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this document will be useful to English students who wish to improve their essay writing

this document will be useful to English students who wish to improve their essay writing

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  • This version of the presentation includes notes for the instructor. The presentation has been designed so that each slide is self-explanatory and its function clear. Review the presentation first, as you would your own lecture material. Then, when it comes time to give the presentation, simply read out the slides to your audience, adding your own observations, anecdotes and humour as you go. For extra guidance, instructional notes have been provided for each slide. The presentation has been designed for general use, with no particular course in mind. You may feel that some slides are not relevant to your particular case. Simply omit or modify those slides to suit your requirements, or insert slides of your own in the <br /> slide-show. <br />
  • Emphasize the importance of a good introduction. Relate the introduction of an essay to first impressions at an interview! First impressions are important. <br />
  • Explain how an introduction functions – discuss the roles that an introduction plays. You can take suggestions from the audience and discuss them. <br />
  • Prepare the audience for an example of a good but predictable introduction: set the scenario of a student who has completed the body of the essay and now has to write an introduction. If the audience asks why the student did not write the introduction first, say that there is a good reasons for this but you will come to that later. <br />
  • Give an example of a good but predictable introduction – one that uses words like ‘essay’ and ‘thesis’. Make sure that everyone is aware of the three components: topic, organization, and thesis. <br />
  • Explain that there is nothing wrong with this introduction, but that there are ways in which it could be improved. Take suggestions from the audience about how to improve it. Prepare the audience for the next three slides, where you will discuss each of the three components (topic, organization, thesis) of this introduction. <br />
  • Explain that there is nothing wrong with the structure-sentences. Make sure everyone is aware of organizational words such as ‘first’, ‘second’, ‘next’, ‘finally’, and so on. Explain that with practice, it is possible to write a better introduction that conveys the organization of an essay without using many overt organizational words or phrases. <br />
  • Explain that a topic-sentence is best when it does not actually include words or phrases that overtly refer to the essay, such as “this essay is about…” Ask your audience how they usually introduce the topic. It is likely that up to now they have used such phrases! <br />
  • Stress the importance of striking an assertive tone in the introduction, especially when it comes to the thesis. Explain that the reader needs to feel confident that the author of the essay is in command of their material and knows where they are going with it. At this point, be prepared to take questions or suggestions from the audience – maybe even allow students to express the difficulties that they have in writing their introductions. <br />
  • Prepare your audience for another example of an introduction – one that takes into account all the points that you have just made about the flaws in the previous example. <br />
  • Give an example of an improved introduction – one that does not use words like “essay”, “topic”, or “thesis”. Make sure that your audience is aware of the three components (topic-sentences, organizational sentences, and thesis-sentences) in this example. Allow them time to read it, and read it out loud to them if necessary, but do not discuss it until the next slide. <br />
  • In this, and in the following slide, discuss and emphasize the point that the introduction has successfully conveyed the topic, organization of the body of the essay, and the thesis, without using words like ‘essay’, ‘topic’, ‘first’, ‘second’ or ‘thesis’. The point is to drive home the message that these words are not necessary, and that it is better to do without them. <br />
  • Drive home the point that the introduction has successfully indicated what the thesis of the essay is, without using the word ‘thesis’ or phrases like ‘the thesis of this essay…’. <br />
  • Discuss the improved impact of the introduction compared to the earlier example. Ask the audience if they can say why this introduction is better. Take suggestions from the audience. <br />
  • Explain that a good essay does not give the impression of a gap between the essay and its author. Point out that introductions which include phrases such as ‘the topic of the essay is…’ or ‘the thesis of the essay is…’ do not generate an authentic tone because they give the impression of a gap between essay and author. <br />
  • Make it clear that students will not be able to go away and write great introductions straight away. Emphasize the need to practice writing improved essay introductions. <br />
  • At this stage in the presentation, explain that there are certain questions that frequently come up. Say that you will go through some of them. Read out the question in green. Throw the question out to the audience. After discussing audience suggestions, you can read the slide to the audience. Field any further questions. <br />
  • Read out the question in green. Take suggestions from the audience. Read the slide to the audience. Field any further questions. <br />
  • Read out the question in green. Take suggestions from the audience. Read the slide to the audience. Field any further questions. <br />
  • Carry on reading out the slide to the audience. Field any further questions. <br />
  • Read out the question in green. Take suggestions from audience. Read slide to audience. Field any further questions. <br />
  • Read out the question in green. Take suggestions from audience. Read slide to audience. Field any further questions. <br />
  • Read out the question in green. Take suggestions from audience. Read slide to audience. Field any further questions. <br />
  • Mention some sources that interested students can use to investigate introductions further. Emphasize the Bethune Writing Centre. <br />
  • Mention some sources that interested students can use to investigate introductions further. Emphasize the Bethune Writing Centre. <br />

Mixed presentations powerpoint Mixed presentations powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • Student teacher from The University of Johannesburg How to write an essay with a cohesive introduction © Nicholas G. Ashby 2004
  • General  The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader for the body of writing that comes after it. You know what you are writing about and why. But unless you inform your readers of this in an introduction, they will feel lost and judge your essay to be an unclear piece of work!
  • A good introduction:  indicates the topic that the essay is about  describes how the body of the essay is organized  explains the point of writing the essay; the point of writing an essay is usually to argue for a thesis, so you will need to explain what thesis you argue for and how you argue for it – this is called a thesis-statement, and most essay introductions include one. View slide
  • First example Suppose you had to write a ten page essay on the topic of whether body-checking should be banned in junior ice-hockey. You did your research and found that there are several main arguments for and against a ban. In the body of your essay you described and evaluated these arguments, and determined that arguments for a ban are stronger than arguments against a ban. Now you must write your introduction! View slide
  • First example Here is how someone new to academic essays may write the introduction (the topic-sentence is in red, essay structure in blue, thesis in yellow): This essay is about the issue of body-checking in junior ice-hockey. First, arguments for a ban on body-checking are examined. Second, arguments against a ban are discussed. It is shown that proban arguments are stronger than anti-ban arguments. Therefore, the thesis of this essay is that body-checking in junior ice-hockey should be banned.
  • Discussion of first example This introduction is all right so far as it goes. It is better to have an introduction that includes the three important elements (topic, structure, thesis) than to have one that does not. Many people start out by writing essays with introductions like this one. It does have the virtue of being clear, and clarity is essential. But let us review it to see if it can be improved.
  • Discussion of first example The structure-sentences are fine. Notice that words such as first and second are useful in helping to describe how the body of an essay is organized. However, if you can convey the structure of your essay without using too many organizational words, that is even better.
  • Discussion of first example The topic-sentence could be improved. Rather than writing: “This essay is about…” it would be better to write a few topicsentences that convey a sense of the current state of the topic. This not only tells the reader what the topic is but it also gives the impression that you are knowledgeable about the topic and in command of your research material.
  • Discussion of first example The thesis-sentences could be better. Instead of writing: “Therefore, the thesis of this essay is…” simply give a bold, factual sentence that expresses your position on the issue. This conveys an air of confidence, unlike the phrase “…the thesis of this essay…” which is timid and non-committal.
  • Second example The introduction on the next slide takes these points into account. Compare it with the previous introduction and note how wording the three main elements differently can improve the impact that the introduction has on the reader.
  • Second example Body-checking has always been a controversial issue. However, the recent decision of Hockey Canada to allow some hockey associations to permit bodychecking among players as young as nine years of age, on an experimental basis, has aggravated the controversy quite considerably in recent months. Perspectives fall into three main categories: viewpoints of fans, the official standpoint of Hockey Canada, and positions held by the scientific community. Evaluation of the main arguments shows quite clearly that Hockey Canada’s decision to allow body-checking in some junior games, even on an experimental basis, is a serious mistake.
  • Discussion of second example In this second introduction, the topicsentences give an impression of the current state of the topic (and, so, convey the topic of the essay to the reader) without using the words essay or topic. The structuresentences inform the reader of the main parts of the body of the essay and their order of discussion (views of fans, Hockey Canada, and scientific community) without using many organizational words.
  • Discussion of second example The thesis-sentences tell the reader where you stand on the issue and how you arrived at your position (through evaluation of the main arguments for and against a ban), without including words such as essay or thesis.
  • Discussion of second example This second introduction gives the reader the impression that you are knowledgeable on the topic, and that doing the research has led you to an intelligent, informed thesis. Why didn’t the first introduction have the same effect?
  • Discussion of second example The reason is that within the context of an essay introduction, words like essay, topic and thesis make it seem as if there is a gap between you, the writer, and the essay. This gives the impression that the concerns about and position on the issue may not be your concerns and position (only the essay’s!). Notice that the second introduction gives the impression that there is no gap, and that you are expressing yourself through the essay.
  • Practice! Practice writing introductions without using phrases such as “the topic of this essay…” or “the thesis argued for is…” Expressing the topic without using words like topic or subject may be particularly challenging because it is easy to include too much detail and end up with an unintended bodyparagraph. But with practice, you will be able to write more effective introductions.
  • Frequently asked questions 1. How long should my introduction be? One common mistake is to write an introduction that is too long; the introduction is so detailed that it is indistinguishable from the body of the essay! As a rule, an introduction should not be longer than about 8% of the length of the essay. For example, the introduction of a ten, fifteen, and twentypage essay should be a maximum of about a page, a page and a quarter, and one and a half pages respectively.
  • Frequently asked questions 2. How detailed should the introduction be? Another common mistake is that the introduction is so detailed that it fails to indicate the topic of the essay in a clear way! The introduction only needs to state the topic, general structure, and thesis of the essay. The longer the essay is supposed to be, the more detailed your topic, structure and thesis-sentences can be.
  • Frequently asked questions 3. Why am I finding it hard to write the introduction? The introduction must indicate the topic, structure and thesis of the essay. If you are not completely sure about any of these things, you will find it hard or even impossible to write an introduction. Writer’s block can happen when you try to write the introduction before you have done sufficient reading and research on the topic.
  • Frequently asked questions 3. Why am I finding it hard to write the introduction (continued)? How can you know what the structure of your essay will be until you have written at least a draft of the body? How can you know what your thesis will be until you have done the reading and research?! To save time, always write the introduction last.
  • Frequently asked questions 4. What is an introduction for? Is it a summary? An introduction is not a summary. A summary repeats the main ideas of an essay. An introduction introduces the reader to the topic of the essay, describes the organizational structure of the essay, and explains the point of the essay (the thesis argued for).
  • Frequently asked questions 5. What should I put in my introduction? Do not try to pack everything into the introduction. It would then not be an introduction at all! An essay introduction does not need to do more than tell the reader the topic of the essay, describe how the body of the essay is organized, and explain the thesis that you argue for in the essay.
  • Frequently asked questions 6. How many paragraphs should I use for the introduction? The introduction needs to indicate the topic, structure, and thesis of the essay for the reader. In a short ten page essay, all of these things should be easy to include in one or two paragraphs. In longer essays, your topic, structure, and thesis-sentences will be more detailed, and so more paragraphs may be required to complete the introduction.
  • Other sources and resources  Make an appointment for the Bethune Writing Centre (go to Master’s office at 205 Bethune to book a slot, or call 416 736 2100 ext. 22035)  Visit York Centre for Academic Writing online resources at: http://www.arts.yorku.ca/caw/resources.html The following books may be useful: Hacker, D. (2003). A Canadian writer’s reference (2nd ed.). Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Thomson Learning. Call number: PE 1408 H293  Finbogason, J., & Valleau, Al (2002). A Canadian writer’s pocket guide (2nd ed.). Scarborough, Ont.: Thomson/Nelson. Call number: PE 1408 F45
  • Other sources and resources Troyka, Lynn Quitman (2002). Simon & Schuster handbook for writers (3rd ed.). Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice-Hall. Call number: PE 1408 T697  For science students writing a scientific report, the requirements of the introduction are slightly different from those stated here. The following book will be particularly useful: Day, Robert A. (1998). How to write & publish a scientific paper (5th ed.). Phoenix, Arizona: The Oryx Press. Call number: T11 D33
  • ESSAY An essay is a short non-fiction, non-imaginary work about a subject. It may be classified by tone and style as formal or informal. It has many purposes depending on what the writer wants to write about and how he/she wants to affect the readers.
  • Three Main Parts Introduction It is the opening part of the write-up that shows the topic sentence of the essay or the thesis statement. It prepares the readers on the essay. Therefore, it should be effective so that the readers are encourage/ motivate to continue reading.
  • Effective introduction should • Catch the reader’s attention, which can be done, for example, by using a direct announcement, a quotation, a question, a definition, an unusual comparison, or a controversial position/opinion; • Introduce the topic of the essay, (in other words, inform the reader of and provide a context for the topic being discussed); • Introduce the main idea (otherwise known as the thesis or claim) of the essay; • Introduce the purpose of the essay (will it inform, argue, persuade, describe, narrate, classify, etc.?).
  • An effective body paragraphs should  Explain, illustrate, discuss, or provide evidence to support the main idea (thesis or claim) of the essay;  Discuss only one aspect of the main idea (whenever you move on to a new supporting point, start a new body paragraph);
  • Body An essay includes body paragraphs, which develop the main idea (thesis or claim) of the essay.  Work together with the other body paragraphs to support your essay’s main idea;  Work together with the other body paragraphs to create a clear, cohesive paper (clarity and coherence can be achieved through the use of transitions)
  • Conclusion An essay ends with a brief conclusion, which brings the essay to a logical end. An effective conclusion should:  Remind readers of the primary focus of the essay, which can be done by restating the main idea in different words;  Avoid introducing new ideas; • Avoid apologies.
  • TYPES OF AN ESSAY
  • FORMAL ESSAY This is known as impersonal essay. The content is informative and scientific in nature. The writer uses the “aesthetic” approach in language and style.
  • INFORMAL ESSAY It is called familiar or personal essay. It expresses personal experiences or observation on human nature. Its purpose is to entertain rather than to inform.
  • FORMS OF ESSAY
  •  DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY It is an essay that illustrates by using sensory words in order to bring to the reader’s imagination what is being talked about.  EXPOSITORY ESSAY It is an essay that explains something so that reader can understand.  PERSUASIVE ESSAY It is an essay that convinces the reader to think in a certain way.  NARRATIVE ESSAY It is an essay that tells a story of the writer or other’s story. It is usually found in the feature writing sections of newspaper or magazine
  • Elements of an Essay  Audience- It refers to whom the essay is intended for.  Purpose- It refers to the intention or goal in writing the essay.  Subject- It is the topic discussed in the essay.  Point of view- It is the how the ideas are told to the reader  Theme- It refers to the lesson or message of the essay.  Mood- It refers to the feeling which the writer would like the reader to experience or get from the literary work.  Tone- It is the attitude of the writer towards his/her subject  Style- This is the special way in which the ideas of the essay are developed.
  • FROM PA UNIT-1RAGRAPH TO ESSAY
  • WHAT IS AN ESSAY? • An essay consists of minimum five paragraphs: an introduction, a body and a conclusion. However, we should ask ourselves the questions: What is an essay? What do we try to do in an essay? In Prep School you are given a topic by your teacher to write about; in academic writing your teachers ask you to prove a point, collect sufficient data to prove a point, or demonstrate that you have comprehended a text they have assigned. In all cases, the writing process is the same: the amount of evidence that goes into your paper or the length of the paper may change, but the stages you follow in the writing process are more or less the same. You have to have a thesis to prove, you have to have sufficient evidence and you have to make a conclusion.
  •  An essay can have many purposes, but the basic structure is the same no matter what. You may be writing an essay to argue for a particular point of view or to explain the steps necessary to complete a task. Either way, your essay will have the same basic format. If you follow a few simple steps, you will find that the essay almost writes itself.
  • ESSAY FORMAT These simple steps will guide you through the essay writing process:  Decide on your topic.  Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas.  Write your thesis statement.  Write the body.  Write the main points.  Write the subpoints.  Elaborate on the subpoints.  Write the introduction.  Write the conclusion.  Add the finishing touches.
  • ORGANIZING YOUR IDEAS  The purpose of an outline is to put your ideas about the topic on paper, in a moderately organized format. The structure you create here may still change before the essay is complete. If you start one or the other and decide it isn't working for you, you can always switch later.
  • A VERY IMPORTANT TIP FOR YOU ;)  Writing Essay is a repeating pattern…  The only change is the topic. Once you learn the structure, the rest comes easily.
  • WRITING YOUR OUTLINE       Begin your outline by writing your topic at the top of the page. Next, write the Roman numerals I, II, and III. Next to each Roman numeral, write the main ideas that you have about your topic, or the main points that you want to make.  If you are trying to persuade, you want to write your best arguments.  If you are trying to explain a process, you want to write the steps that should be followed. You will probably need to group these into categories. If you have trouble grouping the steps into categories, try using Beginning, Middle, and End.  If you are trying to inform, you want to write the major categories into which your information can be divided. Under each Roman numeral, write A, B, and C down the left side of the page. Next to each letter, write the facts or information that support that main idea. When you have finished, you have the basic structure for your essay and are ready to continue.
  • BASIC DESIGN FOR AN ESSAY  INTRODUCTION  1 ST BODY PARAGRAPH- EXAMPLES (MINOR DETAILS)  2 ND BODY PARAGRAPH- EXAMPLES (MINOR DETAILS)  3 RD BODY PARAGRAPH- EXAMPLES (MINOR DETAILS)  CONCLUSION
  • IF YOU HAVE AN OUTLINE, THEN YOU ARE OGANIZED. IF YOU ARE ORGANIZED, THEN YOU FEEL CONFIDENT. IF YOU ARE CONFIDENT, THEN YOU SOUND PROFESSIONAL
  • 1. INTRODUCTION  Why is the introduction important?  Your introduction is the part that invites your reader to read your essay:  it tells your reader what it is about,  it sets the tone for your essay. In other words, it tells the reader whether your essay will be light, humorous, serious, controversial, etc.
  •  it shows your reader how your essay will develop. That is to say, there must not be big surprises in the development of your essay  it helps the reader to make a transition from the conditions he is in to the content of your essay
  •  it is where the reader decides whether to read your essay or not. In other words, they may put your essay down if they feel that it is going to be extremely boring (your instructors excluded because they have to read your essays whether they are extremely boring or not, they have to correct and evaluate your essays anyway )
  • Some tips for writing good introductions  Think about the question: most of the time you are assigned  a topic to write about. Think about the question: your answer to the question will be your thesis. How you prove it will be your development. Your thesis should be stated in the introduction paragraph.
  • • You may find it difficult to write an introduction at the beginning. Sometimes you may only write a tentative introduction, continue with the development, then come back and write the introduction last. • Pay attention to your first sentence. This is the sentence your reader (your instructor and the exam marker too) reads first. You should make a good impression, and should be careful not to make too many mistakes. If you start your essay with a sentence full of grammar, spelling  or vocabulary mistakes, you cannot expect to make a good first impression.
  •  Avoid making announcements: Do not start with opening sentences such as "In this essay I will discuss ..."  Avoid using clichés. Clichés mean that you do not have anything new to say.  Avoid filler introductions: When you do not have much to say about a topic, you list a couple of sentences one after the other, just to fill the introductory space. If the writer had something effective to say, he would have said it. However, in this example, he is just filling space.
  • Strategies for writing good introductions taken from http://www.buowl.boun.edu.tr/students/the%20essay.htm#introductions 1- Asking questions • Using questions to attract the attention of your readers is another useful strategy. Then, your essay proceeds to answer the questions you have posed in the introduction. • Example paragraph 1: • "Turkish governments have been trying to join the European Union for years. Despite all the difficult tasks that have to be achieved in order to join the EU, Turkish governments are persistent. Turkish citizens seem to agree with their governments, too. Why are we insisting on becoming a member of the union then? It is probably because of the differences between the happiness levels of Turkish and EU citizens." (Gokhan Remzi Yavuz, Adv 2003)
  • • Example paragraph 2: • "Who can imagine a world without music? Just as we –the humansappeared, music emerged as one of our important needs too. It is obvious that music has filled our lives very effectively in that now it is impossible to eradicate it out of our lives. Who can claim the opposite? When we are born, the first thing we hear is the lullabies of our mothers. Then, as time passes, we continue to listen to music much more. Of course, we don't listen to lullabies any more, but we choose a particular type of music that influences us. Why we listen to music and like the type of the music we like is not a simple phenomenon, on the contrary, the reasons are much more complex." (Beste Kalender, Adv 2003)
  • 2- Using an anecdote • Using a short anecdote is another way to start your essay. If you have a relevant anecdote ready, using it in the introduction will make your essay more interesting and attract the attention of your reader. • Example paragraph: • "In a myth it is told that once humans did not have gender. They were neither male nor female. One day they made one of the gods angry and he punished them. He separated them into two parts: male and female. Also he put them away from each other to make them look for their partners all over the world. For centuries and centuries it went on like that, people searching for the missing part of the puzzle, their missing half ." (Ozge Uraz, Adv 2003)
  • 3- Using quotations  Using quotations in the introduction is another effective way to start your essay. If you have the right quotation that matches your thesis or summarizes what you want to say, it adds flavor to your essay. In the essay below, the author has found a quotation that expresses the exact idea she wants to discuss, and she builds the whole paragraph around the quotation.
  • • Example paragraph 1: • "Music is maybe the first invention of humankind in which he was firstly inspired by the nature and then completed with his own emotions and senses. By then, music became the most indispensable friend of human kind, but why is it so fundamental? •  “Music was invented to confirm human loneliness”, says Lawrence Durrell. Although they live in a society and are labeled  “social animal” by some philosophers, humans are in fact alone.  They have an inner world which they could hardly express to others or they could even hardly  identify themselves. Music helps people understand themselves, melodies make them wander in their own world and discover the lonely parts of their souls. People who can understand or identify themselves are no more alone in the world.  They find a friend which will never let them down, and never will leave them, or a friend from their “inner” world. (Sinem Kavak, Adv 2003) 
  • 4- Defining  a word or phrase • Sometimes defining a term or a phrase that will be used throughout the essay is a good strategy. However, it should not be a dictionary definition since anyone can consult a dictionary. The definition you offer should match your thesis, or the claims you will be making in the essay. • Example paragraph : • "The term “violence in the family” refers to male violence against females. It means that men are generally rude  to women both physically and psychologically. Concerning this issue, a study has been conducted by Family Research Institute in five different geographic regions of Turkey on married women about husband violence against wives. The results of this survey indicate that two independent variables seem to be related to approval of violence." (Derya Aslan, Adv 2004)
  • WRITING THESIS STATEMENTS  A thesis statement is the sentence that  tells your reader the subject of your paper  states the controlling idea of your paper, i.e. it makes an assertion about the subject  predicts the logical order of discussion you will follow in your paper  In other words, the thesis statement is the anchor of your essay: with a good thesis statement your reader does not have to wait until he finishes reading all of your essay to learn what kind of a claim you are making, what your stance is, or how you are going to prove your viewpoint.
  •  1. An effective thesis should be a declarative sentence, never an open ended question. If you just ask a question, the reader will have no idea what you are trying to illustrate.  Not a thesis statement: What are the disadvantages of living in a big city?  2. A good thesis  should be restricted and focused. It should not be too general or too comprehensive. If it is too comprehensive, you may not be able to prove it all in one essay.  Too general: Computers have advantages and disadvantages.  This thesis is too general. How are you going to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of computers in one essay? There are technical and economic issues, social effects, time and financial considerations, etc.
  •  3. A thesis statement should not make an announcement. It should make a claim.  Announcement: In this essay I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living on your own.  Revised thesis statement: When considered generally, living on your own is much better than living with your family.  4. A thesis statement should not make a claim that cannot be proved by logical analysis.  Moral judgment of the writer: Only evil and wicked young people choose to live on their own.  Such a statement expresses the moral judgment of the writer and cannot be proved in any factual or logical way.
  • 2. THE BODY • The body of your essay is minimum three paragraphs long, and supports /illustrates / explains the thesis with the help of evidence, details, facts and examples. How you organize your thoughts in a logical order may depend on your topic and thesis. There are various ways of treating a topic: the essay may be organized in order of importance, in chronological order, or spatial order. It can also be a description, narration, comparison and contrast, cause and /or effect, definition, process, classification or argumentation essay. An essay can be written in one of those methods, or it can be a combination of two or more types. It all depends on the purpose of the essay.
  •  In the body of the essay, all the preparation up to this point comes to fruition. The topic you have chosen must now be explained, described, or argued. Each main idea that you wrote down in your outline will become one of the body paragraphs. If you had three or four main ideas, you will have three or four body paragraphs. Each body paragraph will have the same basic structure.  Start by writing down one of your main ideas, in sentence form. Next, write down each of your supporting points for that main idea, but leave four or five lines in between each point.  In the space under each point, write down some elaboration for that point. Elaboration can be further description or explanation or discussion.
  • 3. CONCLUSION  If you have written an effective introduction, and logically developed your essay, the flow of ideas naturally leads to your conclusion. A good conclusion should round up your arguments and reach a final conclusion. There are a number of ways you can conclude your essay.
  • • 1. Review its major ideas • This is the simplest way to finish an essay. You go over your essay, restate the main idea in the conclusion. • "Music is a great way to relax and be happy in daily life. It is also very useful for musicians and composers to express their feelings. This is one of the reasons which make music universal; it has nothing to do with age, race or religion. Anyone who wants to listen to music, listens to music and anyone who wants to do music does music." (Aysegul Dogan, Adv 2003) • "As you can see, music makes our lives better. It increases the things we share both with ourselves and with others. It helps our loneliness to get smaller and smaller because sharing is the only way to get rid of our loneliness. That is why music is so important in our lives." (Sinem Kavak, Adv 2004)
  •  2. Restate the thesis  Sometimes, conclusions can restate the thesis of the essay. This is done using different words to avoid monotony. In the essay below, the author restates the thesis idea in the conclusion paragraph.  Introduction:  "For a long time there has been a controversy between animal rights supporters and scientists about whether it is right to use animals in experimental research. Also, it is very debatable whether using animals for such research results in finding a cure for diseases. From my point of view, if there are no other alternatives, and if it is possible that this will contribute to science, animals may be used for experimental research."  Conclusion:  "All in all, it can be said that using animals for medical research is ethical as long as it contributes to scientific development and helps scientists find ways to improve human health. And this practice is only acceptable on the condition that necessary pains are taken and animals are treated humanely." (Ayse Ipek, Adv 2004)
  • 3. Use questions and quotations • Using questions and quotations in the conclusion can be a good way to bring your essay to a close. If you can find a quotation that fits your position, the conclusion will sound interesting. • There are other ways of ending an essay, of course. Whichever method you use, make sure that you reach a conclusion at the end of your essay. • Never bring up new ideas or start new discussions in the conclusion. • Do not let your essay finish weakly with a weak conclusion section. A good essay deserves a good conclusion. • Make sure that your conclusion is consistent with the arguments in your essay. Sometimes you may get carried away and end up concluding the opposite of your thesis, especially if you do not plan well. Do not let such inconsistency happen. • Written by Zeliha Gulcat, Sept 2004
  • Add the Finishing Touches  You have now completed all of the paragraphs of your essay. Before you can consider this a finished product, however, you must give some thought to the formatting of your paper.  Check the order of your paragraphs.  Check the instructions for the assignment.  Check your writing.
  • LET’S SUMMARIZE THE MAIN SKELETON OF THE ESSAY AS STEPS
  • Five-Paragraph Essay Organizer Example 2 Name _____________________ Example 1 Main Example 2 Main Idea Example 1 Example 2 Main Example 1 Example 3 Example 3 Example 1 Example 2 Main Example 2 Example 3
  • References This presentation is a mix of three different sources. They are: Omar, N.(2013) How to write an introduction, http://www.slideshare.net/izhamaqil/how-to-write-an-introduction-23732305 ,accessed 7 March2014. Manago, C.(2014) An Introduction to Essay: Its parts and kinds, http://www.slideshare.net/ceciliamanago/an-introduction-to-essay ,accessed 7 March 2014. Ekincer, G.(2011) From paragraph to essay, http://www.slideshare.net/gulerek/from-paragraph-to-essay ,accessed 7 March 2014