Increased arousal accompanied by generalized feeling of fear or apprehension 1 .
Feeling of apprehension from the anticipation of danger, which may be internal or external a neurosis a predominant causeless fear and uncertainty free floating a pervasive unfocused fear not attached to any idea. 2 .
It is also described as the feeling of anxiousness 3 or as a particular autonomic response to a noxious stimulus.
Definitions of Depression
A mood disorder in which individual experience extreme unhappiness, lack of energy and several related symptoms 1 .
Psychopathogenic feeling of sadness; a decrease in vital functions 2
It is also described as a feeling of down heartedness 3 or psychophysiological withdrawal in the event of perceived threat.
Common Sources of Anxiety
Barlow’s Model of Panic Disorders Biological Vulnerability Tendency to perceive harmless stresses as mortal danger Stress False Alarm Learned Alarm Anxious apprehension focusing on future alarm Automatic and/or cognitive symptoms of Anxiety Initial Panic Attack
Physical Signs of Anxiety
Shaking or trembling
Tingling in the hands and feet
Desire to urinate more often than usual.
Common Causes of Depression
Children leaving home
Failure at work
Mechanisms in Depression Experiences in which individuals cannot influence their outcomes Sense of Helplessness Passivity in new situations Learned Helplessness Heightened or Excessive Self-awareness Beck’s Cognitive Theory Inward focus of attention Awareness of gaps between where one is and where one would like to be Failure to adjust goals or standards downwards Negative Self-awareness Distorted perceptions Primitive thinking Stressors Depression Depression Depression
Loss of interest
Loss of energy
Loss of concentration
Guilt, unworthiness, etc.
Loss of appetite
Slowing down of action
Loss of sex drive
as well as other symptoms like headache, backache and pain in the face, neck etc.
Yoga Module - I is for Anxiety:
Forward Bending Asanas
Kapalabhati – 50 strokes
Anuloma-Viloma – 10 rounds
Omkar chanting – 10 rounds
This sequence for 2 times a day.
Yoga Module - II is for Depression:
Backward Bending Asanas
Kapalabhati – 50 strokes
Ujjayi Pranayama – 10 rounds
Omkar Chanting – 10 rounds
This sequence for 2 times a day.
Significance of Yoga Module - I (Anxiety)
Significance of Forward Bending Asanas in Anxiety
Are passive as gravitational force is used to stretch the muscle groups
Help the mind to get introverted
The rigidity or hyper-tonicity lowers down
The back muscles supple and strong
Compresses and massages the abdominal organs including liver, kidneys, pancreas and intestines
Stretches the leg muscles and tendons
Significance of Kapalabhati in Anxiety
Elimination of carbon dioxide from the system on very large scale
Absorption of oxygen into the system is also abnormally large
Extraordinarily heavy exchange of gases in the lungs brought about by Kapalabhati
Mechanism Greater volume of blood moves from compressed abdominal vein into decompressed thoracic vein & then into RA (Ref n : Principles of anatomy & physiology by Tortora & Grabowski)
For purification & stimulation of nadis
Free flow of ‘Prana’
Tranquilizing effect on mind
Mild quieting effect on the brain because of increased oxygenation
Significance of Anuloma-viloma Pranayama in Anxiety
The mind becomes calm and heart beats rhythmic
Soothing effect of this pranayama on the nervous system reduces various emotional tensions. This creates an equilibrium in the body
Nostrils are supplied with both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of ANS
ANS is also related with other autonomic functions of the body as well as the opposite forces working on the mental, emotional and physiological activities
Significance of Omkar chanting in Anxiety Reduces fear, negativity Assures mind Increases positivity Low pitched AUM recitation brings about parasympathetic predominance
Significance of Yoga Module - II (Depression)
Significance of Backward Bending Asanas in Depression
Movements are against gravity
Backward bending asanas break down this ‘body armour’
Reduce the hypo-tonicity in depression and gives good tone to the body
Stretch the abdominal muscles
Tones and strengthens the muscles controlling the spine, thus help to prevent slip disc and other back conditions
The spinal nerves are also toned
Significance of Kapalabhati in Depression
Kapalabhati is found useful in making the bodily relaxation deep and sleep more sound
The amount of physical energy spent on respiration is reduced
Lactic acid gets destroyed. Thus there is freshness to all cells.
Significance of Ujjayi in Depression
Lung capacity increases and body movements become lighter too
Regular practice of this Pranayama slowly increases the oxygen content of blood
Mind is calm because of Nadanusandhana (fixing the mind on a sound)
Body and mind are refreshed
Irritable centers of cerebral cortex are depressed(due to the Kumbhaka )
The cardiac out put increases while heart rate decreases
Takes off lethargy from the body
Significance of Omkar chanting in Depression Reduces fear, negativity Assures mind Increases positivity High pitched AUM recitation brings about mild excitation of the motor cortex with a mild sympathetic tone
Discussions and Conclusions
If followed under the observation of a keen yoga instructor may prove to be helpful to the patients suffering from non-clinical conditions of Anxiety and Depression. Various researches also could be conducted by eminent scientists using latest gadgets quantifying numerable parameters so as to check into the details of these suggestions.
Psychology by Robert A. Baron
Oxford & IBH New Medical Dictionary
Anxiety and Depression – A practical guide to recovery – by Prof. Robert Priest
Yoga for Health and Peace by Sadashiv P. Nimbalkar
Yogic Therapy by Swami Kuvalayananda & Dr. S. L. Vinekar
Pranayama by Swami KuvaIayananda
Anotomy and Physiology of Yogic Practices by Dr.Makarand M.Gore
Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha by Swami Satyananda Saraswati
Vol 19 No.4 Cardiac output in Normal,Deep and Ujjayi (Pranayamic ) Breathing.( A Preliminary Study) by Dr. Jan Mestan , Dr. M. V. Bhole
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