2g 3g
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2g 3g

2g 3g

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2g 3g 2g 3g Presentation Transcript

  • Wireless Communication Engineering UNIT 1 PART 2
  • Wireless
    • Billions of wireless devices are in use
    • 4 wireless technologies in 10 communication technologies with most market potential:
      • Wi-Fi
      • UWB
      • Software Radio
      • Wireless Mesh
      • Other six are: Nanotech, PON, Soft Switching, MPLS, FSO, Optical Switching
  •  
  • EM Spectrum for Telecom
    • Most spectra licensed; 3G license is very expensive; FCC is a mighty sector
    • Infrared, ISM band, and amateur radio band are license-free
    • HW2: Find out what spectrum is used for GSM, IS-95, 802.11b WLAN. What data rates are available in each system? What transmission characteristics makes these spectrum bands suitable for wireless communications?
  • APPLICATIONS
    • 1G – analog signals only ( ph call)
    • 2G – sms
    • 2.5G – mms, www ,email access (WAP)
    • 2.75 – High data rate
    • 3G – mobile internet, mobile tv, video calling
    • 3.5G – mobile broad bands, smart ph, mobile modems
    • 4G – IP telephony, ultra broadband modems
  • Evolution of Wireless Sys. (1G)
    • Handoff was not solved until the development of microprocessor, efficient remote-controlled RF synthesizer, and switching center.
    • 1G Cellular System
      • Designed in 1970s, deployed in early 1980s
      • Analog, 42 control channels, 790 voice channels
      • Handoff performed at BS based on received power
      • AMPS in US; TACS in part of Europe; NTT in Japan; C450 in West German, and NMT in some countries.
      • Became highly popular; AMPS still popular in US!
  • Evolution of Wireless Sys. (2G)
    • 2G Systems
      • Digital cellular telephony
      • Modest data support, incompatible
      • GSM: a common TDMA technology for Europe; claim about 3/4 of subscribers worldwide.
      • IS-54 and IS-136: TDMA technology in US; compatible with AMPS;
      • IS-95: CDMA; standardized in 1993; South Korea and Hong Kong deployed it in 1995; US in 1996.
  • Evolution of Wireless Sys. (2.5G)
    • 2G telephony is highly successful
    • Enhancement to 2G on data service
      • GSM: HSCSD and GPRS
      • IS-95: IS-95b
      • IS-136: D-AMPS+ and CDPD
    • The improved data rate is still too low to support multimedia traffic
    • ITU initiated 3G standardization effort in 1992, and the outcome is IMT-2000.
  • Evolution of Wireless Sys. (3G)
    • IMT-2000 comprises several 3G standards:
    • EDGE, data rate up to 473Kbps, backward compatible with GSM/IS-136
    • cdma2000 (Qualcomm), data rate up to 2Mbps, backward compatible with IS-95
    • WCDMA (Europe), introduces a new 5MHz channel structure; data rate up to 2Mbps;
    • TD-SCDMA (China), CDMA in TDD fashion
  • Evolution of Wireless Sys. (4G)
    • Problems of 3G systems
      • Immature 3G license auction increases the financial burden
      • What are the killer applications of 3G?
      • No unified standard (political factors dominate)
    • 4G systems
      • Research initiated, but still not well-defined
      • Data-oriented, seamless integrated with wireline
      • Indoor data rate up to 100 Mbps, outdoor data rate up to 20Mbps.
  • Evolution of Mobile Radio Communications
  • Paradigm From 1G to Beyond 3G First Generation
    • Analogue
    • Circuit switched
    • Basic voice telephony
    • Low capacity
    • Limited local and regional coverage
    Second Generation
    • Digital
    • Circuit switched
    • Voice plus basic data applications
    • Low data speed
    • Enhancements towards
      • packet switching
      • higher data rates
    • Trans-national and global roaming
    • Digital
    • Packet and circuit switched
    • Advanced data (multimedia ) applications
    • Fast data access
    • Global coverage
    • Global roaming
    Third Generation Beyond Third Generation
    • Digital
    • Packet switched
    • All IP based (IPv6 )
    • More advanced multimedia applications
    • User in control
    • Flexible platform of complementary access systems
    • High speed data
    • Improved QoS
    • Global coverage
    • Global roaming
  • Mobility and Information Speed of Evolving Mobile Communication Systems
  • Trends in Wireless Commun.
    • Personal Communications (Goal of mobile communications)
    • All IP based (IPv6) (Packet switched)
    • Flexible platform of complementary access systems( Combination of different wireless access systems , Hot spot services will be introduced by high-speed wireless access (>100mbps))
    • Higher system capacity (Users/Service, 5-10 times higher than 3G)
    • Higher Transmission Data rate
    • Higher frequency efficiency
    • More advanced multimedia applications
    • Improved QoS
    • Realize high levels of security and authentication
    • Global coverage
    • Global roaming
  • All IP Based
  • All IP based IP/ATM/MPLS Backbone Mobile Internet Application Platforms Mobile Internet Application Servers Media Gateway Mobility, Connection & Control Servers Mobility Gateway Intelligent Edge Broadband Gateway IP Multi Radio OWLAN Broadband Accesses Network Domain Service Domain Internet PSTN ISDN
  • Combination of different wireless access systems IEEE.802.11 WLAN WPAN WLAN WWAN PAN Bluetooth PDMA
  • Network of 3G beyond Services and applications IP based core network Media access system IMT-2000 UMTS WLAN type cellular GSM short range connectivity Wireline xDSL other entities DAB DVB return channel: e.g. GSM download channel New radio interface
  • Transmission Data Rate
    • Highest data rate(3G)
      • at least 144 Kb/s in a vehicular environment,
      • 384 Kb/s in a pedestrian environment,
      • 2048 Kb/s in an indoor office environment.
    • Highest data rate (4G)
      • 2Mbps in a vehicular environment,, 20Mbps in a pedestrian environment
      • Wide Area, high velocity : 100Mbps
      • Indoor, lower velocity : 1Gbps
    • Evolution of transmission data rate
    2G 3G and beyond 9.6-14.4 kbps evolved 2G 64-144 kbps 384 kbps-2 Mbps 100 Mbps? 384 kbps-20 Mbps
  • System Capacity and spectrum efficiency Capacity: 5-10 times higher than 3G Frequency efficiency: Multi-cell: > 2bits/Hz Single-cell: 5~10 bits/Hz
  • Drivers of 3G Beyond
    • 3G evolution … but difficult
      • to extend to higher data rate with CDMA only technology;
      • to provide various services with different QoS
      • to have enough frequency resource to accommodate more subscribers
    • Drawback
      • Low system capacity
      • Low spectrum efficiency
    0 25 1998 1999 2000 2001 50 75 100 125 150 Pbit/day Real Time (e.g. Voice) Non Real Time (e.g. Internet access) Mobile Internet User Mobile User 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1995 2000 2005 2010 Subscriptions (millions) Mobile Fixed Mobile Internet Fixed Internet
  • Drivers of 3G Beyond 3G 2G Evolution from 2G systems and Beyond Revolution from subscriber service expectations IP Revolution from IP infrastructure
  • Service Forecast for Asia Region 0 5 10 15 20 25 1999 (Forecast by ITU-R TG-8/1 for Asia) 2015 (Extrapolation) Up Down Up Down Up Down 63% 23? 5.4 1 19.8 10 %  30%  15%  28%  8% 3.4 0.5 0.5 91 % Multimedia  (U:128k,D:10Mbps)  (U:128k, D:2Mbps)  (U:64k,D:384kbps)  (U/D:128kbps×n) 1G/2G services Voice (U/D: 16k, VOX0.5) Others (<64 kbps) 9 %  Multimedia traffic increases 40%/year .  10Mbps downstream service emerges.  Saturation of 1G/2G services traffic. Subscribers ×1.5 Voice : Multimedia traffic ratio  1 : 2 (in 2010) 3.9 1.5 Relative traffic value in bits (Ref: 1999) Year 2010
  • Multimedia Services
        • Internet access
        • Shopping/banking(e-commerce)
        • Video conferencing
        • Video on demand
        • Telemedicine
        • Distance learning
  • Challenges
    • Unreliable Channels (Cross Layer Design)
    • Scarce Spectrum and Resource Management
    • Stringent Power Budget
    • Security
    • Location and Routing
    • Interfacing with Wired Networks
    • Health Concern
    • Diversified Standards and Political Struggle
  •