numbered clearly on the message side.
Key Messages Key Messages• Learn to use the IPC material with ease and appropriately.• Using IEC/IPC material properly makes them more effective.• Involve community members when using the IEC/IPC materials.• Do not be dependent on the IPC material; you are the final message provider.