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HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation
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HIS 120 Skull Structure and Articulation

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  • 1. Skull Structures & Articulation • The mandible/”jawbone”Exhibits dramatic changes withage. ref. Zemlin pg. #290
  • 2. Skull Structures & Articulation • Muscles of the Mandible There are two sets of muscles which control the motion of the mandible. They are:1. The mandibular depressors (four muscles)2. The mandibular elevators (three muscles) ref. Zemlin pages 260 and 261
  • 3. Skull Structures & Articulation The mandible/”jawbone”Contributes very little in speech production.(modifies resonances from the vocal tract)Never completely closes during speechproduction.When wide open i.e. during oration or singing—may contribute four or five decibels of intensity.
  • 4. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Occipital boneIs located at the posterior—base areaof the skull.It forms the lower and back portionsof the cranium.
  • 5. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Occipital boneIt articulates with six bones: the twoparietals, the two temporal bones, thesphenoid and the atlas.We primarily will focus on the twotemporal bones and the sphenoid.
  • 6. Skull Structures & Articulation • The temporal boneLet’s view the right temporal boneand its attendant structure. (ref. Zemlin pg. #219)
  • 7. Skull Structures & Articulation • The temporal bone—”landmarks”1. Mastoid process2. Sphenoidal margin3. Cochlear canal4. Auditory meatus (internal & external)5. Tympanic portion6. Opening of carotid canal (internal & external) ref. Zemlin page #219
  • 8. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Mastoid of the Temporal boneAt birth, it is mostly filled with bone.However, during the first six years of life, itdevelops cells which are filled with air andlined by the same mucous membranewhich lines the middle ear/tympanic cavity.
  • 9. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Temporal BoneThe petrous portion of the temporalbone is located between the sphenoidand occipital bones. It houses theessential parts of the organs ofequilibrium and hearing.
  • 10. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Sphenoid BoneIt is located at the basilar part of theoccipital bone. It appears as“butterfly wings with the squamousportion of its greater wings contactingthe right and left temporal bone.
  • 11. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Sphenoid BoneThe body of the sphenoid containstwo sphenoid sinuses which areseparated from one another by themidline septum.
  • 12. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Sphenoid BoneOn the its inferior side along thepetrous portion of the temporal bone,the sphenoid bone is grooved toaccommodate the Eustachian tube.
  • 13. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Sphenoid bone It articulates with all of the bones of the cranium: the occipital, parietal, frontal, ethmoid, and temporal.
  • 14. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Vocal Tract It can create formants of speechby modifying the resonances fromthe vocal folds of the larynx.
  • 15. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Vocal Tract It can produce sounds separate from those created by the larynx.1. By placing the tongue against the upper teeth we can create the “th” formant.2. By placing the lower lip against the upper teeth we can create the “f” formant.
  • 16. Skull Structures & Articulation • Cavities of the Vocal Tract There are five cavities which are:1. The buccal2. The oral3. The pharnygeal4. The two nasal cavities ref. Zemlin page 226 and 227
  • 17. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Nasal CavityThe landmarks of the nasal cavity are welldescribed on page #230 of Zemlin.We will focus primarily on the Oral cavity(to include the tongue) and the pharyngealcavity.
  • 18. Skull Structures & Articulation • Oral cavity—the Tongue It can be defined by four “landmarks” for speech formation.1. The tip (next to the teeth)2. The blade (area between tip and front of tongue)3. The front (below the hard palate)4. The back (beneath the soft palate)
  • 19. Skull Structures & Articulation • Oral Cavity—the Tongue The tongue has two sets of muscles.1. There are four intrinsic muscles (ref. Zemlin page #253)2. There are four extrinsic muscles (ref. Zemlin page #254)
  • 20. Skull Structures & Articulation • Oral Cavity—The TongueThere are seven articulatoryparameters which define varioustongue positions and configurationsused during speech production. ref. Zemlin page 257 and 258
  • 21. Skull Structures & Articulation • Oral Cavity—The TongueVowel formants are the least complexusing primarily two of the sevenarticulatory parameters. Whileconsonants use primarily five of the sevenparameters and fricative sounds such as“s” use all of the articulatory parameters.
  • 22. Skull Structures & Articulation • Oral Cavity—The TongueA diagram of English vowel formationand the various tongue positionsduring formation is found on page#301 of Zemlin.
  • 23. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Palate There are two defined palates of the oral cavity/mouth structure. They are:1. The Hard Palate2. The Soft Palate
  • 24. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Soft PalateGrows rapidly in length during thefirst two years of life.Increases in thickness until maximumthickness is reached at age sixteen.
  • 25. Skull Structures & Articulation • The PalateThe tongue moves against these twopalates during the formation ofspeech/phonation i.e. whenperforming a portion of the seventongue articulators.
  • 26. Skull Structures & Articulation • The Pharynx There are three primary components to the Pharynx area. They are:1. The nasopharynx (respiratory).2. The oropharynx (digestive and respiratory).3. The laryngopharynx (digestive and respiratory). ref. Zemlin page #271
  • 27. Skull Structures & Articulation • The velopharyngeal mechanismThis is a mechanism in the pharynx areawhich has a an important role in speechproduction.
  • 28. Skull Structures & Articulation • The velopharyngeal mechanismIts closure is very important for speechproduction. Inadequate closure can resultin nasalized speech or the inability toimpound air pressure within the oral cavityfor the production of consonants.

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