Medical Assistance in Pennsylvania
Staff Training Part II:
Immigrant Access
to Medical Assistance
The Health, Education an...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
• Publicly-funded health care coverage for immigrants in
Pennsylvania is a complex ...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance

Three types of care that all individuals need to access:
– Primary & preventative ...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
Medical Assistance recap:
– Medicaid (“Medical Assistance” in Pennsylvania) is a
fe...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
Generally speaking, to be eligible for any kind of
Medical Assistance an individual...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(1) Pennsylvania State Residence…
–

…has nothing to do with legal permanent reside...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(1) Pennsylvania State Residence
– It doesn’t matter how short or long a time perio...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– This is often the most confusing MA requirement. ...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– Category is important, therefore, because everyon...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– The nine most important categories for immigrants...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– The most important categories for immigrants:
• C...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category

– The most important categories for immigrants: Ad...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– The most important categories for immigrants: Adu...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– The most important categories for immigrants: Adu...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– The most important categories for immigrants: Adu...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– The most important categories for immigrants: Adu...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– The most important categories for immigrants: Adu...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(2) Fitting into an MA Category
– The most important categories for immigrants:
• O...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– Most MA programs have a limit as to how much ...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– One of the most confusing things about Medica...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– In some categories individuals who are over t...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– Spend-down example #1: NMP Spend-down
• Julia...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– Spend-down example #2: MNO Spend-down
• Jose ...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– Many categories allow retroactive coverage su...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– Retroactive coverage example #1:
• Anita is 8...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– Retroactive coverage example #2: The “You Can...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(3) Meeting income and asset limits
– Retroactive coverage example #2: The “You Can...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(4) “Qualified” Immigrant Status
– “Qualified” immigrant status is the status an im...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(4) “Qualified” Immigrant Status
– Children born in the United States are full citi...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(4) “Qualified” Immigrant Status
– The key “qualified” immigrant statuses:
•
•
•
•
...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
(4) “Qualified” Immigrant Status
– What matters for full MA eligibility is ultimate...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
• Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA)
– Immigrants who do not fit into any of the qu...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
• Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA)
– What is an “Emergency Medical Condition”?
• ...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
• Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA)
– The definition of an EMC is as follows:
An e...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
• Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA)
– An EMC includes labor and delivery services;...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
• Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA)
– General Advice About EMA
• Remember that hav...
Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance
For ongoing questions, consultations or
participant referrals:
– Contact Laura Hand...
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Medical assistance (Part 2)

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Medical assistance (Part 2)

  1. 1. Medical Assistance in Pennsylvania Staff Training Part II: Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance The Health, Education and Legal Assistance Project: A Medical-Legal Partnership between Widener University School and Law and CrozerKeystone Healthy Start (HELP: MLP-CKHS)
  2. 2. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance • Publicly-funded health care coverage for immigrants in Pennsylvania is a complex matter. • Unlike other populations which may have a singular publicly-funded insurance meeting all of their needs, immigrants often have to rely on a patchwork quilt of different programs to meet their health care needs.
  3. 3. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance Three types of care that all individuals need to access: – Primary & preventative care – Emergency & specialty care – Long-term & chronic care
  4. 4. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance Medical Assistance recap: – Medicaid (“Medical Assistance” in Pennsylvania) is a federal program to provide health coverage to certain low income individuals and families. – Medicaid is administered by states using state funds for which states receive federal matching funds. – The state agency which administers Medical Assistance is the Department of Public Welfare (DPW), at their "welfare" offices also known as County Assistance Offices (CAO).
  5. 5. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance Generally speaking, to be eligible for any kind of Medical Assistance an individual must meet four requirements: (1) Be a Pennsylvania State Resident (2) Fit into a “Category” of Medical Assistance (3) Meet the Income and Asset Requirement for the MA category; and (4) Have a “Qualified” Immigration Status
  6. 6. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (1) Pennsylvania State Residence… – …has nothing to do with legal permanent residency as it is used in immigration law – …simply requires the individual have a Pennsylvania address where they “intend to remain, and maintain a continuous physical presence in the state, except for a temporary absence.”
  7. 7. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (1) Pennsylvania State Residence – It doesn’t matter how short or long a time period the individual has lived in Pennsylvania. – Individuals are not required to have a “permanent address” or a “fixed residence.” Exceptions exist to accommodate individuals, such as the homeless, who have no such address. – Migrant or seasonal workers and their families employed in Pennsylvania meet the residency requirement unless they already receive Medicaid based on residence in another state.
  8. 8. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – This is often the most confusing MA requirement. MA is not just one program; it is a family of over a dozen programs each covering a very specific population (such as pregnant women, children, the elderly, etc.). Each specific population is known as a category. • So there is a category for pregnant women, a category for children, a category for adults age 65 and older, etc. – If you do no fit into any category, then you are not eligible for Medical Assistance, regardless of your circumstances.
  9. 9. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – Category is important, therefore, because everyone must fit into a specified category to be eligible for MA. – Category is also important for at least two more reasons: • First, different categories can have different eligibility requirements, so this may impact your participant’s eligibility for MA. • Second, different categories may have different benefits, so this may impact what health care your participant can access.
  10. 10. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The nine most important categories for immigrants: • Children Age 18 and Under • Adults – – – – – – – Permanent disability Temporary disability Health sustaining medication Pregnant women Breast or cervical cancer treatment adults 21-58 working 100 hours or more per month Adults age 59-64 • Adults age 65 and older
  11. 11. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The most important categories for immigrants: • Children Age 18 and Under – Being a child is its own category of eligibility! Therefore, children automatically fit into a category if they are age 18 and younger. – This category has high income limits (which vary slightly depending upon the age of the child), no asset limit, and excellent benefits.
  12. 12. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The most important categories for immigrants: Adults • Permanent Disability: This category has high income and asset limits and excellent benefits. Disability can easily be established by having a doctor complete an Employability Assessment Form (“EAF”). • Temporary Disability: In practice, this is the most important category for immigrant advocates, since many immigrants are working-age adults who fit into no other category and will only come into the health care system if they are injured. – Temporary Disability for 12 months or less: this subcategory has very low income and asset limits and limited benefits. – Temporary Disability for 12 months or less: this subcategory has a much higher income limit and better medical benefits (equivalent to Permanent Disability, above).
  13. 13. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The most important categories for immigrants: Adults • Health Sustaining Medication: Immigrants who need a health sustaining medication to be able to work (regardless of whether they are actually working) can be eligible by having a doctor complete an extremely simple health sustaining medications form. • This category has very low income and asset limits and limited benefits.
  14. 14. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The most important categories for immigrants: Adults • Pregnant Women: – Note that a pregnant woman is counted as two people for the purpose of income limits. – There are some special rules around confirmation of pregnancy and application for this category. – This category has high income limits, no asset limit, and excellent benefits.
  15. 15. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The most important categories for immigrants: Adults • Breast or Cervical Cancer Treatment: – Women who are in any kind of treatment for breast or cervical cancer are eligible in this category. – This category has high income limits, no asset limit, and excellent benefits.
  16. 16. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The most important categories for immigrants: Adults • Adults 21-58 Working At Least 100 Hours Per Month: This is another important category to obtain coverage for working adult immigrants who may not be eligible in any other category. – This is one of two “MNO” (Medically Needy Only) categories, which is a special and confusing type of “spend-down” category. – Bills and income are reviewed over a six-month period, and individuals with higher income will need to pay a portion of their six months’ income to get coverage for the six month period. – This category has low income and asset limits, and very limited coverage (for example, no prescription coverage or medical equipment). It is generally only used to cover hospital bills in situations where other categories are not available. – Due to the required six month enrollment and the very limited benefits, MNO categories should be a last resort.
  17. 17. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The most important categories for immigrants: Adults • Adults Age 59-64: This is the other “MNO” category. – Adults age 59-64 are eligible for this category if they meet the strict income/resource limits. – This category has low income and asset limits, and very limited coverage (for example, no prescription coverage or medical equipment). It is generally only used to cover hospital bills in situations where other categories are not available.
  18. 18. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (2) Fitting into an MA Category – The most important categories for immigrants: • Older Adults Age 65 and Older – Being an older adult age 65 or over is its own category of eligibility! Individuals age 65 or over automatically fit into a category. – This category has high income and asset limits and excellent benefits!
  19. 19. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – Most MA programs have a limit as to how much income and assets you can have to be eligible. – “Income” is the money that your client receives every month. • From sources such as employment, pensions, child support, government benefits, etc. – “Assets” are the resources your client has. • Such as savings and checking accounts, retirement accounts, the cash value of life insurance policies, etc. – The following are not counted as assets: • The home your client lives in • one automobile, and • your client’s personal possessions (clothing, jewelry, furniture, etc.).
  20. 20. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – One of the most confusing things about Medical Assistance is that there is not one MA income and asset limit - each of the categories mentioned has its own income and asset limits! – Income and asset limits also generally vary depending on household size. – The income limits are increased at the beginning of every calendar year. – There are income deductions available such that sometimes part of your client’s income may not be counted against him/her.
  21. 21. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – In some categories individuals who are over the income limit can “spend-down” (pay a portion of the income) to become eligible for MA in that category. – There are two types of spend-downs: • a monthly Non-Money Payment (“NMP”) spend-down used in many categories, and • a six-month spend-down used in the two Medically Needy Only (“MNO”) categories. – Since the vast majority of immigrants are hard-working individuals, and thus earning income which may put them over low income limits, spend-down is a crucial way to get immigrants eligible.
  22. 22. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – Spend-down example #1: NMP Spend-down • Julia fits in the category for temporary disability of less than a year, but her income is $400 per month, and thus is over the $205 per month income limit (by $195). Her medical bill for appendix surgery on 11/15/2008 is $8,000. She applies for MA on 11/25/2008. Since she is over the income limit by $195, the first $195 of the bill is left in Julia’s name. Medical Assistance pays the remaining $7,805 of the bill.
  23. 23. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – Spend-down example #2: MNO Spend-down • Jose fits in the MNO category for 21-58 year old working 100 hours or more. He applies for MA in November 2008 and has a $20,000 bill for a hospitalization for November. He earns $500 a month at his job. In the six month period from November through April Jose’s income will be $3,000. The monthly income limit for MNO is $425, and thus is $2,550 over six months. For the six months Jose is thus over the income limit by $450. The first $450 of the bill will remain in Jose’s name, and Medical Assistance will pay the remaining $19,550.
  24. 24. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – Many categories allow retroactive coverage such that you can get coverage for bills from the three months prior to the month you submit the application in. • This is very important to know since many immigrant applications happen after a trip to an ER. – Despite the frequent possibility of retroactive coverage, however, it is always recommended to get the application in the same month that treatment begins whenever possible.
  25. 25. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – Retroactive coverage example #1: • Anita is 8 years old and thus eligible in the category for children. She has bills from doctor visits in July and August 2008. On November 25, 2008 an advocate submits an MA application for her. Her family is already below the income limit, so no spend-down is needed. The application is approved on December 10, 2008. Anita is eligible for retroactive coverage for the 3 months (August, September, & October) prior to the month of application (November). Therefore, all of her doctor bills from August will be paid, but her bills from July will not be paid. (If she had applied for MA in October or earlier, all of her bills would have been paid.)
  26. 26. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – Retroactive coverage example #2: The “You Can’t Have Your Cake and Eat It Too” Rule • We have already seen that an immigrant can sometimes use an NMP spend-down to become eligible if they are over the income limit. We have seen that retroactive coverage may be available for bills from the three prior months. • However, you cannot use an NMP spend-down and retroactive coverage at the same time.
  27. 27. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (3) Meeting income and asset limits – Retroactive coverage example #2: The “You Can’t Have Your Cake and Eat It Too” Rule • Example: Miguel goes to the ER in October and has a large bill. His income is only $50 over the income limit, so he wants to do a small spend-down to get eligible. He applies for MA in November, and thus October is well within the three prior months for retroactive coverage. However, Miguel is not eligible, because he can not use a spend-down and get retroactive coverage at the same time. – If Miguel had applied for MA in October he could have done a spend-down and gotten the bill covered… or… – If Miguel’s income was below the income limit, he wouldn’t need to use a spend-down, and he could use retroactive coverage to get the October bill covered in November.
  28. 28. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (4) “Qualified” Immigrant Status – “Qualified” immigrant status is the status an immigrant needs to have to be fully eligible for Medical Assistance the way any U.S. Citizen would be. • Note: This same “qualified” immigrant status standard is also used for immigrant eligibility in the CHIP program. – U.S. born citizens, naturalized citizens, legal permanent residents (LPR), and numerous other "qualified" immigrant statuses are all eligible for full Medical Assistance. • Immigrants who are not eligible for full Medical Assistance are eligible for Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA), to be discussed later.
  29. 29. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (4) “Qualified” Immigrant Status – Children born in the United States are full citizens and are entitled to full Medical Assistance if eligible, regardless of the immigration status of their parents. – Puerto Rican citizens are also entitled to full Medical Assistance if eligible. – Common statuses that are not qualified include • • • • • • immigrants on tourist visas (B) work visas (H, L) student visas (F) exchange visitors (J) applicants for asylum, and undocumented immigrants.
  30. 30. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (4) “Qualified” Immigrant Status – The key “qualified” immigrant statuses: • • • • • • • • • • U.S. Citizen (by birth or naturalization) Legal Permanent Resident (“Green Card”) Asylees/Refugees Some Cuban/Haitian entrants Persons paroled into U.S. for 1 year or more VAWA petitioning battered women (and children) Persons granted withholding of deportation or removal Immediate Relative of USC, with filed I-130 petition Immediate Relative, with approved I-130 petition PRUCOLs (Persons Residing Under Color of Law)
  31. 31. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance (4) “Qualified” Immigrant Status – What matters for full MA eligibility is ultimately whether the immigrant is in a qualified status or not. – If MA caseworkers or staff make any of the following statements about immigration status, you should recognize these as completely erroneous: • “He is ineligible because he is not a citizen” • “She is ineligible because he is not a citizen or LPR” • “He is ineligible because he does not have a Social Security Number” • Note also that “legal” or “illegal” is also not a relevant distinction, since many completely “legal” immigrants are not in a qualified status (E.g., student visa).
  32. 32. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance • Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA) – Immigrants who do not fit into any of the qualified immigrant statuses, such as immigrants on student visas or undocumented immigrants, are still eligible for EMA. – EMA is a quick way to enroll temporarily in an MA program to treat a specific problem. The difference between EMA and “regular” MA: • A qualified immigrant with full MA could be enrolled into MA for many years to treat countless medical problems. • An immigrant enrolled in EMA, by contrast, will be enrolled for only a short time to treat a specific and serious “Emergency Medical Condition.” After that treatment is complete, the enrollment ends.
  33. 33. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance • Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA) – What is an “Emergency Medical Condition”? • Getting approval for EMA does not require an "Emergency" in the “Emergency Room” sense of the word. It does require that the immigrant have an “Emergency Medical Condition” (EMC). • An EMC is simply a serious medical condition meeting a specific definition which may or may not require the immigrant to go to an Emergency Room.
  34. 34. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance • Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA) – The definition of an EMC is as follows: An emergency medical condition is a medical condition with acute symptoms of such severity including severe pain, that without immediate attention, the result may be: • the patient's health is in serious jeopardy; • serious impairment to bodily functions; or • serious dysfunction of any body organ or part. – If an immigrant meets any one of the above bullet points, then s/he has an EMC.
  35. 35. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance • Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA) – An EMC includes labor and delivery services; labor and delivery is automatically an EMC! • Medical Assistance-funded medical services for pregnant women are available from the beginning of active labor until the delivery is complete and the mother and child are stabilized. • This coverage does not include prenatal or postpartum care. • An EMC does NOT include pregnancy itself, unless it is a high-risk pregnancy, verified by healthcare provider. – An EMC also does not include care and services related to organ transplant procedures.
  36. 36. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance • Emergency Medical Assistance (EMA) – General Advice About EMA • Remember that having and EMC and applying through EMA only gets you around the “qualified immigrant status” requirement for MA eligibility; the other three basic MA eligibility requirements (PA residency, fitting into a category, and meeting the income/asset limits) are still applicable. An immigrant with an EMC who does not meet those three requirements is not eligible for EMA. • As a general rule, Emergency Medical Assistance only covers shortterm acute conditions, and cannot be used for chronic or ongoing care. However, in 2004, the Department of Public Welfare issued an Operations Memorandum clarifying that chronic care, such as dialysis, may be approved in certain cases. • Contact the HELP: MLP attorneys for detailed advice in specific cases.
  37. 37. Immigrant Access to Medical Assistance For ongoing questions, consultations or participant referrals: – Contact Laura Handel, HELP: MLP/HS Staff Attorney • Phone: 610-497-7355 • E-mail: Lh.helpmlp@gmail.com • Referrals can be placed in my bin in the Healthy Start office, or • Just come knock on my door; I’d love to see you! 
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