I worked in Davis County School district until I got married in 2005. While there, I worked with a variety of disabilities including: language disorders, cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, a variety of autistic children, articulation disorders, apraxia, traumatic brain injury, selective autism, fluency (or stuttering) disorders, and more. I also worked in a hospice care facility in Salt Lake, and got experience with St. Marks Hospital. It was in working with adults, that I realized my true passion lied with children. I was better at it, and better able to handle some of the tragedy that comes with SOME speech and language disorders. After I moved to SC and worked there for a year, I was invited to apply for a special position with their early intervention program. I was honored to get this position along with one other SLP in the district where we were responsible for evaluating, placing and developing treatment plans for all children entering the system between 3-5 years of age. It was during this time, I was nominated for SLP of the year.
After the birth of my first child, and completing my contract with the school district, I opted to say home with my children. It was a difficult and very personal decision, but one I haven’t regretted. I continue to stay certified, and keep my feet wet, but doing things like this, or helping friends and family with questions, evaluations, finding resources, and even developing a few therapy plans. Having my children has only amplified my passion for education and early childhood development. I recently participated in the Mrs. Utah pageant, where I was honored to receive the Listeners Choice Award. It was during this time I became familiar with the amazing company reading horizons. I was very impressed with their program and their community involvement, including these webinars. I am NOT an employee of Reading Horizons, but am happy to be working WITH them in educating parents, and spreading the love of learning and reading.
I want to let you know we are going to spend a fair amount of time on the ‘why’ in this presentation. The Primary reason for this is, if you feel the WHY is IMPORTANT, than you will actually DO the things that we discuss during this presentation. I feel if you don’t go out and DO some of the things we talk about, than my presentation has been unsuccessful.
Though we will be covering everything mentioned, we will be focusing a good majority of our time on how reading aloud can be so beneficial.
This picture could mean – give me cereal, this could mean give me ice cream, or soup, or mac and cheese
Most of the social implications of being able to speak are very obvious, but worth noting. Particularly with younger children, if they are able and willing to communicate their wants and needs, they will have less outbursts. They can also communicate WITH their peers about desires, or annoyances. This does not mean those with perfect speaking ability will have perfect behavior, but it does mean that if you give a child a way to express their feelings and desires, and unwanted circumstances, they have the opportunity to (and will sometimes choose to) use it.
(6:32) Though we ARE talking about the why and how of SPEECH AND LANGUAGE development, we are going to discuss slightly further the implications of reading, and why IT is so important. Because language development directly impacts reading development, keep the two inter related, as we discuss this next portion. That means that you need to have a good base of speech and language to do well in reading, but as you expose your child to reading aloud, you are going to increase those very skills needed. Once a child learns to talk, he will average as many as ten new words a day. Much of that pace is determined, however, by the amount and richness of the language he hears. Think of the things we do to try and ‘talk’ to our children. To my 1 year old – I talk like….. To my 3 year old I talk like…. It’s slightly better with my 4 year old but she is a fluent communicator now, and can already read. One of the EASIEST ways to increase the AMOUNT and QUALITY of language that my 1 and 3 year old hear, is by sitting down and reading them a book. It exposes the children to many new words that I may KNOW but don’t USE on a regular basis. I do want to highlight some of the significant impacts reading aloud in general can provide. One of the books I studied in graduate school was the Read Aloud Handbook – by Jim Trelease. Much of the next slides is taken directly from this book. He does a wonderful job compiling the very information I wanted to portray today in this portion of our presentation.
It was in response to growing lawlessness caused by the polarization between the rich and the poor in the 1830’s that compulsory education was born in Massachusetts. In the wake of public riots and lynchings, Horace Mann reasoned that the only way to close the cap between the top and the bottom is education. He said – This philosophy led to compulsory education in America. Obviously reading is the heart of education. The knowledge of almost every subject in school flows from reading. You must be able to read instructions and questions to be able to perform most tests in any area of education. You can not study unless you can write, read notes and books on subjects, etc. One could arguably state: Reading is the single most important social factor in American life today.
There are several studies that have been done on reading, but I wanted to highlight some I felt were extremely well done. The first was done in 1983 when a national commission was created and comprised of nationally recognized experts in how children develop, how they learn language, and how they learn to read. This group of professionals took two years to evaluate more than 10,000 research projects that had been don I the last quarter century in order to discover what works, what might work and what doesn’t work. When the Commission issued it’s report, Becoming A Nation of Readers, two declarations in it’s primary findings rang loud and clear:
One of the most comprehensive studies done internationally was done in 1990-1991 in 32 countries including Finland, the US, France, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Spain, Germany Etc. They assessed 210,000 9-14 year olds and determined which children read best. Two of the factors indicated that produced higher achievements around the world.1 – The frequency of teachers, 2- The frequency of sustained silent reading
So we know that reading aloud works, it not only helps develop language, but that in turn will help them be successful in many areas of life. Do we really not have 15 minutes a day? So what are some things we can DO while reading aloud to make it a more pleasurable experience for the children?
Decasper felt that infants might be able to recognize something they had heard prenatally. He asked 33 pregnant women to recite a specific paragraph of a children’s story three times a day for the last six weeks of pregnancy. Three different paragraphs were used among the women, but each woman used just ONE passage for the entire recitation period. 52 hours after birth, the newborns were given a special nipple and earphones through which they could hear a woman – NOT THE MOTHER reciting all three paragraphs. By measuring each child’s sucking rate during the listening period, researchers concluded the infants recalled the preferred passages their mothers had recited during the third trimester. Don’t feel if you haven’t started in utero, that you are at a loss. The general point of this information is that it is not too early to start reading to your child. BUT I do want to highlight the PRIME time to stimulate language. It is highly documented that children who are exposed to language, or a second language earlier on in life, have an easier time learning, than they do past age five. Discuss Neuroplasticity. Again, don’t get discouraged if your child is over 5 years old. Though the brain is more ‘plastic’ during that time, clearly children AND adults have potential for intellectual stimulation.
Once your child learns that first word, it is easy to then teach them multiple words that mean the same thing by using synonyms in similar places in the story. Prepositions can at times be difficult to learn on with two dimensional illustrations. With younger children learning these words can be helpful if you use the book itself. Remember learning LANGUAGE at that phase in their lives, is more important than reading the story word for word. Teaching language will better help them understand ALL stories.
Predicting a story before hand creates excitementProvide a demonstration with early learning book, and older book
Children’s storybooks are complete with idiomatic expressions (such as being a ‘crack up’), figurative language (heart cold as ice), and words with multiple meanings. To support students understanding ask questions when these come upShow demonstrations at each point
It is easy to become irritated by a child’s incessant questions – it is often felt it ‘ruins the story’ because sometimes questions can be completely off topic. Questions are a child’s learning tool, and we don’t’ want to destroy natural curiosity by ignoring or discouraging it.
Repetition is often seen as redundant and boring for adults, but this is not so for the child who asks for the same story, or same movie they have heard or seen a dozen times. When we strive to present the same stimulus over and over again, we maximize their opportunity to add it to their repertoire. Referred to as immersion
4 mo – limited mobility, child has little or no choice to listen and observe. During this time any book will do, but remember repetition helps with immersion. Remember even infants 52 hours after birth responded to the paragraphs the mothers had read to them. Rhyme -
6 mo – the child is more active at this point and wants to grab and suck on the book – though it’s OK to allow for book manipulation, and don’t give them the impression you don’t want them to touch the book – you can use a toy as a distraction to help give him something to do while he listens.
Simplifying the book – if there is a book that is slightly longer than their current attention span – you read the pages ahead of time to yourself and talk through the book rather than reading the story.
If you know the REASONS they become attached, you can understand what type of books to look for
Obviously 1-1 time would be wonderful to have with children daily. You should take those 15 minutes to read to your child, every day. If you set a schedule it helps both them AND YOU make time for it in your day. But there are other things you can do to facilitate language, WHILE doing the things you do every day.
Parallel talk – describing what your child is doing
You are going to get your children toys
ALL of the things I’m going to discuss CAN be good, but need to be monitoredChildren use pacifiers to sooth, and for infants in particular, it’s natural for them to want to suck to sooth themselves. BUT remember when they have them in for extended periods of time, they are not using their mouths for other things… like learning to talk.
Young children sit passively in front of the screen, oblivious to what is going on around him. Conversation during the program is rare because children aren’t motivated to communicate – they are motivated to be entertained. Children often won’t stop to ask questions about the material being covered, or when they do, sometimes parents aren’t familiar with what they have been watching, to be able to answer the questionIf the rate of language is based on amount and QUALITY – television largely consists of conversations that contain the same vocabulary words these children already know, few gains are made.
One common problem many devoted parents have is responding to their children without their child needing to talk. Kai’s hand signals for exampleSigns can be a GREAT starter for communication, but remember to move them forward. It takes less energy to say ‘drink’, than to move the whole arm/hand – so they will use the method that takes less energy once they learn it.
One common problem many devoted parents have is responding to their children without their child needing to talk. Kai’s hand signals for exampleOlder siblings wanting to talk for their siblings plus and minuses
American Speech and Language Association is my governing agency as a speech language pathologist.
This information represents, on average, the age by which mostmonolingual speaking children will accomplish the listed milestones.
Other trusted professionals – listen to recommendations given by educators and the physicians you work with, specifically the child’s pediatrician
Be cautious of all the websites that are available out there. These are two governing agency websites and I would go to them first.
Transcript of "Facilitating Speech and Language Development through Reading Aloud and More"
Facilitating Speech and Language Development through Reading Aloud and More<br />Presented by: Tawni Williams, Med, CCC-SLP<br />
Mrs. Tawni Williams, MEd, CCC-SLP<br />Bachelors of Science – Communication and Hearing Disorders<br />University of Utah<br />Masters of Education – Speech Language Pathology<br />Utah State University<br />
Mrs. Tawni Williams, MEd, CCC-SLP<br />Mother of three children ages 5, 3 and 1<br />Listeners Choice Award Mrs. Utah<br />
Overview<br />WHY facilitate speech and language development? <br />Literacy/Academic<br />Social/Behavioral<br />
Overview Continued<br /><ul><li>HOW you can facilitate speech and language development
Common errors and easy solution</li></li></ul><li>Overview continued<br />When you should get concerned<br />Milestones and red flags<br />When to refer to a specialist<br />Available resources<br />Question and Answers<br />
Why?<br />Obvious implications from a parent<br />“Tell me what you want!”<br />“I want you to understand what I’m ASKING you to do.” <br />Teachers have similar relationships with students<br />
Why?<br />Speech and language skills are essential to academic success and learning. Language is the basis of communication. Reading, writing, gesturing, listening, and speaking are all forms of language. Learning takes place through the process of communication. The ability to communicate with peers and adults in the educational setting is essential for a student to succeed in school. "FAQ: Speech and Language Disorders in the School Setting." American Speech-Language-Hearing Association | ASHA. Web. 07 Sept. 2011. <http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/schoolsFAQ.htm>.<br />
Why?<br />Children with communication disorders frequently do not perform at grade level. They may struggle with reading, have difficulty understanding and expressing language, misunderstand social cues, avoid attending school, show poor judgment, and have difficulty with tests. Difficulty in learning to listen, speak, read, or write can result from problems in language development. FAQ: Speech and Language Disorders in the School Setting." American Speech-Language-Hearing Association | ASHA. Web. 07 Sept. 2011. <http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/schoolsFAQ.htm>.<br />
Why?<br />Student’s prior knowledge about a topic promotes comprehension and learning. Strong, Carol J., and Kelly Hoggan North. The Magic of Stories: Literature-based Language Intervention. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications, 1996. 15. Print.<br />What the children have already been exposed to in their world of communication will pool over into what they are ready to learn in school. <br />Behavioral<br />Less outbursts<br />Can talk about feelings and circumstances <br />
Why?<br />Social Implications<br />Communication skills to carry on a conversation with a peer<br />Part of the umbrella of language<br /> is understanding social cues, and <br /> nonverbal communication <br />Less outbursts often = better <br /> interactions with peers<br />
How? / Why?<br />READING ALOUD!!!<br />Interrelated = Reading and Language Development<br />Pace of language development is determined by the amount and richness of the language he hears. <br />
How?/Why?<br />Important facts/Studies<br />“Read Aloud Handbook” by Jim Trelease<br />
Reading Aloud Implications of Reading<br />““Education beyond all other devices of human origin, is the great equalizer of the conditions of man. ….. It does better than disarm the poor of their hostility towards the rich: it prevents being poor.”<br />The more you read the more you know15<br />The more you know, the smarter you grow 16<br />The smarter you are, the longer you stay in school and the more diplomas you earn. 17<br />
Reading Aloud Implications of Reading<br /><ul><li>The more diplomas you have, the more days you are employed. 18
The more diplomas you have, the more your children will achieve in school. 19</li></ul>Therefore the converse is also true:<br /><ul><li>The less you read the less you know
The less you know the sooner you drop out of school
The sooner you drop out, the sooner and longer you will be unemployed
The sooner you drop out the greater your chances of going to jail. Trelease, Jim, and Jim Trelease. The Read-aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1995. xxv. Print.</li></li></ul><li>Reading Aloud Implications of Reading<br /><ul><li>Poverty and illiteracy are related – they are the parents of desperation and imprisonment.
So common sense should tell us that reading is the ultimate weapon – destroying ignorance, poverty, and despair…A nation that doesn’t read much doesn’t know much. And a nation that doesn’t know much is more likely to make poor choices in the home, the marketplace, the jury box, and the voting booth. And those decisions ultimately affect the entire nation – the literate and the illiterate. The challenge therefore is to convince future generations of children that carrying books is more rewarding than carrying guns.” Trelease, Jim, and Jim Trelease. The Read-aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1995. xxiv-xxvi. Print.</li></li></ul><li>Reading Aloud Implications of Reading<br />Significant studies<br />Commission on Reading<br />Organized by National Academy of Education and the National Institute of Education<br />Funded under the U.S. Department of Education.<br />Reviewed 10,000 research projects that had been done regarding reading. <br />Generated “Becoming a Nation of Readers”<br />
Reading Aloud Implications of Reading<br /><ul><li>““The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children.”
The Commission found conclusive evidence to support the use of reading aloud on only in the home but also in the classroom: “It is a practice that should continue throughout the grades. 3”” Trelease, Jim, and Jim Trelease. The Read-aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1995. 2-3.Print.</li></li></ul><li>Reading Aloud Implications of Reading<br /><ul><li>International Study
Four top nations: Finland, U.S., Sweden and France.
Two factors that produced higher achievements around the world:
The frequency of teachers reading aloud to students.
The frequency of sustained silent reading (SSR). Children who had daily SSR periods scored much higher than those who experienced SSR once a week. Trelease, Jim, and Jim Trelease. The Read-aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1995. 10-11. Print. </li></li></ul><li>Reading Aloud Implications of Reading<br />Studies are impressive but remember reading is an acquired skill. <br />Recent study conducted in 2005 suggested that reading to a child ALONE doesn’t teach the child to read, but it WILL foster a love for reading, and is still linked to an increased reading ability, particularly when parents point out text to their young children. Evans, M.A., and J. Saint-Aubin. 2005. What children are looking at during shared storybook reading: evidence from eye movement monitoring. Psychological Science 16(11): 913-920.<br />
Reading Aloud <br />Reading aloud works!<br />Reading aloud, for the most part, CAN be completely free. <br />In the studies previously mentioned, the amount of time recommended was 15 minutes a day. <br />
WHEN do I start?<br />University of North Carolina psychologist Anthony Decasper explored the effects of reading to children in utero. <br />Remember the brain’s development:<br />75% of brain mass forms by age two<br />The plasticity, or adaptability of a baby’s brain is roughly 90% complete by age 5.<br />
What to do DURING reading<br />Remember attention spans are BUILT – and not overnight.<br />Keep initial readings short enough to fit their attention spans and gradually lengthen both. <br />Recommendations for specific age groups to come.<br />
What to do DURING reading LABELING<br />The average preschooler spends about 5 seconds focusing on words when a parent reads to them. The rest of the time is typically spent looking at the pictures. Evans, M.A., and J. Saint-Aubin. 2005. What children are looking at during shared storybook reading: evidence from eye movement monitoring. Psychological Science 16(11): 913-920.<br />Because children focus much on the illustrations, use that to your advantage. <br />Point out the objects in the illustrations, while reading. Describe the actions, highlight facial expressions of the characters. <br />
What to do DURING reading LABELING<br />If the child labels an object, describe it further (Expansion)<br />Child: A BEE! <br />Parent: A yellow bee! (or) A little bee! (or)??? LOTS of possibilities<br />Use adjectives and contrast with opposites<br />Child: A BEE!<br />Parent: A little bee! <br />And look a BIG bear. <br />
What to do DURING reading LABELING<br />Once they understand specific words use a variety of synonyms<br />Child: A BEE!<br />Parent: A teeny, tiny bee! (vs small)<br />Highlight prepositions<br />Child: A BEE!<br />Parent: The bee is UNDER the tree.<br />You can further demonstrate prepositions by USING your book (the book is UNDER YOU!)<br />
What to do DURING reading LABELING<br />Using ‘Tag’ phrases to increase length of utterance<br />Best for younger children<br />Typically greeting phrases (Goodbye, Hello)<br />
What to do DURING reading PREDICTING<br />Predict what the story is about<br />Look at the title cover<br />Let them peek at pages<br />As you are reading, ask them frequently what they think will happen next<br />…and Sally left Walter walked all the way home.’ (Parent) What do you think Sally will do next? Who will she see? What is Walter going to do? Etc. <br />
What to do DURING reading PREDICTING<br /><ul><li>When repeating a story, these questions help promote comprehension and recall
Predicting questions also referred to as ‘directed reading/thinking activities also strengthen comprehension monitoring in that children learn to detect and respond to comprehension breakdowns. Strong, Carol J., and Kelly Hoggan North. The Magic of Stories: Literature-based Language Intervention. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications, 1996. 22. Print.</li></li></ul><li>What to do DURING reading QUESTIONS<br />Use questions to probe understanding of difficult language.<br />Use questions to review key points in the story<br />Use questions for justifications/feelings<br />How would YOU feel if you had to go to the Dr. like Johnny?<br />Use questions to prompt summarization<br />
What to do DURING reading QUESTIONS<br />ALLOW questions from the children, but know how and which ones to answer<br />Questions directly related to the story – take time to answer and help them understand<br />Other questions can usually be handled by “Good question! Let’s come back to that later”<br />Be sure to follow through<br />
What to do DURING reading REPETITION<br /><ul><li>Most difficult for PARENTS
Important for learning and understanding language components by hearing it over and over again.
Preschoolers often ask as many questions (and sometimes the SAME questions) after a dozen readings of the same book because they’re learning language in increments – not all at once. Each reading often brings an inch or two of new meaning to the story. Trelease, Jim, and Jim Trelease. The Read-aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1995. 69.Print.</li></li></ul><li>What to do DURING reading REPETITION<br />Build a child’s self esteem<br />Better able to predict what will happen next until he/she can become an EXPERT<br />Children find comfort in predictability, familiarity – i.e. routines<br />Some feel they can ‘read’ the book<br />Retelling-Story retelling provides students with practice at organizing the story into a coherent whole and presenting it in an interesting manner<br />
Types of books for each age<br />< 1 year of age<br />Repetition – in utero study<br />Rhyme – Human ears – including babies – gravitate to rhyming words in the same way eyes are attracted to patterns. The Rhymes appear more ‘organized’ for learning.<br />Books that stimulate sight and hearing – colorful pictures and exciting sounds <br />
Types of books for each age<br /><ul><li>6 months – use teething toy or other distraction in their hands
12 months – can start to point to some objects, can help make animal noises
After they learn to walk – reading times should be chosen so as not to frustrate their immediate interests</li></li></ul><li>Types of books for each age<br />12 mo-2 years <br />‘Labeling’ Books: stripped of confusing background images, and often grouped by subject matter. <br />12 mo +<br />Simplifying the book <br />Try to build up to the story<br />Try NOT to simplify language – remember QUALITY<br />
Types of books for each age<br />Toddler years<br />Beginning with Books – by librarian Nancy DeSalvolists 9 common reasons why a child becomes attached to a book<br />Reassurance (Family security – Whose Mouse Are You?)<br />Identification (Toddler behavior – Sam’s Teddy Bear)<br />Humor (Curious George)<br />Predictability or repetition (Brown Bear, Brown Bear)<br />Artistic Distinction (A Snowy Day)<br />Rhythm (Madeline)<br />
Types of books for each age<br /><ul><li>Happy association (Blueberries for Sal)
When choosing books look for interest level and attention span and the world is the limit!</li></li></ul><li>Resources for Book Lists<br />The Read Aloud Handbook - Jim Trelease <br />The Magic of Stories – Carol Strong, Kelly North<br />Favorite web sites<br />http://www.parents.com/fun/book-gallery/<br />http://www.oprah.com/packages/kid-reading-list.html<br />Find websites that cater to YOUR tastes<br />Other resources<br />Librarian!!! <br />Reading teacher at your local elementary school<br />
Making the Most of Time<br />Car rides<br />Books on CD<br />Talk about your day<br />Sing CHILDREN’S songs<br />Describe things you see<br />Car games<br />I Spy<br />‘I’m thinking of’<br />
Making the Most of Time<br />Cooking/Bath times<br />Talk about what the baby <br /> is seeing, hearing, tasting, <br /> touching, smelling<br />Point out objects and actions<br />Refer to ‘labeling’ portion of reading aloud<br />Play time<br />Parallel talk<br />You can do this while you are busy doing other things<br />
2 hours or less of TV for children 2 and older</li></li></ul><li>Watch out for…<br /><ul><li>Why we need to be cautious of TV viewing
Television breaks programs into 8 minute segments - fosters a short attention span
Average family changes channels once every three minutes 26 seconds (if they own a remote control) 5 minutes fifteen seconds (if they do not own a remote control) “Zapping of TV Ads Appears Pervasive,” The Wall Street Journal, April 25, 1988, p 29
For young children it is an antisocial experience
Has a negative effect on children’s vital knowledge after age ten, according to the Schramm study of 6,000 school childrenTrelease, Jim, and Jim Trelease. The Read-aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1995. 173. Print. </li></li></ul><li>Watch out for…<br />Television stifles the imagination.<br />Images are given to them, rather than created<br />Little opportunity for prediction, or motivation for prediction<br />A study of 192 children from Los Angeles County showed children HEARING a story produced more imaginative responses than did those SEEING the same story on film. Patricia Greenfield and Jessica Beagles-roos, “Radio and Television: Their Cognitive Impact on Children of Different Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups” Journal of Communication, Spring 1988, pg 71-91.<br />
Watch out for…<br />TV time CAN be beneficial<br />Interactive DVD’s/Shows<br />Teach concepts (PBS)<br />Academic research shows that AFTER 10 hours a week school grades begin to dip. The culprit is not television itself but the OVERVIEWING of it. Trelease, Jim, and Jim Trelease. The Read-aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1995. 166. Print. <br />
Watch out for…<br />Not allowing opportunity <br />Allowing pre language skills, because they meet communication needs<br />Older siblings talking for their younger siblings<br />
When should I get concerned?<br />Developmental Milestones<br />Trusted Website www.asha.org<br />
Developmental Milestones<br /><ul><li>Birth-3 Months HEARING AND UNDERSTANDING
Makes gurgling sounds when left alone and when playing with you</li></li></ul><li>Developmental Milestones<br />7 Months-1 Year HEARING AND UNDERSTANDING<br />Enjoys games like peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake<br />Turns and looks in direction of sounds<br />Listens when spoken to<br />Recognizes words for common items like "cup", "shoe", "book", or "juice"<br />Begins to respond to requests (e.g. "Come here" or "Want more?")<br />7 Months-1 Year TALKING<br />Babbling has both long and short groups of sounds such as "tata upup bibibibi"<br />Uses speech or non-crying sounds to get and keep attention<br />Uses gestures to communication (waving, holding arms to be picked up)<br />Imitates different speech sounds<br />Has one or two words (hi, dog,dada, mama) around first birthday, although sounds may not be clear<br />
Developmental Milestones<br /><ul><li>One-two Years HEARING AND UNDERSTANDING
Uses some one- or two- word questions ("Where kitty?" "Go bye-bye?" "What's that?").
Puts two words together ("more cookie," "no juice," "mommy book").
Uses many different consonant sounds at the beginning of words.</li></li></ul><li>Developmental Milestones<br />Two to Three Years – HEARING AND UNDERSTANDING<br />Understands differences in meaning ("go-stop," "in-on," "big-little," "up-down").<br />Follows two requests ("Get the book and put it on the table").<br />Listens to and enjoys hearing stories for longer periods of time<br />
Developmental Milestones<br />Two to Three Years TALKING<br />Has a word for almost everything.<br />Uses two- or three- words to talk about and ask for things.<br />Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n sounds.<br />Speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the time.<br />Often asks for or directs attention to objects by naming them.<br />
Developmental Milestones<br />Three to Four Years HEARING AND UNDERSTANDING<br />Hears you when you call from another room.<br />Hears television or radio at the same loudness level as other family members.<br />Answers simple "who?", "what?", "where?", and "why?" questions.<br />
Developmental Milestones<br />Three to Four Years TALKING<br />Talks about activities at school or at friends' homes.<br />People outside of the family usually understand child's speech.<br />Uses a lot of sentences that have 4 or more words.<br />Usually talks easily without repeating syllables or words.<br />
Developmental Milestones<br />Four to Five Years HEARING AND UNDERSTANDING<br />Pays attention to a short story and answers simple questions about them.<br />Hears and understands most of what is said at home and in school.<br />
Developmental Milestones<br /><ul><li>Four to Five Years TALKING
Uses sentences that give lots of details ("The biggest peach is mine").
Uses the same grammar as the rest of the family.</li></li></ul><li>When to refer to a specialist<br />Children typically do not master all items in a category until they reach the upper age in each age range. Just because your child has not accomplished one skill within an age range does not mean the child has a disorder. However, if you have answered no to the majority of items in an age range, seek the advice of an ASHA-certified speech-language pathologist<br />
When to refer to a specialist<br />Remember when you notice your child isn’t doing some of the items listed – attempt facilitation techniques <br />Those we highlighted today<br />ASHA has provided other facilitation techniques that are organized per age<br />Other trusted professionals <br />Educators<br />Physicians<br />
Other Available Resources<br />Books<br />Beyond Baby Talk: from Sounds to Sentences : a Parent's Complete Guide to Language Development. By Apel, Kenn, and Julie J. Masterson<br />More in depth ASHA sponsored book about speech and language development<br />Talking on the Go. By Dorothy Dougherty and Diane Paul<br />Book written by SLP’s on everyday activities to enhance speech and language development<br />
Other Available Resources<br /><ul><li>The Read Aloud Handbook. By Jim Trelease
Provides ample information on the benefits of reading aloud, and read aloud strategies
Provides a ‘treasury of great read-alouds’ and provides age recommendations
The Magic of Stories. By Carol Strong and Kelly North
Provides a list of suggested books, organized per age, and includes specific activities to do with each book
Activities are geared toward stimulated children with language difficulties but obviously benefits any child</li></li></ul><li>Other Available Resources<br />Trusted websites<br />www.asha.org<br />http://www.aap.org/<br />www.healthychildren.org<br />When in doubt, it is never HARMFUL to have your child seen by a specialist.<br />Birth to three, and three to five programs in public education<br />Tawni.email@example.com<br />
References<br />Evans, M.A., and J. Saint-Aubin. 2005. What children are looking at during shared storybook reading: evidence from eye movement monitoring. Psychological Science 16(11): 913-920<br />FAQ: Speech and Language Disorders in the School Setting." American Speech-Language-Hearing Association | ASHA. Web. 07 Sept. 2011. <http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/schoolsFAQ.htm>.<br /><ul><li>Patricia Greenfield and Jessica Beagles-roos, “Radio and Television: Their Cognitive Impact on Children of Different Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups” Journal of Communication, Spring 1988, pg 71-91.</li></ul>Strong, Carol J., and Kelly Hoggan North. The Magic of Stories: Literature-based Language Intervention. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications, 1996. Print.<br />
Resources<br /><ul><li>Trelease, Jim, and Jim Trelease. The Read-aloud Handbook. New York: Penguin, 1995. Print.
15. Mary A Foertsch, Reading In and Out of School, U.S Department of Education/Educational Testing Service (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service).
16. Richard C. Anderson, Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Judith A. Scott, Ian A.G. Wilkinson, Becoming a Nation of Readers: The Report of the Comission on Reading (Champaign-Urbana, IL: Center for the Study of Reading, 1985).
17. “Students Cite Pregnancies as a Reason to Drop Out,” Associated Press, The New York Times, September 14, 1994, p.B7.
18. Melissa Lee, “When it Comes to Salaray, It’s Academic,” The Washington Post, July 22 1994, p.D1.
19. Christopher de Vinick, “An Open Book,” The College Board Review 159 (Spring 1991):9-12.
“Zapping of TV Ads Appears Pervasive,” The Wall Street Journal, April 25, 1988, p 29</li>
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