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  • 1.  
  • 2. SINUSITIS By Ms. Shanti Chavan Yoga Therapist 9969505689
  • 3. Respiratory System
  • 4. Nose is the first opening of the respiratory system. The nasal rhythm is a window to the brain and may prove valuable in treating respiratory and mental disorders.
    • The nose and sinuses form the first part of the respiratory system , the body system that exchanges gases between air and blood. The nose is the main organ that allows air to flow into the lungs. Air enters the body here through two passageways (the nostrils ). Each nostril opens up into its own nasal cavity (large spaces inside the front of the face).
  • 5. PATHOLOGY OF SINUSITIS
    • The nose, nasal cavity and sinuses are the first few components of the respiratory system.
    • The sinuses are hollow spaces located in the face and skull
    • The sinuses are lined with mucous membranes secreting mucus .
    • This mucus helps remove foreign particles that enter the sinuses.
    • The sinuses also have cilia , tiny hairs that push mucus back into the nasal cavity through small openings ( ostia ).
    • Can easily become blocked, preventing the normal drainage of mucus from the sinuses
    • When the ostia are blocked, inflammation or an infection can occur in the sinuses. This condition
    • Is called sinusitis .
    • Cause painful facial pressure, headaches or toothaches.
  • 6.
    • Filtering out dangerous particles (e.g., bacteria, viruses, dust, pollen)
    • Warming each breath to prevent cold air from damaging sensitive lung tissue
    • Adding moisture to each breath to prevent airways and lungs from drying out
    • In addition, the nose is part of the olfactory system , which senses smell.
    Important Function : Nose and Nasal Cavity
  • 7. What is Sinusitis?
    • Sinusitis is caused by inflammation of mucous membrane lining the sinuses.
    • Parasiusitis is a condition in which all the sinuses are involved. But usually only one group of sinuses may be affected.
    • Sinusitis can develop when colds, allergies or other conditions damage the cells of the sinus lining , causing it to swell and thicken. This impairs the sinuses by blocking the small openings ( ostia ) between the sinuses and the nose and preventing the free exchange of air and mucus. When this happens, symptoms often result. Trapped air in the sinuses creates pressure on the sinus wall, causing pain. Mucus and pus trapped in the sinuses become breeding grounds for viruses, bacteria and fungi.
  • 8.
    • The sinuses are hollow spaces located in the face and skull . These paranasal sinuses connect the nose to the throat and allow for the exchange of mucus and air. They appear in pairs on either side of the face.
    • Types of sinuses: Depending on the type, the sinuses vary in size from tiny to the size of a walnut. The four sets of sinuses are:
    • Frontal sinuses . Located in the forehead.  There are two of these sinuses, one per side of the forehead. The frontal sinuses vary greatly from person to person in both size and shape.
    • Maxillary sinuses . Located in the cheeks between the teeth and the eyes . There are two of these sinuses, one in each cheek. These are the largest of the sinuses, and each can be roughly as large as a walnut.
    • Ethmoid sinuses . Located on each side of the nose between the eyes . There are between 6 and 12 of these sinuses on each side of the face. These sinuses are very small.
    • Sphenoid sinuses . Located deep behind the eyes, towards the middle of the skull . There are two of these sinuses, one per side. The size, shape and volume of these sinuses vary greatly from person to person.
  • 9. Type Of sinuses
  • 10. Sinus & Nasal Polyps
  • 11.  
  • 12. Nasal & Sinus Function :
    • Reducing the weight of the skull while preserving bone strength and shape
    • The shape of the sinuses and nasal cavity also serve to Adding resonance to the voice
    • Reducing damage sustained during a head trauma by absorbing some of the impact
    • They also warm air that is breathed in through the nose before it moves on to the lungs.
  • 13.  
  • 14. TYPES OF SINUSITIS
    • Acute sinusitis:
    • Symptoms more pronounced
    • Fever, ( virus-induced) colds,
    • lasts for just a few weeks and usually requires no treatment. In some cases, antibiotics may be used.
    • is usually precipitated by an earlier upper respiratory tract, generally of viral origin.
    • In acute episode: fungal infection -most often seen in patients with diabetes or other immune deficience (such as AIDS or transplant patients on anti-rejection medications) and can be life threatening.
    • Chronic Sinusitis: Chronic sinusitis lasts longer than eight weeks or occurs more than four times per year with symptoms usually lasting more than 20 days.and can be more difficult to treat. However, treatment is essential, as long-term bouts of sinusitis can develop into dangerous medical conditions.
    • Symptoms: subtler
    • Acute cold is neglected
    • Wrong eating habits continue and auto- intoxication develops due to constipation.
    • Persistent nasal obstruction, discharge of musty odour
  • 15. CAUSE OF SINUSITIS
    • In addition, sinusitis may be either infectious or non- infectious:
    • Infectious sinusitis
    • Viral Infection.
    • Bacterial Or Fungal Growth . Streptococcus Pneumoniae And Haemophilus Influenzae
    • Secondary Infection In Nasal Cavity.-fungal infection
    • If congestion in the passage or if an inflammation develops due to pus producing germs in these sinuses, sinusitis develops
    • Injury of the bone enclosing the sinus may provide the source of infection
    • The maxillary sinuses may be infected by the extension of a tooth infection in the upper jaw.
    • Anatomical Causes:
    • Deviated septum
    • Swelling of the turbinates
    • Noninfectious sinusitis
    • Allergies ( Chronic inflammation of the nasal passages (rhinitis) - Allergic rhinitis )or other irritants.
    • Swimming , Diving, pollution, occupational problems like exposure to chemicals
    • Life Style Cause:
    • Nervous stress and emotional upset
    • Smoking
    • Pregnancy
    • Developmental Causes
    • Developmental disorders like cystic fibrosis
    • Tumors
    • Sinus and nasal tumors
  • 16. Signs And Symptoms Of Sinusitis:
    • Acute sinusitis and chronic sinusitis share many symptoms.
    • sinus headache, a nonvascular headache caused by pressure changes in sinus cavities . Trapped air, pus and other secretions create pressure on the sinus wall. Pain, pressure or fullness is usually present in the cheeks, brow or forehead .
    • Other symptoms of sinusitis include:
    • Aching in the upper jaw or teeth
    • Cold symptoms that last more than a week
    • Ear pain
    • Fatigue
    • Weakness
    • Cough
    • Nasal congestion
    • Profuse, thick, colored (especially green) nasal discharge
    • Bad breath
    • Bad-tasting postnasal drip
    • Headache when leaning forward
    • Reduced sense of smell
    • Sore throat (resulting from postnasal drip)
  • 17. Symptoms According To Sinuses Affected
    • These include:
    • Facial pain . Pain when the forehead is touched indicates inflammation of the frontal sinuses (located in the forehead).
    • Achiness of the upper jaw and teeth , and tenderness in the cheeks when touched. This indicates infection in the maxillary sinuses (located behind the cheekbones).
    • Pain between the eyes , swelling of the eyelids and tissues around the eyes. This indicates inflammation of the ethmoid sinuses (located between the eyes), which may also cause tenderness when the nose is touched and loss of smell.
    • Earaches, neck pain and a deep ache at the top of the head indicate infection of the sphenoid sinuses (located behind the eyes).
  • 18. Long-term sinusitis can cause serious health problems if left untreated. Conditions known to develop over time include:
    • Serve as source for other respirartory disease
    • Infection of the eye socket ( orbital cellulitis ), leading to vision loss
    • Infection of the brain lining (meningitis), which can cause brain damage
    • Infection of the bones of the face (osteomyelitis)
    • Chronic facial pain
    • Loss of sense of smell
    • Chronic headaches
    • Chronic nasal and sinus congestion
    • Chronic bad breath
    • Blood vessel complications that can cause aneurysms (ballooning of blood vessels) and blood clots
  • 19. Diagnosis Methods For Sinusitis
    • Accurate diagnosis is crucial:
    • cause of the inflammation,
    • different types of sinusitis require different treatments.
    • A physical examination,
    • patient medical history,
    • list of symptoms,
    • any recent colds or history of allergies, and
    • whether a patient smokes.
    • A sample of nasal discharge
    • A sinus x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or  computed axial tomography (CAT)
    • A nasal endoscopy, called a rhinoscopy, uses an endoscope (thin, flexible tube and camera) to help a physician examine the area where the sinuses and middle ear drain into the nose.
    • If allergies -allergy skin testing.
  • 20. Medical Treatment
    • Acute sinusitis
    • Decongestants
    • Chronic sinusitis:
    • Difficult To Treat.
    • Medications Include :
    • Antibiotics, Decongestants,
    • Mucus-thinning Medications,
    • Antihistamines Or Anti-inflammatory
    • Corticosteroid Nasal Sprays , Oral Corticosteroids
    • Surgery:
    • physical abnormality : nasal polyps (small, grape-like growths), crookedness in the wall dividing the nostrils ( deviated septum ) , Removing adenoid tissue
    • Procedure of antral washout
    • Sinus puncture and operation of deviated septum.
    • Fungal Sinusitis :
    • prevent damage to the sinuses, eyes or brain.
  • 21. Drawbacks of Medical Treatment :
    • A majority of persons suffering from chronic colds, sinusitis very often don’t get any substantial relief or cure by the medical treatment available at present.
    • Painful, time-consuming surgical procedure
    • Temporary relief
    • Reoccurrence
    • Side effects such as drowsiness, which prohibits driving car or performing many of our duties.
  • 22. Yogic Management Of Sinusitis
    • Yoga cures the sinusitis by -------
    • By balancing the body’s energy systems i.e. nadis and by throwing light upon the deeper mental impressions and blockages which arise simultaneously with the symptoms.
    • Mediation, yoga nidra and object self-analysis enable the unconscious mechanism of these conditions to be understood and transcended.
    • Asana: Yoga works by promoting healthy drainage of secretions & boosting a flow of pure blood to sinuses, thus flushing & removing stagnant blood. Fresh blood corpuscles laden with O2 & immune cells rejuvenate lining of sinus.
    • All inverted asana - promote healthy drainage of secretions , so that stagnation doesn’t occur. Thus inflammation is prevented. Just as prolonged standing causes congestion in legs, sinuses do get congested in erect posture.
    • Eg: Viparit karni, sarvangasana, shirasasna, and half halasana help to open the meatus through which the sinuses drain their secretions into the nose. Natural puncture occurs. The inverted body pose make sinuses become very light and spread of infection to other sinuses is prevented . As congestion is relieved, the headache resulting from chronic sinusitis is relieved
    • Standing pose like, Utthita trikonasana clear sinus very rapidly due to release of endogenous adrenaline & non- adrenaline .
    • Bhujangasana affects carotid artery . It increases pressure on carotid artery, which leads to increase in circulation towards head & face region. This result in drainage of toxic/ foreign matter from congested area of sinus. Thus helps in clearing the sinus cavity. THYMUS GLAND and immune system are stimulated in which chest is open and deeply beathe into it.
  • 23. Yogic Management of Sinusitis
    • Suryanamaskara
    • Asana : Bhujangasana, Pashimottanasana, Halasana, Ardh-Matysendraasana,Viparitakarni, yogamudra, sarvangasana, shirasasana Dhanurasana- Practice 1-3 Times According To Capacity. 
    • Avoid : Asana In Febrile Conditions- Fever
    • Relaxation: yoga nidra – practice daily ( deeply relaxing and theraputic. Enables th sinusitis sufferer to witness th underlying personal complexes and perception arising from th past conditionoing and prior childhood experiences which so frequently initiate these diseases.) shavasan, makarasana
  • 24. Asana
  • 25. Utitha Trikonasana Shirasana Half Halasana
  • 26. ASANA
  • 27. Pranayama
    • Nadishodan, helps in excellent muco-ciliary clearance due to steady flow of air in & out of nasal passages. Fresh air aerates the stagnated sinus & creates changes in blood flow in the lining of the cavity, which also decongests the sinus. Due to rhythmic passage of air at a certain force, secondary changes in the nasal cavity, cause of chronic inflammation do not occur .
    • Ujjayi without kumbhaka (initially first 2-3 weeks)- ‘ slesma dosharam kante’ , Surya bhedan ;
    • Bhasrika ( upto 5 rounds of 50 breaths)
  • 28. PRANAYAMA
  • 29. Kriya – Cleansing Processs
    • Jalaneti & Rubber neti :
    • Practice Twice A Day During Attack And Later On Twice A Week . -- Is An Effective Practice To Desensitize The Nasal Mucous Memebranes, Drains And Aerates Sinues. Twice Daily. Immediately After It, Perform Kapalbhati To Clear And Dry The Nasal Passages And Activates The Frontal Area Of The Brain.
    • Kunjal Kriya
    • Is Very Beneficial, In Both Prevention And Treatment And Practiced Daily .
    • * Shankaprakshalana
    • Should Be Performed At Change Of Seasons To Remove Decaying Mucus Wastes From The Digestive System And Reset The Body Thermostat.
  • 30. Kriya – Cleansing Processs
  • 31. Kunjal Kriya Vastra Dhauti
  • 32. Prevention Methods For Sinusitis
    • To prevent colds and allergies that can lead to sinusitis:
    • Eat a nutritious diet, including plenty of fruits and vegetables . These are rich in antioxidants and other chemicals that can boost immune system function.
    • Exercise regularly. This helps the body fight infection and reduce stress (which can leave an individual more vulnerable to sickness).
    • Wash hands often , particularly after shaking hands with others.
    • Get a yearly flu vaccine .
  • 33. Diet
    • A light, non-mucous forming vegitarian diet. Eat plenty of fruit ( papaya)and raw vegetables. A fruit diet – 3-4 days is highly recommended. Eat plenty of citrus or grape juice. Fresh Garlic every day
    • Fasting: fast whenever symptoms appear to be increasing. Most effective means of avoiding attacks. alternatively, substitute the evening meal each day with tea
  • 34. Avoid:
    • Avoid consumption of caffeine and alcohol.
    • Avoid exposure to allergens both inside and outside the home.
    • Avoid tobacco smoke or polluted air.
    • Install a humidifier in the home, or at least the bedroom.
    • Avoid blowing the nose with great force. This can push bacteria into the sinuses. Instead, patients should gently blow one nostril at a time, while blocking the other.
    • Patients should avoid air travel during periods when they have sinusitis. If travel must be undertaken, decongestants can reduce pressure inside the sinuses. However, patients should not take any medication without first consulting a physician.
    • Taking cold or iced drinks, milk, ice cream and other dairy products
  • 35. Further Recommendations
    • Keep the body warm in the winter and monsoon seasons . Particularly make sure that neck and chest are protected from the cold.
    • Take complete rest as soon as symptoms or sinusitis appear, avoids baths and don’t drink too much water.
    • Cold applications over the sinuses or alternate hot and cold applications will give relief.
    • Steam inhalations at night yield great relief.
    • Smoking should be discontinued.
  • 36. Nature Cure Treatment  
    • Correcting the faulty diet is of utmost imporatance- Have balanced diet
    • Increase the intake of food that clears inflammations and prevents mucous production like ginger, turmeric, cumin, coriander, fenugreek, fennel seeds and asafetida.  
    • In acute conditions – drink fresh vegetable & fruits juices.
    • Fresh Garlic every day and onion which tend to break mucous congestion all through th respiratory tract.
    • Diet rich in vit.A get from pumpkin, carrot, leafy vegetables, tomato, mango, pappya( is the membrane conditioner as it helps build healthy mucus membranes in the head and throat.)
    • All cooked food should be freshly prepared for each meal. Take milk as it contains calcium has effect in overcoming inflammation of tissues.
    • Increase the intake of food that clears inflammations and prevents mucous production like ginger, turmeric, cumin, coriander, fenugreek, fennel seeds and asafetida .
  • 37. Nature Cure Treats Through Its Various Therapy:
    • Fasting Therapy- Observe Fast For 7 Days (take hot honey water with 1 hr. interval)
    • Fast whenever symptoms appear to be increasing. Most effective means of avoiding attacks. Alternatively, substitute the evening meal each day with tea (ginger, pepper. Cinnamon and cardamom-, which heat the body and promote mucus elimination.)
    • Hydrotherapy - Apply Chest Pack On Chest
    • Mud Therapy - Mad Pack On Abdomen For Improving The Digestion
    • Chromo Therapy – Red light given at back of patient.
    • Magneto Therapy – North pole use for charging the water- drink it for whole day
    • Acupressure – giving points on eye brows ( frontal bone)
    • Massage Therapy- Local massage on head & face with local steam
  • 38. Nature Cure Treatment
    • Other Recommendations:
    • Take a hot foot bath before going to bed for 15 min.
    • When the attack is on, repeat the hot footbath in the morning also.
    • Steam on face or steam bath
    • Have black pepper soup with ginger and salt once a day.
    • Avoid: acidic food, reduce the intake of salt (as it leads to accumulation of water in tissue & expels Calcium from the body.) eating rice, citrus fruits; fried & starchy food, white sugar, white flour, macaroni products, cakes, candies, spices, meat; in fever abstain all solid foods & only eat fresh fruits & vegetables
  • 39. Ongoing Research Regarding Sinusitis Researchers continue to look at new ways of treating sinusitis. For example, initial studies of certain antifungal nasal medications have shown them to be highly effective in treating chronic sinusitis . However, these results have not been duplicated in all studies and further research is required before this approach can be deemed effective. In addition, studies are being conducted to better understand how certain germs that contribute to ear infections may also contribute to sinusitis . It is believed that at least two-thirds of sinusitis cases caused by bacteria stem from these germs. Experts hope that understanding how these germs become infectious may help lead to future vaccine strategies to reduce or eliminate certain types of sinusitis.
  • 40. Question
    • Thank You